Pogrom

A pogrom is a violent riot aimed at the massacre or persecution of an ethnic or religious group, particularly one aimed at Jews.[1] The Russian term originally entered the English language in order to describe 19th and 20th century attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire (mostly within the Pale of Settlement). Similar attacks against Jews at other times and places also became retrospectively known as pogroms.[2] The word is now also sometimes used to describe publicly sanctioned purgative attacks against non-Jewish ethnic or religious groups. The characteristics of a pogrom vary widely, depending on the specific incidents, at times leading to, or culminating in, massacres.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

Significant pogroms in the Russian Empire included the Odessa pogroms, Warsaw pogrom (1881), Kishinev pogrom (1903), Kiev Pogrom (1905), and Białystok pogrom (1906), and, after the 1917 Russian Revolution, the Lwów pogrom (1918) and Kiev Pogroms (1919). The most significant pogrom in Nazi Germany was the Kristallnacht of 1938 in which 91 Jews were killed, a further 30,000 arrested and subsequently incarcerated in concentration camps,[10] 1,000 synagogues burned, and over 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed or damaged.[11][12]

Notorious pogroms of World War II included the 1941 Farhud in Iraq, the July 1941 Iaşi pogrom in Romania – in which over 13,200 Jews were killed – as well as the Jedwabne pogrom in Poland. Post-World War II pogroms included the 1945 Tripoli pogrom, the 1946 Kielce pogrom and the 1947 Aleppo pogrom.

Pogrom
TargetPredominantly Jews

Etymology

First recorded in 1882, the Russian word pogrom (погро́м, pronounced [pɐˈgrom]) is derived from the common prefix po- and the verb gromit' (громи́ть, pronounced [grɐˈmʲitʲ]) meaning "to destroy, to wreak havoc, to demolish violently". Its literal translation is "to harm".[13] The noun "pogrom", which has a relatively short history, is used in English and many other languages as a loanword, possibly borrowed from Yiddish (where the word takes the form פאָגראָם).[14] Its widespread circulation in today's world began with the antisemitic excesses in the Russian Empire in 1881–1883.[15]

Hep-hep riots
The Hep-Hep riots in Frankfurt, 1819. On the left, two peasant women are assaulting a Jewish man with pitchfork and broom. On the right, a man wearing spectacles, tails and a six-button waistcoat, "perhaps a pharmacist or a schoolteacher,"[16] holds a Jewish man by the throat and is about to club him with a truncheon. The houses are being looted. A contemporary engraving by Johann Michael Voltz.

Historical background

Anti-Jewish riots had already taken place in Europe during the Middle Ages. Jewish communities were targeted in the Black Death Jewish persecutions of 1348–1350, in Toulon in 1348, in Barcelona as well as in other Catalan cities,[17] during the Erfurt massacre (1349), the Basel massacre, massacres in Aragon and in Flanders,[18][19] as well as the "Valentine's Day" Strasbourg pogrom of 1349.[20] Some 510 Jewish communities were destroyed during this period,[21] extending further to the Brussels massacre of 1370. On Holy Saturday of 1389, a pogrom began in Prague that led to the burning of the Jewish quarter, the killing of many Jews, and the suicide of many Jews trapped in the main synagogue; the number of dead was estimated at 400–500 men, women and children.[22]

The brutal murders of the Jews together with the Poles occurred during the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648–1657 in present-day Ukraine.[23] Modern historians give estimates of the scale of the murders by Khmelnytsky's Cossacks ranging between 40,000 and 100,000 men, women and children,[24][25] or perhaps many more.[26]

The outbreak of violence against Jews (Hep-Hep riots) occurred at the beginning of the 19th century as a reaction to Jewish emancipation in the German Confederation.[27]

Russian Empire

Pogrom de Chisinau - 1903 - 1
Victims of a pogrom in Kishinev, Bessarabia, 1903

The Russian Empire, which previously had very few Jews, acquired territories with large Jewish populations during the military partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793 and 1795.[28] In conquered territories, a new political entity called the Pale of Settlement was formed in 1791 by Catherine the Great. Most Jews from the former Commonwealth were allowed to reside only within the Pale, including families expelled by royal decree from St. Petersburg, Moscow and other large Russian cities.[29] The 1821 Odessa pogroms marked the beginning of the 19th century pogroms in Tsarist Russia; there were four more such pogroms in Odessa before the end of the century. Following the assassination of Alexander II in 1881 by Narodnaya Volya – blamed on the Jews by the Russian government, anti-Jewish events turned into a wave of over 200 pogroms by their modern definition, which lasted for several years.[30][31] Jewish self-governing Kehillah were abolished by Tsar Nicholas I in 1844.[32]

The first in 20th-century Russia was the Kishinev pogrom of 1903 in which 47 Jews were killed, hundreds wounded, 700 homes destroyed and 600 businesses pillaged.[33] In the same year, pogroms took place in Gomel (Belarus), Smela, Feodosiya and Melitopol (Ukraine). Extreme savagery was typified by mutilations of the wounded.[34] They were followed by the Zhitomir pogrom (with 29 killed),[35] and the Kiev pogrom of October 1905 resulting in a massacre of approximately 100 Jews.[36] In three years between 1903 and 1906, about 660 pogroms were recorded in Ukraine and Bessarabia; half a dozen more in Belorussia, carried out with the Russian government's complicity, but no anti-Jewish pogroms were recorded in Poland.[34] At about that time, the Jewish Labor Bund began organizing armed self-defense units ready to shoot back, and the pogroms subsided for a number of years.[36] According to professor Colin Tatz, between 1881 and 1920 there were 1,326 pogroms in Ukraine (see: Southwestern Krai parts of the Pale) which took the lives of 70,000 to 250,000 civilian Jews, leaving half a million homeless.[37][38]

Russian Civil War period

Large-scale pogroms, which began in the Russian Empire several decades earlier, intensified during the period of the Russian Civil War and the Revolution of 1917. Professor Zvi Gitelman (A Century of Ambivalence) estimated that only in 1918–1919 over 1,200 pogroms took place in Ukraine, thus amounting to the greatest slaughter of Jews in Eastern Europe since 1648.[39] Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn in his book Two Hundred Years Together provided additional statistics from research conducted by Nahum Gergel (1887–1931). Gergel counted 1,236 incidents of anti-Jewish violence and estimated that 887 mass pogroms occurred, the remainder being classified as "excesses" not assuming mass proportions.[40][38] The Kiev pogroms of 1919, according to Gitelman, were the first of a subsequent wave of pogroms in which between 30,000 and 70,000 Jews were massacred across Ukraine.[41][42] Of all the pogroms accounted for in Gergel's research, about 40 percent were perpetrated by the Ukrainian People's Republic forces led by Symon Petliura, 25 percent by the Ukrainian Green Army and various Ukrainian nationalist gangs, and 17 percent by the White Army, especially the forces of Anton Denikin. A further 8.5 percent of Gergel's total was attributed to pogroms carried out by men of the Red Army although these pogroms were not sanctioned by the Bolshevik leadership; the high command disarmed the regiments which had perpetrated pogroms.[40][43] The Ukrainian People's Republic of Symon Petliura also issued orders condemning pogroms,[44] but lacked authority to intervene.[44] After May 1919 the Directory lost its role as a credible governing body; almost 75 percent of pogroms occurred between May and September of that year.[45] Thousands of Jews were killed only for being Jewish, without any political affiliations.[38]

The instructions issued from above had only a limited impact on soldiers' attitudes toward violence against Jews, as related by author and future Nobel laureate Ivan Bunin. On May 15, 1919, Bunin wrote in his diary about yet another massacre:

Members of the Red Army in Odessa led a pogrom against the Jewish population in the town of Big Fountain. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky and the writer Kipen happened to be there and told me the details. Fourteen commissars and thirty Jews from among the common people were killed. Many stores were destroyed. The soldiers tore through the night, dragged the victims from their beds, and killed whomever they met. People ran into the steppe or rushed into the sea. They were chased after and fired upon – a genuine hunt, as it were. Kipen saved himself by accident – fortunately he had spent the night not in his home, but at the White Flower sanitorium. At dawn, a detachment of Red Army soldiers appeared. 'Are there any Jews here?' they asked the watchman. 'No, no Jews here.' 'Swear what you're saying is true!' The watchman swore, and they went on farther. Moisei Gutman, a cab [driver], was killed. He was a dear man who moved us from our dacha last fall.[46]

