Poland Seminary

Poland Seminary, originally Poland Academy, was a name used for a series of schools operated in Poland, Ohio.

First academy

The original Poland Academy was created in 1830 by a Presbyterian minister named Bradley (first name unknown), in an room over a general store, teaching English, classical languages, philosophy and literature. After five years of operation, it was taken over by a man named Lynch who moved it to a site on what would be named College Street. This Academy closed in 1845 due to a lack of funding.

Second academy

In 1849, Bernard F. Lee opened his proprietary Lee's Girls Academy on College Street, and the Presbyterians opened a new Academy for boys. Lee's Girls Academy incorporated in 1854 as the Poland Female College and moved into a larger building. In 1855, the Boy's Academy building burnt down and was never rebuilt, while the Female College moved into a new three-story brick structure elsewhere on College Street. Despite the name, the "Female College" appears to have begun taking male students at some time during this era, as contemporary biographies chronicle prominent males who were educated there.[1] At some point, it seems to have shifted to the older name of Poland Academy, although the name of Poland Institute seems also to have been used.

The Ohio Law College, sometimes called the Poland Law School opened in 1855 in the building vacated by the Female College, but failed to attract funding, and in 1859 moved to Cleveland, Ohio. The Poland Medical College which briefly operated on the third floor of the same building seems to have shut down at that time.[2]

In the late 1850s, William McKinley attended the Academy, graduating in 1859. Lee apparently had financing problems, as the Academy had to be reorganized in 1862. A new board of trustees took over, adopted the name "Poland Seminary," and paying off the debts of the old Academy; but by 1871, the school was once again suffering from a lack of cash. The Presbytery of Mahoning now took control of the school, operating it under the name Poland Seminary School or Poland Union Seminary' as a Christian school teaching at a high school and junior college level. A dormitory for boys from out of town was built, but female students had to room and board in nearby private housing. From 1881-1883, Ida Tarbell was the preceptress or head teacher there.


In 1895, portions of the aging school building collapsed; the remainder was demolished, and a building built on the foundation. The seminary continued to struggle, and on June 21, 1909, the facility was sold to Poland's city school district under the condition that the high school retain the name of Poland Seminary. That school is Poland Seminary High School.[3]

Notable alumni and faculty


  1. ^ "Albert B. Logan" in, The Bench and Bar of St. Louis, Kansas City, Jefferson City, and Other Missouri Cities: Biographical Sketches Chicago: American Biographical Publishing Company, 1884; p. 317
  2. ^ Williams, H. Z. History of Trumbull and Mahoning Counties: With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches, Volume 2 Cleveland: H. Z. Williams & Bro., 1882; p. 67
  3. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Poland Seminary High School

Coordinates: 41°00′17″N 80°35′26″W / 41.0047222°N 80.5905556°W

A. E. Lee

A. E. Lee was an American from Delaware, Ohio, who served as a Republican member of the Ohio House of Representatives from Delaware County, Ohio.

He graduated from the Poland Seminary in Poland, Ohio.The collected letters of Rutherford B. Hayes include an February 16, 1870, letter to Lee (addressed and referred to as "Captain") in which Hayes expresses dubiety that his recommendation will bear any weight with "Delano" (presumably Columbus Delano, newly appointed United States Secretary of the Interior), but encloses a more generic reference letter which Hayes describes as "strong but general", praising Lee's "ability, integrity, and business experience" and "capital record as a soldier", and "soundness and effective work" as a Republican.

All-American Conference

This article is about the Ohio sports division. For the professional American football league, see All-America Football Conference.The All-American Conference is an Ohio High School Athletic Association (OHSAA)-sanctioned league created in 2008 from the merger of the Trumbull Athletic Conference and Metro Athletic Conference (formerly the Mahoning Valley Conference). The only schools that declined to participate in the merger were the MAC's East Liverpool and the TAC's Brookfield, with Beaver Local joining.

Dan Bertolini

Daniel Bertolini (October 19, 1985) is an American college baseball coach and former shortstop. Berolini is the head coach of the Youngstown State Penguins baseball team.

Helen Murray Free

Helen Murray Free (born February 20, 1923, Pittsburgh, PA) is a retired American chemist and educator. She received a B.A. in chemistry from The College of Wooster in 1944 and an M.A. in management from Central Michigan University in 1978. In 1947 she married Alfred Free, a fellow researcher in urinalysis. She is most known for her creation of many self-testing systems for diabetes while working at Miles Laboratories, which is now Ascensia Diabetes Care. She currently is an Adjunct Professor of Management at Indiana University South Bend, and a Consultant for Bayer AG.

Julian Kennedy

Julian Kennedy (March 15, 1852 - May 28, 1932) was an American engineer and inventor, known for his national and international contributions to the steel industry. He was awarded the ASME Medal in 1928.

List of Ohio High School Athletic Association championships

The Ohio High School Athletic Association (OHSAA) is the governing body of athletic programs for junior and senior high schools in the state of Ohio. It conducts state championship competitions in all the OHSAA-sanctioned sports.

List of high schools in Ohio

This is a list of high schools in the state of Ohio.