Gergel's overall figures, which are generally considered conservative, are based on the testimony of witnesses and newspaper reports collected by the Mizrakh-Yidish Historiche Arkhiv which was first based in Kiev, then Berlin and later New York. The English version of Gergel's article was published in 1951 in the YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Science titled "The Pogroms in the Ukraine in 1918–1921."[47]

In June 1919, during the Polish–Soviet War,[48][49] the Jewish First Guard Battalion from Minsk – at the insistence of its own members – was deployed by the Bolsheviks against the Polish Army which included the First and the Second Lithuanian–Belarusian Divisions.[50] The Jews had won the first skirmish, forcing them to retreat several kilometers.[48] On 8 August 1919, Polish troops took over the city in Operation Minsk,[51][52] killed 31 Jews merely suspected of supporting the Bolshevist movement, beat and attacked many more, looted 377 Jewish-owned shops (aided by the local civilians) and ransacked many private homes.[52][53] The aftermath of the pogrom in Minsk was described on an emotional level by Rabbi Yechezkel Abramsky in July 1920.[54] The "Morgenthau's report of October 1919 stated that there is no question that some of the Jewish leaders exaggerated these evils."[55][49] According to Elissa Bemporad, the "violence endured by the Jewish population under the Poles encouraged popular support for the Red Army, as Jewish public opinion welcomed the establishment of the Belorussian SSR." Irrespective of war-zone violence, the Jewish political groups, communal institutions and cultural organizations of all stripes were active in the Second Polish Republic.[49][54]

Outside Russia

Adana massacre in Le Petit Journal (1909)
A massacre of Armenians and Assyrians in the city of Adana, Ottoman Empire, April 1909

In the early 20th century, pogroms broke out elsewhere in the world as well. In 1904 in Ireland, the Limerick boycott caused several Jewish families to leave the town. During the 1911 Tredegar riot in Wales, Jewish homes and businesses were looted and burned over the period of a week, before the British Army was called in by then-Home Secretary Winston Churchill, who described the riot as a "pogrom".[56] In 1919 there was a pogrom in Argentina, during the Tragic Week.[57]

After the First World War, during the localized armed conflicts of independence, 72 Jews were killed and 443 injured in the 1918 Lwów pogrom.[58][59][60][61][62] The following year, pogroms were reported by the New York Tribune in several cities in the newly reborn Poland.[63] However, the reports were not only exaggerated but also manufactured by the German legation in Warsaw, quietly opposed to the rebirth of Poland after a century of imperial partitions. The German reports were delivered to Zionist headquarters and the foreign press elsewhere by the official services of the Wilhelmstrasse.[64] Meanwhile, in the Mandatory Palestine under British administration, the Jews were targeted in the 1929 Hebron massacre and the 1929 Safed pogrom. In 1934 there were pogroms against Jews in Turkey and Algeria.

The first pogrom in Nazi Germany was the Kristallnacht, often called Pogromnacht, in which at least 91 Jews were killed, a further 30,000 arrested and incarcerated in Nazi concentration camps,[10] over 1,000 synagogues burned, and over 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed or damaged.[11][12]

Nazi-occupied Europe

פוגרום יאשי 1
Iași pogrom in Romania, June 1941

During World War II, Nazi German death squads encouraged local populations in German-occupied Europe to commit pogroms against Jews. Brand new battalions of Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz (trained by SD agents) were mobilized from among the German minorities.[65][66] During Operation Barbarossa which lasted from June 22 to December 5, 1941, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler established the Schutzmannschaft collaborationist auxiliary battalions and tasked them with carrying out pogroms behind the front lines.[67]

A large number of pogroms occurred during the Holocaust at the hands of non-Germans.[68] Perhaps the deadliest of these Holocaust-era pogroms was the Iași pogrom in Romania, in which as many as 13,266 Jews were killed by Romanian citizens, police and military officials.[69]

On 1–2 June 1941, in the two-day Farhud pogrom in Iraq, "rioters murdered between 150 and 180 Jews, injured 600 others, and raped an undetermined number of women. They also looted some 1,500 stores and homes".[70][71]

Lviv pogrom (June - July 1941)
Jewish woman chased by men and youth armed with clubs during the Lviv pogroms, July 1941

In June–July 1941, encouraged by the Einsatzgruppen in the city of Lviv – location of the Lwów ghetto – the Ukrainian People's Militia soon reorganized as the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police perpetrated two citywide pogroms in which around 6,000 Polish Jews were murdered,[72] in retribution for alleged collaboration with the Soviet NKVD; the controversy surrounding the Lviv pogroms of 1941 is still debated today. On 12 October 1941 in Stanisławów, some 10,000–12,000 Jewish men, women and children were shot in the Jewish cemetery by the Germans and the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police during so-called "Bloody Sunday" (de).[73] The shooters began firing at 12 noon, and continued without stopping by taking turns.[74] It was the single largest massacre of Jews in the General Government prior to mass gassings of Aktion Reinhard.[75]

In Lithuania, some local police led by Algirdas Klimaitis and Lithuanian partisans – consisting of LAF units reinforced by 3,600 deserters from the 29th Lithuanian Territorial Corps of the Red Army[76] promulgated anti-Jewish pogroms in Kaunas along with occupying Nazis. On 25–26 June 1941, about 3,800 Jews were killed and synagogues and Jewish settlements burned.[77]

During the Jedwabne pogrom of July 1941, ethnic Poles burned at least 340 Jews in a barn (Institute of National Remembrance) in the presence of Nazi German Ordnungspolizei. The role of the German Einsatzgruppe B remains the subject of debate.[78][79][80][81][82][83]

After World War II

After the end of World War II, a series of violent antisemitic incidents occurred against returning Jews throughout Europe, particularly in the Soviet-occupied East where Nazi propagandists had extensively promoted the notion of a Jewish-Communist conspiracy (see Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–1946 and Anti-Jewish violence in Eastern Europe, 1944–1946). Anti-Jewish riots also took place in Britain in 1947.

In the Arab world, anti-Jewish rioters killed over 140 Jews in the 1945 Anti-Jewish Riots in Tripolitania. Following the start of the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, a number of anti-Jewish events occurred throughout the Arab world, some of which have been described as pogroms. In 1947, half of Aleppo's 10,000 Jews left the city in the wake of the Aleppo riots, while other anti-Jewish riots took place in British Aden and the French Moroccan cities of Oujda and Jerada.[84]

Usage

An early reference to a "pogrom" in The Times, December 1903. Together with the New York Times and the Hearst press, they took the lead in highlighting the pogrom in Kishinev (now Chişinău, Moldova) and other cities in Russia.[85] In May of the same year, The Times' Russian correspondent Dudley Disraeli Braham had been expelled from Russia.[86]
The Russian Pogrom, The Times, Monday, Dec 07, 1903
An early reference to a "pogrom" in The Times, December 1903. Together with the New York Times and the Hearst press, they took the lead in highlighting the pogrom in Kishinev (now Chişinău, Moldova) and other cities in Russia.[85] In May of the same year, The Times' Russian correspondent Dudley Disraeli Braham had been expelled from Russia.[86]
The Russian Pogrom, The Times, Monday, Dec 07, 1903

According to Encyclopædia Britannica, "the term is usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, [and] the first extensive pogroms followed the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881",[1] and the Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789 states that pogroms "were antisemitic disturbances that periodically occurred within the tsarist empire."[3] However, the term is widely used to refer to many events which occurred prior to the Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire. Historian of Russian Jewry John Klier writes in Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881–1882 that "By the twentieth century, the word 'pogrom' had become a generic term in English for all forms of collective violence directed against Jews."[4] Abramson wrote that "in mainstream usage the word has come to imply an act of antisemitism", since while "Jews have not been the only group to suffer under this phenomenon ... historically Jews have been frequent victims of such violence".[13]

TulsaRaceRiot-1921
The 1921 Tulsa race riot, which destroyed the wealthiest black community in the United States, has been described as a pogrom.[87]

The term is also used in reference to attacks on non-Jewish ethnic minorities, and accordingly some scholars do not include antisemitism as the defining characteristic of pogroms. Reviewing its uses in scholarly literature, historian Werner Bergmann proposes that pogroms should be "defined as a unilateral, nongovernmental form of collective violence initiated by the majority population against a largely defenseless ethnic group, and he states that pogroms occur when the majority expects the state to provide them with no assistance in overcoming a (perceived) threat from the minority,"[5] but he adds that in Western usage, the word's "anti-Semitic overtones" have been retained.[15] Historian David Engel supports this, writing that "there can be no logically or empirically compelling grounds for declaring that some particular episode does or does not merit the label [pogrom]," but states that the majority of the incidents "habitually" described as pogroms took place in societies significantly divided by ethnicity and/or religion where the violence was committed by the higher-ranking group against a stereotyped lower-ranking group against whom they expressed some complaint, and with the belief that the law of the land would not be used to stop them.[6]

There is no universally accepted set of characteristics which define the term pogrom.[6][88] Klier writes that "when applied indiscriminately to events in Eastern Europe, the term can be misleading, the more so when it implies that 'pogroms' were regular events in the region and that they always shared common features."[4] Use of the term pogrom to refer to events in 1918–19 in Polish cities including Kielce, Pinsk and Lwów, was specifically avoided in the 1919 Morgenthau Report and the word "excesses" was used instead because the authors argued that the use of the term "pogrom" required a situation to be antisemitic rather than political in nature, which meant that it was inapplicable to the conditions existing in a war zone,[6][89][90] and media use of the term pogrom to refer to the 1991 Crown Heights riot caused public controversy.[91][92][93] In 2008, two separate attacks in the West Bank by Israeli Jewish settlers on Palestinian Arabs were characterized as pogroms by then Prime Minister of Israel Ehud Olmert.[94][95]

Werner Bergmann suggests a particularly unifying characteristic of all such incidents: "[b]y the collective attribution of a threat, the pogrom differs from other forms of violence, such as lynchings, which are directed at individual members of a minority group, while the imbalance of power in favor of the rioters distinguishes pogroms from other forms of riot (food riots, race riots or 'communal riots' between evenly matched groups); and again, the low level of organization separates them from vigilantism, terrorism, massacre and genocide".[96]

Selected list of events named pogroms

This is a partial list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "pogrom".