Mahoning County, Ohio

Mahoning County is a county in the U.S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 238,823. Its county seat is Youngstown. The county is named for an Indian word meaning "salt lick". Mahoning County was formed on March 1, 1846; the 83rd county in Ohio. Until 1846, the area that is now Mahoning County was part of Trumbull and Columbiana counties, when the counties in the area were redefined and Mahoning County emerged as a new county.Mahoning County is part of the Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Northeast 8 Athletic Conference

The Northeast 8 Athletic Conference (NE8) is an OHSAA athletic league that began competition for the 2018-19 school year. It is primarily made up of members that were part of the All-American Conference along with previously independent South Range.

OHSAA Northeast Region athletic conferences

This is a list of high school athletic conferences in the Northeast Region of Ohio, as defined by the OHSAA. Because the names of localities and their corresponding high schools do not always match and because there is often a possibility of ambiguity with respect to either the name of a locality or the name of a high school, the following table gives both in every case, with the locality name first, in plain type, and the high school name second in boldface type. The school's team nickname is given last.

Ohio Northeast Region defunct athletic conferences

This is a list of former high school athletic conferences in the Northeast Region of Ohio, as designated by the OHSAA. If a conference had members that span multiple regions, the conference is placed in the article of the region most of its former members hail from. Because the names of localities and their corresponding high schools do not always match and because there is often a possibility of ambiguity with respect to either the name of a locality or the name of a high school, the following table gives both in every case, with the locality name first, in plain type, and the high school name second in boldface type. The school's team nickname is given last.


PSHS may refer to:

schools in CanadaParry Sound High School, Parry Sound, Ontarioschools in the United StatesPalm Springs High School, Palm Springs, California

Papillion South High School, Papillion, Nebraska

Parkersburg South High School, Parkersburg, West Virginia

Pittsford Sutherland High School, Pittsford, New York

Plainfield South High School, Plainfield, Illinois

Plano Senior High School, Plano, Texas

Poland Seminary High School, Poland, Ohioschools in the PhilippinesPhilippine Science High School (various campuses)

Poland, Ohio

Poland is a village about 7 miles (11 km) southeast of Youngstown in Mahoning County, Ohio, United States. The population was 2,555 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Poland Seminary High School

Poland Seminary High School is a public high school in Poland, Ohio, United States. It is the only secondary school in the Poland Local School District. Athletic teams compete as the Poland Seminary Bulldogs in the Ohio High School Athletic Association as a member of the All-American Conference.

William J. Calhoun

William James Calhoun (October 5, 1848 – September 19, 1916) was an American attorney, government official, and friend of President William McKinley. A noted corporation lawyer, Calhoun wrote a report that helped persuade McKinley to enter the Spanish–American War, served as a commissioner of the Interstate Commerce Commission and later served as a special envoy to China.

William McKinley

William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901) was the 25th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination six months into his second term. McKinley led the nation to victory in the Spanish–American War, raised protective tariffs to promote American industry and kept the nation on the gold standard in a rejection of free silver (effectively, expansionary monetary policy).

McKinley was the last president to have served in the American Civil War and the only one to have started the war as an enlisted soldier, beginning as a private in the Union Army and ending as a brevet major. After the war, he settled in Canton, Ohio, where he practiced law and married Ida Saxton. In 1876, he was elected to Congress, where he became the Republican Party's expert on the protective tariff, which he promised would bring prosperity. His 1890 McKinley Tariff was highly controversial, which together with a Democratic redistricting aimed at gerrymandering him out of office led to his defeat in the Democratic landslide of 1890. He was elected governor of Ohio in 1891 and 1893, steering a moderate course between capital and labor interests. With the aid of his close adviser Mark Hanna, he secured the Republican nomination for president in 1896 amid a deep economic depression. He defeated his Democratic rival William Jennings Bryan after a front porch campaign in which he advocated "sound money" (the gold standard unless altered by international agreement) and promised that high tariffs would restore prosperity.

Rapid economic growth marked McKinley's presidency. He promoted the 1897 Dingley Tariff to protect manufacturers and factory workers from foreign competition and in 1900 secured the passage of the Gold Standard Act. McKinley hoped to persuade Spain to grant independence to rebellious Cuba without conflict, but when negotiation failed he led the nation into the Spanish–American War of 1898—the United States victory was quick and decisive. As part of the peace settlement, Spain turned over to the United States its main overseas colonies of Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines while Cuba was promised independence, but at that time remained under the control of the United States Army. The United States annexed the independent Republic of Hawaii in 1898 and it became a United States territory.

Historians regard McKinley's 1896 victory as a realigning election in which the political stalemate of the post-Civil War era gave way to the Republican-dominated Fourth Party System, which began with the Progressive Era. McKinley defeated Bryan again in the 1900 presidential election in a campaign focused on imperialism, protectionism and free silver. His legacy was suddenly cut short when he was shot on September 6, 1901 by Leon Czolgosz, a second-generation Polish-American with anarchist leanings. McKinley died eight days later and was succeeded by his Vice President Theodore Roosevelt. As an innovator of American interventionism and pro-business sentiment, McKinley's presidency is generally considered above average, though his highly positive public perception was soon overshadowed by Roosevelt.

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