Date Pogrom name Alternative name(s) Deaths Description
38 Alexandrian pogrom (name disputed)[a] Alexandrian riots Aulus Avilius Flaccus, the Egyptian prefect of Alexandria appointed by Tiberius in 32 CE, may have encouraged the outbreak of violence; Philo wrote that Flaccus was later arrested and eventually executed for his part in this event. Scholarly research around the subject has been divided on certain points, including whether the Alexandrian Jews fought to keep their citizenship or to acquire it, whether they evaded the payment of the poll-tax or prevented any attempts to impose it on them, and whether they were safeguarding their identity against the Greeks or against the Egyptians.
1066 Granada pogrom 1066 Granada massacre 4,000 Jews A mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, which was at that time in Muslim-ruled al-Andalus, assassinated the Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred much of the Jewish population of the city.
1096 1096 pogroms Rhineland massacres 2,000 Jews Peasant crusaders from France and Germany during the People's Crusade, led by Peter the Hermit (and not sanctioned by the hierarchy of the Catholic Church), attacked Jewish communities in the three towns of Speyer, Worms and Mainz. They were the first Christian pogroms to be officially recorded.
1113 Kiev pogrom (name disputed)[b] Kiev revolt Rebellion sparked by the death of the Grand Prince of Kiev, in which Jews connected to the prince's economic affairs were among the victims
1349 Strasbourg pogrom Strasbourg massacre
1506 Lisbon pogrom Lisbon massacre 500 New Christians After an episode of famine and bad harvests, a pogrom happened in Lisbon, Portugal,[101] in which more than 500 "New Christian" (forcibly converted Jews) people were slaughtered and/or burnt by an angry Christian mob, in the first night of what became known as the "Lisbon Massacre". The killing occurred from 19 to 21 April, almost eliminating the entire Jewish or Jewish-descendant community residing in that city. Even the Portuguese military and the king himself had difficulty stopping it. The event is today remembered with a monument in S. Domingos' church.
1563 Polotsk pogrom (name disputed)[c] Polotsk drownings Following the fall of Polotsk to the army of Ivan IV, all those who refused to convert to Orthodox Christianity were ordered drowned in the Western Dvina river.
1821–1871 First Odessa pogroms The Greeks of Odessa attacked the local Jewish community, in what began as economic disputes
1881–1884 First Russian Tsarist pogroms A large-scale wave of anti-Jewish riots swept through south-western Imperial Russia (present-day Ukraine and Poland) from 1881 to 1884 (in that period over 200 anti-Jewish events occurred in the Russian Empire, notably the Kiev, Warsaw and Odessa pogroms)
1881 Warsaw pogrom 2 Jews killed, 24 injured Three days of rioting against Jews, Jewish stores, businesses, and residences in the streets adjoining the Holy Cross Church.
1902 Częstochowa pogrom (name disputed) 14 Jews A mob attacked the Jewish shops, killing fourteen Jews and one gendarme. The Russian military brought to restore order were stoned by mob.
1903–1906 Second Russian Tsarist pogroms 2,000+ Jews A much bloodier wave of pogroms broke out from 1903 to 1906, leaving an estimated 2,000 Jews dead and many more wounded, as many Jewish residents took arms to defend their families and property from the attackers. The 1905 pogrom against the Jewish population in Odessa was the most serious pogrom of the period, with reports of up to 2,500 Jews killed.
1903 First Kishinev pogrom 47 Jews (Included above) Three days of anti-Jewish rioting sparked by anti-semitic articles in local newspapers
1904 Limerick pogrom (name disputed)[d] Limerick boycott None An economic boycott waged against the small Jewish community in Limerick, Ireland, for over two years
1905 Second Kishinev pogrom 19 Jews (Included above) Two days of anti-Jewish rioting beginning as political protests against the Tsar
1905 Kiev Pogrom (1905) 100 Jews (Included above) Following a city hall meeting, a mob was drawn into the streets, proclaiming that "all Russia's troubles stemmed from the machinations of the Jews and socialists."
1906 Siedlce pogrom 26 Jews (Included above) An attack organized by the Russian secret police (Okhrana). Anti-semitic pamphlets had been distributed for over a week and before any unrest begun, a curfew was declared.
1909 Adana pogrom Adana massacre 30,000 Armenians A massacre of Armenians in the city of Adana amidst the Countercoup (1909) resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district.
1911 Tredegar pogrom (name disputed)
South Wales[e]
Tredegar riots None Jewish shops were ransacked and the army had to be brought in
1914 Anti-Serb pogrom in Sarajevo Sarajevo frenzy of hate 2 Serbs Occurred shortly after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.[105]
1918 Lwów pogrom (name disputed)[f] Lemberg massacre 52–150 Jews, 270 Ukrainians During the Polish-Ukrainian War over three days of unrest in the city, an estimated 52–150 Jewish residents were killed and hundreds more were injured, with widespread looting carried out by Polish soldiers, as well as by lawless civilians, and local criminals. Two hundred and seventy Ukrainians were also killed during this incident. The Poles did not stop the pogrom until two days after it began. The independent investigations by the British and American missions in Poland stated that there were no clear conclusions and that foreign press reports were exaggerated.
1918-1919 Guba City Pogrom 3,000-10,000 Massacre of Mountain Jews in Azerbaijan by Armenian nationalist groups[107]
1919 Kiev Pogroms (1919) 60+ A series of Jewish pogroms in various places around Kiev carried out by White Volunteer Army troops
1919 Pinsk pogrom (name disputed)[g] Pinsk massacre 36 Jews Mass execution of thirty-five Jewish residents of Pinsk in April 1919 by the Polish Army, during the opening stages of the Polish-Soviet War
1919–20 Vilna pogrom (name disputed)[h] Vilna offensive 65+ Jews and non-Jews As Polish troops entered the city, dozens of people connected with the Lit-Bel were arrested, and some were executed
1921 Tulsa pogrom Tulsa race riot, Little Africa on Fire Up to 300 Blacks Destruction of the Greenwood community of Tulsa, the wealthiest black community in the United States, by a white mob with the support of authorities, following an unfounded accusation of sexual assault by a black man against a white woman.
1929 Hebron pogrom Hebron massacre 67 Jews During the 1929 Palestine riots, sixty-seven Jews were killed as the violence spread to Hebron, then part of Mandatory Palestine, by Arabs incited to violence by rumors that Jews were massacring Arabs in Jerusalem and seizing control of Muslim holy places.
1936 Przytyk pogrom (name disputed)[i] Przytyk riot 2 Jews and 1 Polish Some of the Jewish residents gathered in the town square in anticipation of the attack by the peasants, but nothing happened on that day. Two days later, however, on a market day, as Jewish historians Martin Gilbert and David Vital claim, peasants attacked their Jewish neighbors.
1938 November pogrom Kristallnacht 91 Jews Coordinated attacks against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and parts of Austria, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and non-Jewish civilians. Accounts from the foreign journalists working in Germany sent shock waves around the world.
1940 Dorohoi pogrom 53 Jews Romanian military units carried out a pogrom against the local Jews, during which, according to an official Romanian report, 53 Jews were murdered, and dozens injured
1941 Iași pogrom 13,266 Jews One of the most violent pogroms in Jewish history, launched by governmental forces in the Romanian city of Iaşi (Jassy) against its Jewish population.
1941 Antwerp Pogrom 0 One of the few pogroms of Belgian history. Flemish collaborators attacked and burned synagogues and attacked a rabbi in the city of Antwerp
1941 Bucharest pogrom Legionnaires' rebellion 125 Jews and 30 soldiers As the privileges of the paramilitary organisation Iron Guard were being cut off by Conducător Ion Antonescu, members of the Iron Guard, also known as the Legionnaires, revolted. During the rebellion and pogrom, the Iron Guard killed 125 Jews and 30 soldiers died in the confrontation with the rebels.
1941 Tykocin pogrom 1,400–1,700 Jews Mass murder of Jewish residents of Tykocin in occupied Poland during World War II, soon after Nazi German attack on the Soviet Union.
1941 Jedwabne pogrom 340 Jews The local rabbi was forced to lead a procession of about 40 people to a pre-emptied barn, killed and buried along with fragments of a destroyed monument of Lenin. A further 250-300 Jews were led to the same barn later that day, locked inside and burned alive using kerosene
1941 Pogrom in Krnjeuša 240 Croats An organized attack in the territory of the Catholic parish of Krnjeuša in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, carried out by Serb Chetniks against the local Catholic Croat population
1941 Farhud 180 Jewish Iraqis
1941 Lviv pogroms 4,000–8,000 civilian prisoners and 5,000 Jews Massacres of civilian prisoners by Soviet forces prior to evacuation, followed by massacre of Jews by German and other forces. Subject of a protracted controversy
1946 Kunmadaras pogrom 4 Jews A frenzy instigated by the crowd's libelous belief that some Jews had made sausage out of Christian children
1946 Miskolc pogrom 2 Jews Riots started as demonstrations against economic hardships and later became anti-Semitic
1946 Kielce pogrom 38–42 Jews Violence against the Jewish community centre, initiated by Polish Communist armed forces (LWP, KBW, GZI WP) and continued by a mob of local townsfolk.
1955 Istanbul pogrom Istanbul riots 13–30 Greeks Organized mob attacks directed primarily at Istanbul's Greek minority. Accelerated the emigration of ethnic Greeks from Turkey (Jews were also targeted in this event).[109][110]
1956 1956 Ceylonese riots 1956 anti-Tamil pogrom 150 Primarily Tamils 1956 anti-Tamil pogrom or Gal Oya massacre/riots were the first ethnic riots that targeted the minority Tamils in independent Sri Lanka.
1958 1958 anti-Tamil pogrom 1958 anti-Tamil pogrom 300 Primarily Tamils 1958 anti-Tamil pogrom also known as 58 riots, refer to the first island wide ethnic riots and pogrom in Sri Lanka.
1964 Zanzibar Revolution 1964 anti-Arab pogrom At least 80 killed and 200 injured during revolution (the majority were Arabs), up to 20,000 civilians killed in the aftermath. The Zanzibar Revolution occurred in 1964 and led to the overthrow of the Sultan of Zanzibar and his mainly Arab government by local African revolutionaries. The revolution ended 200 years of Arab dominance in Zanzibar, and resulted in the merger of Zanzibar with Tanganyika to form the new nation of Tanzania. Commemorated on the island each year as independence day with anniversary celebrations and a public holiday.
1966 1966 anti-Igbo pogrom A series of massacres directed at Igbo and other southern Nigerian residents throughout Nigeria before and after the overthrow (and assassination) of the Aguiyi-Ironsi junta by Murtala Mohammed.
1977 1977 anti-Tamil pogrom 300-1500 Primarily Tamils The 1977 anti-Tamil pogrom followed the 1977 general elections in Sri Lanka where the Sri Lankan Tamil nationalistic Tamil United Liberation Front won a plurality of minority Sri Lankan Tamil votes in which it stood for secession.
since 1977 Marma Genocide anti-Buddhist Pogrom Marma Buddhists Local tribes of Chittagong Hill Tracts (mostly Buddists) were targeted by Bengali Muslim settlers, supported by Bangladesh government. Murders, destruction of temples and villages, rapes and forced conversion.[111]
1983 Black July 1983 anti-Tamil pogrom 400–3,000 Tamils Over seven days mobs of mainly Sinhalese attacked Tamil targets, burning, looting and killing
1984 1984 anti-Sikh riots 1984 anti-Sikh pogrom 8,000 Sikhs In October 1984 anti-Sikh pogrom in Delhi, and other parts of India, Sikhs in India were targeted
1988 Sumgait pogrom 26+ (or about 100-300) Armenians and 6+ Azeris (possibly rioters) Mobs made up largely of ethnic Azeris formed into groups that went on to attack and kill Armenians both on the streets and in their apartments; widespread looting and a general lack of concern from police officers allowed the situation to worsen
1988 Kirovabad pogrom 3+ Soviet soldiers, 3+ Azeris and 1+ Armenian Ethnic Azeris attacked Armenians throughout the city
1989 1989 Bangladesh pogroms Attacks against Bengali Hindus, apparently as a reaction to the laying of the foundation of Ram temple adjacent to the disputed structure in Ayodhya
1990 Baku pogrom 90 Armenians, 20 Russian soldiers Seven-day attack during which Armenians were beaten, tortured, murdered and expelled from the city. There were also many raids on apartments, robberies and arsons
1991 Crown Heights pogrom (disputed)[j] Crown Heights riot 1 Jew and 1 non-Jew A three-day riot that occurred in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York. The riots incited by the death of the seven-year-old Gavin Cato, unleashed simmering tensions within Crown Heights' black community against the Orthodox Jewish community. In its wake, several Jews were seriously injured; one Orthodox Jewish man, Yankel Rosenbaum, was killed; and a non-Jewish man, allegedly mistaken by rioters for a Jew, was killed by a group of African-American men.[114][115]
1991 Mława pogrom Five days of rioting in which a mob attacked Roma residents of the Polish town of Mława causing hundreds to flee in terror after the killing of a Polish pedestrian struck along with his companion in a hit-and-run by a Romani male driver.
2002 Gujarat pogrom 2002 Gujarat violence 790–2,000 Muslims and 254 Hindus Inter-communal violence in the Indian state of Gujarat which lasted for approximately three days with the state government being accused of supporting or even instigating the riots
2004 March pogrom 2004 unrest in Kosovo 16 ethnic Serbs Over 4,000 Serbs were forced to leave their homes, 935 Serb houses, 10 public facilities and 35 Serbian Orthodox church-buildings were desecrated, damaged or destroyed, and six towns and nine villages were ethnically cleansed according to Serbian media
2013 2013 Burma anti-Muslim riots anti-Rohingya pogrom Rohingya Muslims Muslims called the Rohingyas were targeted in the Buddhist-majority Myanmar.[116]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Prof. Sandra Gambetti: "A final note on the use of terminology related to anti-Semitism. Scholars have frequently labeled the Alexandrian events of 38 C.E. as the first pogrom in history and have often explained them in terms of an ante litteram explosion of anti-Semitism. This work [The Alexandrian Riots] deliberately avoids any words or expressions that in any way connect, explicitly or implicitly, the Alexandrian events of 38 C.E. to later events in modern or contemporary Jewish experience, for which that terminology was created. ... To decide whether a word like pogrom, for example, is an appropriate term to describe the events that are studied here, requires a comparative re-discussion of two historical frames—the Alexandria of 38 C.E. and the Russia of the end of the nineteenth century."[97]
  2. ^ John Klier: "upon the death of the Grand Prince of Kiev Sviatopolk, rioting broke out in Kiev against his agents and the town administration. The disorders were not specifically directed against Jews and are best characterised as a social revolution. This has not prevented historians of medieval Russia from describing them as a pogrom."[98][99]
    George Vernadsky: "Incidentally, one should not suppose that the movement was anti-Semitic. There was no general Jewish pogrom. Wealthy Jewish merchants suffered because of their association with Sviatopolk's speculations, especially his hated monopoly on salt."[100]
  3. ^ John Klier: "Russian armies led by Tsar Ivan IV captured the Polish city of Polotsk. The Tsar ordered drowned in the river Dvina all Jews who refused to convert to Orthodox Christianity. This episode certainly demonstrates the overt religious hostility towards the Jews which was very much a part of Muscovite culture, but its conversionary aspects were entirely absent from modern pogroms. Nor were the Jews the only heterodox religious group singled out for the tender mercies of Muscovite religious fanaticism."[98]
  4. ^ Israeli ambassador to Ireland, Boaz Moda'i: "I think it is a bit over-portrayed, meaning that, usually if you look up the word pogrom it is used in relation to slaughter and being killed. This is what happened in many other places in Europe, but that is not what happened here. There was a kind of boycott against Jewish merchandise for a while but that’s not a pogrom."[102]
  5. ^ William Rubinstein: "London-based sources, especially the press, Jewish and non-Jewish, consistently exaggerated the resemblance of the Welsh riots to Russian 'pogroms'. ... The Western Mail's 'London Letter' pointed this out on 28 August 1911, when it stated that 'both the Government and the Jewish leaders think that the Jewish press is betraying an unnecssary amount of alarm, and that it would have been better advised to have treated the attacks upon Jews and their property in Wales as part of a general attack upon persons and property'. Perhaps the most cogent letter on this subject came from Bertam Jacobs, a Welsh-born London barrister who wrote to the South Wales Argus. ... Jacobs pointed out the absurdity of likening the South Wales riots to the Russian pogroms, noting the crucial differences between the two, especially the fact that no Jew was physically assautled, no private house belonging to a Jew was set up, no anti-Semitic cries or slogans were heard, and, especially, no synagogue was attacked."[103][104]
  6. ^ David Engel: "the repeated protests of some scholars that what happened in Lwów in November 1918 was not, strictly speaking, a "pogrom""[106]
    Norman Davies: "The so-called pogrom in Lwów, in November 1918, turned out to be a military massacre where three times more Christians died than Jews."[51]
    Morgenthau report: The report's authors argued that the term pogrom was inapplicable to the conditions existing in a war zone and required the situation to be antisemitic in nature rather than political.[89]
  7. ^ Carole Fink: "What happen in Pinsk on April 5, 1919 was not literally a "pogrom" – an organized, officially tolerated or inspired massacre of a minority such as has occurred in Lemberg – but rather a military execution of a small, suspect group of civilians. ... The misnamed "Pinsk pogrom", a plain, powerful, alliterative phrase, entered history in April 1919. Its importance lay not only in its timing, during the tensest moments of the Paris Peace Conference and the most crucial deliberations over Poland's political future: The reports of Pinsk once more demonstrated the swift transmission of local violence to world notice and the disfiguring process of rumor and prejudice on every level."[108]
    Norman Davies: "The so-called pogrom in Pinsk in March 1919 turned out to be work of a panicky lieutenant, whose order to executre thirty-five suspected Bolshevik infiltrators was described by a US investigator as 'fully justified by the circumstances'"[51]
  8. ^ Norman Davies: "Press reports in the West of 'Pogroms in Poland', though accepted by Jewish commentators, were repeatedly discredited by the investigations of independent British and American observers....the pogroms in Wilno in April 1919 and again in October 1920 were occasioned by the Red Army's hasty retreats, and by military reprisals against suspected collaborators."[51]
  9. ^ David Engel: "similar claims [that] the killing of two Jews and one Pole in the townlet of Przytyk in March 1936 [was not, strictly speaking, a "pogrom"], which became the subject of a similar bit of semantic legerdemain and ongoing argument in Poland and beyond in 2001"[106]
  10. ^ Media use of the term pogrom to refer to the 1991 Crown Heights riot caused public controversy.[93][112] For example, Joyce Purnick of The New York Times wrote in 1993 that the use of the word pogrom was "inflammatory"; she accused politicians of "trying to enlarge and twist the word" in order to "pander to Jewish voters".[113]

Citations

  1. ^ a b Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica; et al. (2017). "Pogrom". Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com. (Russian: "devastation" or "riot"), a mob attack, either approved or condoned by authorities, against the persons and property of a religious, racial, or national minority. The term is usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Brass, Paul R. (1996). Riots and Pogroms. NYU Press. p. 3. Introduction. ISBN 978-0814712825.
  3. ^ a b Atkin, Nicholas; Biddiss, Michael; Tallett, Frank (2011-05-23). The Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789. ISBN 9781444390728. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  4. ^ a b c Klier, John (2011). Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881–1882. Cambridge University Press. p. 58. ISBN 9780521895484. By the twentieth century, the word "pogrom" had become a generic term in English for all forms of collective violence directed against Jews. The term was especially associated with Eastern Europe and the Russian Empire, the scene of the most serious outbreaks of anti-Jewish violence before the Holocaust. Yet when applied indiscriminately to events in Eastern Europe, the term can be misleading, the more so when it implies that "pogroms" were regular events in the region and that they always shared common features. In fact, outbreaks of mass violence against Jews were extraordinary events, not a regular feature of East European life.
  5. ^ a b For this definition and a review of scholarly definitions see Wilhelm Heitmeyer and John Hagan, International handbook of violence research, Volume 1 (Springer, 2005) pp 352–55 online
  6. ^ a b c d Jonathan Dekel-Chen; David Gaunt; Natan M. Meir; Israel Bartal, eds. (2010-11-26). Anti-Jewish Violence. Rethinking the Pogrom in East European History. ISBN 978-0253004789. Engel states that although there are no "essential defining characteristics of a pogrom", the majority of the incidents "habitually" described as pogroms "took place in divided societies in which ethnicity or religion (or both) served as significant definers of both social boundaries and social rank.
  7. ^ Weinberg, Sonja (2010). Pogroms and Riots: German Press Responses to Anti-Jewish Violence in Germany and Russia (1881-1882). Peter Lang. p. 193. ISBN 978-3631602140. Most contemporaries claimed that the pogroms were directed against Jewish property, not against Jews, a claim so far not contradicted by research.
  8. ^ Klier, John D.; Abulafia, Anna Sapir (2001). Religious Violence Between Christians and Jews: Medieval Roots, Modern Perspectives. Springer. p. 165. ISBN 978-1403913821. The pogroms themselves seem to have largely followed a set of unwritten rules. They were directed against Jewish property only.
  9. ^ Klier, John (2010). "Pogroms". The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. The common usage of the term pogrom to describe any attack against Jews throughout history disguises the great variation in the scale, nature, motivation and intent of such violence at different times.
  10. ^ a b "World War II: Before the War", The Atlantic, June 19, 2011. "Windows of shops owned by Jews which were broken during a coordinated anti-Jewish demonstration in Berlin, known as Kristallnacht, on Nov. 10, 1938. Nazi authorities turned a blind eye as SA stormtroopers and civilians destroyed storefronts with hammers, leaving the streets covered in pieces of smashed windows. Ninety-one Jews were killed, and 30,000 Jewish men were taken to concentration camps.
  11. ^ a b Michael Berenbaum, Arnold Kramer (2005). The World Must Know. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. p. 49.
  12. ^ a b Gilbert, Martin (1986). The Holocaust: the Jewish tragedy. Collins. pp. 30–33. ISBN 978-0-00-216305-7.
  13. ^ a b Abramson, Henry (1999). A prayer for the government: Ukrainians and Jews in revolutionary times, 1917–1920. The etymological roots of the term pogrom are unclear, although it seems to be derived from the Slavic word for "thunder(bolt)" (Russian: grom, Ukrainian: hrim). The first syllable, po-, is a prefix indicating "means" or "target". The word therefore seems to imply a sudden burst of energy (thunderbolt) directed at a specific target. A pogrom is generally thought of as a cross between a popular riot and a military atrocity, where an unarmed civilian, often urban, population is attacked by either an army unit or peasants from surrounding villages, or a combination of the two.
  14. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Dec. 2007 revision. See also: Pogrom at Online Etymology Dictionary.
  15. ^ a b International handbook of violence research, Volume 1 (Springer, 2005) "The word "pogrom" (from the Russian, meaning storm or devastation) has a relatively short history. Its international currency dates back to the anti-Semitic excesses in Tsarist Russia during the years 1881–1883, but the phenomenon existed in the same form at a much earlier date and was by no means confined to Russia. As John D. Klier points out in his seminal article "The pogrom paradigm in Russian history", the anti-Semitic pogroms in Russia were described by contemporaries as demonstrations, persecution, or struggle, and the government made use of the term besporiadok (unrest, riot) to emphasize the breach of public order. Then, during the twentieth century, the term began to develop along two separate lines. In the Soviet Union, the word lost its anti-Semitic connotation and came to be used for reactionary forms of political unrest and, from 1989, for outbreaks of interethnic violence; while in the West, the anti-Semitic overtones were retained and government orchestration or acquiescence was emphasized."
  16. ^ Amos Elon (2002), The Pity of It All: A History of the Jews in Germany, 1743–1933. Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-5964-4. p. 103.
  17. ^ Anna Foa The Jews of Europe after the black death 2000 p. 13 "The first massacres took place in April 1348 in Toulon, where the Jewish quarter was raided and forty Jews were murdered in their homes. Shortly afterwards, violence broke out in Barcelona."
  18. ^ Codex Judaica: chronological index of Jewish history; p. 203 Máttis Kantor - 2005 "The Jews were savagely attacked and massacred, by sometimes hysterical mobs."
  19. ^ John Marshall John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture; p. 376 2006 "The period of the Black Death saw the massacre of Jews across Germany, and in Aragon, and Flanders,"
  20. ^ Stéphane Barry and Norbert Gualde, «La plus grande épidémie de l'histoire» ("The greatest epidemic in history"), in L'Histoire magazine, n° 310, June 2006, p. 47 (in French)
  21. ^ Durant, Will. The Renaissance, Simon and Schuster (1953), page 730–731, ISBN 0-671-61600-5
  22. ^ Barbara Newman The Passion of the Jews of Prague: The Pogrom of 1389 and the Lessons of a Medieval Parody Church History 81:1 (March 2012), 1-26
  23. ^ Herman Rosenthal (1901). "Chmielnicki, Bogdan Zinovi". Jewish Encyclopedia.
  24. ^ Historians, who put the number of killed Jewish civilians at between 40,000 and 100,000 during the Khmelnytsky Pogroms in 1648–1657, include:
    1.   Naomi E. Pasachoff, Robert J. Littman (2005). A Concise History Of The Jewish People, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-4366-8, p. 182.
    2.   David Theo Goldberg, John Solomos (2002). A Companion to Racial and Ethnic Studies, Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-20616-7, p. 68.
    3.   Michael Clodfelter (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–1999, McFarland, p. 56: estimated at 56,000 dead.
  25. ^ Historians estimating that around 100,000 Jews were killed include:
    1.   Cara Camcastle. The More Moderate Side of Joseph de Maistre: Views on Political Liberty And Political Economy, McGill-Queen's Press, 2005, ISBN 0-7735-2976-4, p. 26.
    2.   Martin Gilbert (1999). Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-10965-2, p. 219.
    3.   Manus I. Midlarsky. The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-521-81545-2, p. 352.
    4.   Oscar Reiss (2004). The Jews in Colonial America, McFarland, ISBN 0-7864-1730-7, pp. 98–99.
    5.   Colin Martin Tatz (2003). With Intent to Destroy: Reflections on Genocide, Verso, ISBN 1-85984-550-9, p. 146.
    6.   Samuel Totten (2004). Teaching about Genocide: Issues, Approaches and Resources, Information Age Publishing, ISBN 1-59311-074-X, p. 25.
    7.   Mosheh Weiss (2004). A Brief History of the Jewish People, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-4402-8, p. 193.
  26. ^ Historians who estimate that more than 100,000 Jews were killed in Ukraine in 1648–1657 include:
    1.   Meyer Waxman (2003). History of Jewish Literature Part 3, Kessinger, ISBN 0-7661-4370-8, p. 20: estimated at about two hundred thousand Jews killed.
    2.   Michael Clodfelter (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–1999, McFarland, p. 56: estimated at between 150,000 and 200,000 Jewish victims.
    3.   Zev Garber, Bruce Zuckerman (2004). Double Takes: Thinking and Rethinking Issues of Modern Judaism in Ancient Contexts, University Press of America, ISBN 0-7618-2894-X, p. 77, footnote 17: estimated at about 100,000–500,000 Jews
    4.   The Columbia Encyclopedia (2001–2005), "Chmielnicki Bohdan", 6th ed.: estimated at over 100,000 Jews.
    5.   Robert Melvin Spector (2005). World without Civilization: Mass Murder and the Holocaust, History and Analysis, University Press of America, ISBN 0-7618-2963-6, p. 77: estimated at more than 100,000.
    6.   Sol Scharfstein (2004). Jewish History and You, KTAV, ISBN 0-88125-806-7, p. 42: estimated at more than 100,000 Jews killed.
  27. ^ Elon, Amos (2002). The Pity of It All: A History of the Jews in Germany, 1743-1933. Metropolitan Books. p. 103. ISBN 0-8050-5964-4.
  28. ^ Davies, Norman (2005). "Rossiya: The Russian Partition (1772–1918)". God's Playground: a history of Poland. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-0199253401. Volume II: Revised Edition.
  29. ^ "Shtetl". Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jewish Virtual Library, The Gale Group. Also in: Rabbi Ken Spiro. "Pale of Settlement". History Crash Course #56. Aish.com.
  30. ^ John Doyle Klier, Shlomo Lambroza (2004). Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History. Cambridge University Press. p. 376. ISBN 978-0521528511.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Also in: Omer Bartov (2013). Shatterzone of Empires. p. 97. ISBN 978-0253006318. Note 45. It should be remembered that for all the violence and property damage caused by the 1881 pogroms, the number of deaths could be counted on one hand. Further information: Oleg Budnitskii (2012). Russian Jews Between the Reds and the Whites, 1917-1920. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 17–20. ISBN 978-0812208146.
  31. ^ Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Pogroms in Russia: Explanations, Comparisons, Suggestions, Jewish Social Studies, New Series, Vol. 11, No. 1 (Autumn 2004), pp. 17–. Excerpt. 
  32. ^ Henry Abramson (10–13 July 2002). "The end of intimate insularity: new narratives of Jewish history in the post-Soviet era" (PDF). Acts.
  33. ^  Rosenthal, Herman; Rosenthal, Max (1901–1906). "Kishinef (Kishinev)". In Singer, Isidore; et al. (eds.). The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
  34. ^ a b Paul Joseph (2016). The SAGE Encyclopedia of War. SAGE Publications. p. 1353. ISBN 978-1483359885.
  35. ^ Sergei Kan (2009). Lev Shternberg. U of Nebraska Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-0803224704.
  36. ^ a b Shlomo Lambroza (1993). Herbert A. Strauss (ed.). Jewish self-defence. Current Research on Anti-Semitism: Hostages of Modernization. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1256, 1244–45. ISBN 978-3110137156.
  37. ^ Colin Tatz (2016). The Magnitude of Genocide. Winton Higgins. ABC-CLIO. p. 26. ISBN 978-1440831614.
  38. ^ a b c Kleg, Milton (1993). Hate Prejudice and Racism. SUNY Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0791415368.
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  40. ^ a b Levin, Nora (1991). The Jews in the Soviet Union Since 1917: Paradox of Survival. NYU Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8147-5051-3.
  41. ^ Gitelman, Zvi Y. (2001). A Century of Ambivalence: The Jews of Russia and the Soviet Union, 1881 to the Present. Indiana University Press. pp. 65–70. ISBN 978-0253338112.
  42. ^ Kadish, Sharman (1992). Bolsheviks and British Jews: The Anglo-Jewish Community, Britain, and the Russian Revolution. Routledge. p. 87. ISBN 9780714633718.
  43. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica (2008). "Pogroms". The Jewish Virtual Library.
  44. ^ a b Yekelchyk, Serhy (2007). Ukraine: Birth of a Modern Nation. Oxford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-19-530546-3.
  45. ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert (2010). History of Ukraine - The Land and Its Peoples. University of Toronto Press. p. 537. ISBN 978-1-4426-4085-6.
  46. ^ Ivan Bunin (1998), Cursed Days: A Diary of Revolution. May 2/15, 1919. Ivan R. Dee, ISBN 1461730309. p. 141.
  47. ^ Abramson, Henry (September 1991). "Jewish Representation in the Independent Ukrainian Governments of 1917–1920". Slavic Review. Vol. 50, No. 3 (Fall, 1991): 542–550.
  48. ^ a b Budnitskii, Oleg (2012). Russian Jews Between the Reds and the Whites, 1917-1920. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 373, 364. ISBN 978-0812208146. The battalion 'forced the Poles to retreat several versts' [one verst is roughly equal to 1 kilometer].
  49. ^ a b c Stachura, Peter D. (2004). Poland, 1918-1945: an Interpretive and Documentary History of the Second Republic. Psychology Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0415343589.
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  51. ^ a b c d In God's Playground, Volume II, p192, Norman Davies writes in relation to events in Lviv (1918), Pinsk (1919) and Vilnius (1919-20): "Press reports in the West of 'Pogroms in Poland', though accepted by Jewish commentators, were repeatedly discredited by the investigations of independent British and American observers. The so-called pogrom in Lwów, in November 1918, turned out to be a military massacre where three times more Christians died than Jews. The so-called pogrom in Pinsk in March 1919 turned out to be work of a panicky lieutenant, whose order to executre thirty-five suspected Bolshevik infiltrators was described by a US investigator as 'fully justified by the circumstances'; the pogroms in Wilno in April 1919 and again in October 1920 were occasioned by the Red Army's hasty retreats, and by military reprisals against suspected collaborators."
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  59. ^ Herbert Arthur Strauss (1993). Hostages of Modernization: Studies on Modern Antisemitism, 1870–1933/39. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1048.
  60. ^ Gilman, Sander L.; Milton Shain (1999). Jewries at the Frontier: Accommodation, Identity, Conflict. University of Illinois Press. p. 39. ISBN 9780252067921. After the end of the fighting and as a result of the Polish victory, some of the Polish soldiers and the civilian population started a pogrom against the Jewish inhabitants. Polish soldiers maintained that the Jews had sympathized with the Ukrainian position during the conflicts
  61. ^ Marsha L. Rozenblit (2001). Reconstructing a National Identity: The Jews of Habsburg Austria during World War I. Oxford University Press. p. 137. "The largest pogrom occurred in Lemberg [= Lwow]. Polish soldiers led an attack on the Jewish quarter of the city on November 21–23, 1918 that claimed 73 Jewish lives".
  62. ^ Zvi Y. Gitelman (2003). The Emergence of Modern Jewish Politics: Bundism and Zionism in Eastern Europe. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 58. "In November 1918, Polish soldiers who had taken Lwow (Lviv) from the Ukrainians killed more than seventy Jews in a pogrom there, burning synagogues, destroying Jewish property, and leaving hundreds of Jewish families homeless."
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  78. ^ "Instytut PamiÄci Narodowej". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  79. ^ A communiqué regarding the decision to end the investigation of the murder of Polish citizens of Jewish nationality in Jedwabne on 10 July 1941 Archived 20 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine (Komunikat dot. postanowienia o umorzeniu śledztwa w sprawie zabójstwa obywateli polskich narodowości żydowskiej w Jedwabnem w dniu 10 lipca 1941 r.) from 30 June 2003.
  80. ^ Contested memories By Joshua D. Zimmerman, Rutgers University Press – Publisher; pp. 67–68.
  81. ^ Antisemitism By Richard S. Levy, ABC-CLIO – Publisher; p. 366.
  82. ^ Alexander B. Rossino, Polish "Neighbors" and German Invaders: Contextualizing Anti-Jewish Violence in the Białystok District during the Opening Weeks of Operation Barbarossa, Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 16 (2003).
  83. ^ Jan Tomasz Gross, "Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland", Penguin Books, Princeton University Press, 2002.
  84. ^ Bostom, Andrew G. (Ed.) 2007. The Legacy of Islamic Antisemitism: From Sacred Texts to Solemn History.
  85. ^ "Sunshine, Blossoms and Blood". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  86. ^ "Easter in Kishinev". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  87. ^ "Reading Ferguson: books on race, police, protest and U.S. history". Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  88. ^ Bergmann writes that "the concept of "ethnic violence" covers a range of heterogeneous phenomena, and in many cases there are still no established theoretical and conceptual distinctions in the field (Waldmann, 1995:343)" Bergmann then goes on to set out a variety of conflicting scholarly views on the definition and usage of the term pogrom.
  89. ^ a b Piotrowski, Tadeusz (1997-11-01). Poland's Holocaust. ISBN 9780786429134. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  90. ^ Neal Pease. "'This Troublesome Question': The United States and the 'Polish Pogroms' of 1918–1919." In: Mieczysław B. Biskupski, Piotr Stefan Wandycz, page 60. Ideology, Politics, and Diplomacy in East Central Europe. Boydell & Brewer, 2003, p.72
  91. ^ Mark, Jonathan (August 9, 2011). "What The 'Pogrom' Wrought". The Jewish Week. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  92. ^ New York Media, LLC (1991-09-09). "New York Magazine". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  93. ^ a b Crown Heights: Politics and Press Coverage of the Race War That Wasn't, Carol B. Conaway, Polity, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Autumn, 1999), pp. 93-118
  94. ^ "As a Jew, I was ashamed at the scenes of Jews opening fire at innocent Arabs in Hebron. There is no other definition than the term 'pogrom' to describe what I have seen."Settlers attack Palestinian village
  95. ^ "BBC NEWS - Middle East - Olmert condemns settler 'pogrom'". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  96. ^ Heitmeyer and Hagan, International handbook of violence research, Volume 1 pp 352–55
  97. ^ Prof. Sandra Gambetti (2009). The Alexandrian Riots of 38 C.E. and the Persecution of the Jews: A Historical Reconstruction. University of California, Berkeley: BRILL. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-9004138469.
  98. ^ a b Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History, edited by John Doyle Klier, Shlomo Lambroza, pages 13 and 35 (footnotes)
  99. ^ Klier also writes that Alexander Pereswetoff-Morath has advanced a strong argument against considering the Kiev riots of 1113 an anti-Jewish pogrom. Pereswetoff-Morath writes in "A Grin without a Cat" (2002) that "I feel that Birnbaum's use of the term "anti-Semitism" as well as, for example, his use of "pogrom" in references to medieval Rus are not warranted by the evidence he presents. He is, of course, aware that it may be controversial."
  100. ^ George Vernadsky, Kievan Russia, Yale University Press, 1 Apr 1973, p94
  101. ^ "Portugal". Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica.
  102. ^ Limerick Leader, Saturday 6 November 2010, Jewish envoy says Limerick pogrom is 'over-portrayed'
  103. ^ "Welsh Journals Online -". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  104. ^ "Controversy and Crisis". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  105. ^ Daniela Gioseffi (1993). On Prejudice: A Global Perspective. Anchor Books. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-385-46938-8. Retrieved 2 September 2013. ...Andric describes the "Sarajevo frenzy of hate" that erupted among Muslims, Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers following the assassination on June 28, 1914, of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo...
  106. ^ a b Anti-Jewish Violence. Rethinking the Pogrom in East European History. Edited by Jonathan Dekel-Chen, David Gaunt, Natan M. Meir, and Israel Bartal "the repeated protests of some scholars that what happened in Lwów in November 1918 was not, strictly speaking, a "pogrom"— or similar claims about the killing of two Jews and one Pole in the townlet of Przytyk in March 1936, which became the subject of a similar bit of semantic legerdemain and ongoing argument in Poland and beyond in 2001"
  107. ^ Mideast Dispatch Archive
  108. ^ Defending the Rights of Others:The Great Powers, the Jews, and International Minority Protection, 1878-1938, Carole Fink, 2006, p185
  109. ^ Steven K. Baum, Shimon Samuels. Antisemitism Explained. University Press of America. 2011. p. 174.
  110. ^ "Istanbul love story". The Post and Courier. April 10, 2011.
  111. ^ Kurt Jonassohn; Karin Solveig Björnson. Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations: In Comparative Perspective. Transaction Publishers. pp. 256–258. ISBN 978-1-4128-2445-3.
  112. ^ The Jewish Week, August 9, 2011 "A divisive debate over the meaning of pogrom, lasting for more than two years, could have easily been ended if the mayor simply said to the victims of Crown Heights, yes, I understand why you experienced it as a pogrom."
  113. ^ Purnick, Joyce (June 3, 1993). "Editorial Notebook: Crown Heights Was Not Iasi". The New York Times.
  114. ^ "TIMELINE: How the 1991 Crown Heights riots unfolded". New York Daily News. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
  115. ^ Okeowo, Alexis (August 19, 2011). "Crown Heights, Twenty Years After the Riots". The New Yorker. Giuliani called the riots a pogrom.
  116. ^ "Buddhists from Bangladesh resettle in Myanmar, Rohingya Muslims cry foul". Csmonitor.com. May 24, 2013.

Further reading

1941 Odessa massacre

The Odessa massacre is the name given to the mass murder of Jewish population of Odessa and surrounding towns in the Transnistria Governorate during the autumn of 1941 and winter of 1942 while under Romanian control.

Depending on the accepted terms of reference and scope, the Odessa massacre refers either to the events of October 22–24, 1941 in which some 25,000 to 34,000 Jews were shot or burned, or to the murder of well over 100,000 Ukrainian Jews in the town and the areas between the Dniester and Bug rivers, during the Romanian and German occupation.

2002 Gujarat riots

The 2002 Gujarat riots, also known as the 2002 Gujarat violence and the Gujarat pogrom, was a three-day period of inter-communal violence in the western Indian state of Gujarat. Following the initial incident there were further outbreaks of violence in Ahmedabad for three months; statewide, there were further outbreaks of violence against the minority Muslim population for the next year. The burning of a train in Godhra on 27 February 2002, which caused the deaths of 58 Hindu pilgrims (karsevaks) returning from Ayodhya, is cited as having instigated the violence.According to official figures, the riots ended with 1,044 dead, 223 missing, and 2,500 injured. Of the dead, 2000+ were Muslim and 254 Hindu. The Concerned Citizens Tribunal Report, estimated that as many as 1,926 may have been killed. Other sources estimated death tolls in excess of 2,000. Many brutal killings and rapes were reported on as well as widespread looting and destruction of property. The Chief Minister of Gujarat at that time, Narendra Modi, was accused of initiating and condoning the violence, as were police and government officials who allegedly directed the rioters and gave lists of Muslim-owned properties to them.In 2012, Modi was cleared of complicity in the violence by Special Investigation Team (SIT) appointed by the Supreme Court of India. The SIT also rejected claims that the state government had not done enough to prevent the riots. The Muslim community was reported to have reacted with anger and disbelief. In July 2013 allegations were made that the SIT had suppressed evidence. That December, an Indian court upheld the earlier SIT report and rejected a petition seeking Modi's prosecution. In April 2014, the Supreme Court expressed satisfaction over the SIT's investigations in nine cases related to the violence, and rejected as "baseless" a plea contesting the SIT report.Though officially classified as a communalist riot, the events of 2002 have been described as a pogrom by many scholars, with some commentators alleging that the attacks had been planned, with the attack on the train was a "staged trigger" for what was actually premeditated violence. Other observers have stated that these events had met the "legal definition of genocide," or referred to them as state terrorism or ethnic cleansing. Instances of mass violence include the Naroda Patiya massacre that took place directly adjacent to a police training camp; the Gulbarg Society massacre where Ehsan Jafri, a former parliamentarian, was among those killed; and several incidents in Vadodara city. Scholars studying the 2002 riots state that they were premeditated and constituted a form of ethnic cleansing, and that the state government and law enforcement were complicit in the violence that occurred.

Aktion Erntefest

The Aktion Erntefest (German: Operation Harvest Festival) was a World War II mass shooting action carried out by the SS, the Order police, and the Ukrainian Sonderdienst formations in the General Government territory of occupied Poland. The operation aimed at extermination of Jews pressed into forced-labour at the camps of the Lublin reservation including Majdanek concentration camp and all its subcamps. It was closely linked with the liquidation of the ghetto in Lublin. Aktion Erntefest took place on November 3 and 4, 1943. On the orders of Christian Wirth and Jakob Sporrenberg, approximately 42,000–43,000 Polish Jews were killed simultaneously. Virtually the entire Jewish workforce was eliminated, thus concluding Operation Reinhard.Operation Harvest Festival was the single largest German massacre of Jews in the entire war. It surpassed the notorious massacre of more than 33,000 Jews at Babi Yar outside Kiev by 10,000 victims. It was exceeded only by the 1941 Odessa massacre of more than 50,000 Jews in October 1941, committed by Romanian troops.

Babi Yar

Babi Yar (Ukrainian: Бабин Яр, Babyn Yar; Russian: Бабий Яр, Babiy Yar) is a ravine in the Ukrainian capital Kiev and a site of massacres carried out by German forces and local Ukrainian collaborators during their campaign against the Soviet Union in World War II. The first, and best documented, of the massacres took place on 29–30 September 1941, killing approximately 33,771 Jews. The decision to kill all the Jews in Kiev was made by the military governor, Major-General Kurt Eberhard, the Police Commander for Army Group South, SS-Obergruppenführer Friedrich Jeckeln, and the Einsatzgruppe C Commander Otto Rasch. Sonderkommando 4a soldiers, along with the aid of the SD and SS Police Battalions backed by the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police carried out the orders.The massacre was the largest mass killing under the auspices of the Nazi regime and its collaborators during its campaign against the Soviet Union and has been called "the largest single massacre in the history of the Holocaust" to that particular date, surpassed only by the 1941 Odessa massacre of more than 50,000 Jews in October 1941 (committed by German and Romanian troops) and by Aktion Erntefest of November 1943 in occupied Poland with 42,000–43,000 victims.Victims of other massacres at the site included Soviet prisoners of war, communists, Ukrainian nationalists and Roma. It is estimated that between 100,000 and 150,000 people were killed at Babi Yar during the German occupation.

Dorohoi pogrom

On 1 July 1940, in the town of Dorohoi in Romania, Romanian military units carried out a pogrom against the local Jews, during which, according to an official Romanian report, 53 Jews were murdered, and dozens injured. According to the town's Jews, the number of fatalities was between 165 and 200. These acts were committed before Romania entered World War II, before it became Germany's ally, and before the German military entered the country.Although the Romanian government had taken steps against Jews, including antisemitic laws, and seizure of Jewish property, these military actions against the Jews were not endorsed by the government; when the conspiracy against the Jews was discovered by the military command, troops were sent to put an end to the abuse. The perpetrators, however, were not punished.

Farhud

Farhud (Arabic: الفرهود‎) refers to the pogrom or "violent dispossession" carried out against the Jewish population of Baghdad, Iraq, on June 1–2, 1941, immediately following the British victory in the Anglo-Iraqi War. The riots occurred in a power vacuum following the collapse of the pro-Nazi government of Rashid Ali while the city was in a state of instability. The violence came immediately after the rapid defeat of Rashid Ali by British forces, whose earlier coup had generated a short period of national euphoria, and was fueled by allegations that Iraqi Jews had aided the British. Over 180 Jews were killed and 1,000 injured, and up to 300-400 non-Jewish rioters were killed in the attempt to quell the violence. Looting of Jewish property took place and 900 Jewish homes were destroyed.The Farhud took place during the Jewish holiday of Shavuot. It has been referred to as a pogrom which was part of the Holocaust, although such comparison has been disputed. It has also been called "the beginning of the end of the Jewish community of Iraq", propagating the migration of Iraqi Jews out of the country, although a direct connection to the 1951-2 Jewish exodus from Iraq is also disputed, as many Jews who left Iraq immediately following the Farhud returned to the country and permanent emigration did not accelerate significantly until 1950-51. According to Hayyim Cohen, the Farhud "was the only [such event] known to the Jews of Iraq, at least during their last hundred years of life there".

Iași pogrom

The Iași pogrom (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈjaʃʲ] (listen), sometimes anglicized as Jassy) was a series of pogroms launched by governmental forces under Marshal Ion Antonescu in the Romanian city of Iaşi against its Jewish community, which lasted from 29 June to 6 July 1941. According to Romanian authorities, over 13,266 people, or one third of the Jewish population, were massacred in the pogrom itself or in its aftermath, and many were deported.

Jedwabne pogrom

The Jedwabne pogrom (Polish: Pogrom w Jedwabnem, pronounced [jɛdˈvabnɛ]) was a World War II massacre committed on 10 July 1941 in the town of Jedwabne, in German-occupied Poland. At least 340 Polish Jews, including women and children, were murdered, some 300 of whom were locked inside a barn that was set on fire.

At least 40 ethnic Poles were implicated with German Order Police being present. Debated is the additional involvement of German Gestapo and SS paramilitary forces, especially SS Einsatzgruppe B.

Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre

The Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre was a World War II mass shooting of Jews carried out in the opening stages of Operation Barbarossa, by mobile killing squads of Nazi German Order Police Battalion 320 along with Jeckeln's Einsatzgruppen, the Hungarian soldiers, and the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police. The killings were conducted on August 27 and August 28, 1941, in the Soviet city of Kamianets-Podilskyi (now Ukraine), occupied by German troops in the previous month on July 11, 1941. According to the Nazi German reports a total of 23,600 Jews were murdered, including 16,000 who had earlier been expelled from Hungary.

Kaunas pogrom

The Kaunas pogrom was a massacre of Jewish people living in Kaunas, Lithuania that took place on June 25–29, 1941 – the first days of the Operation Barbarossa and of Nazi occupation of Lithuania. The most infamous incident occurred in the Lietūkis garage, where several dozen Jewish men were publicly tortured and executed on June 27, most of them killed by a single club-wielding assailant nicknamed the "Death Dealer." After June, systematic executions took place at various forts of the Kaunas Fortress, especially the Seventh and Ninth Fort.

Kielce pogrom

The Kielce Pogrom was an outbreak of violence toward the Jewish community centre's gathering of refugees in the city of Kielce, Poland on 4 July 1946 by Polish soldiers, police officers, and civilians during which 42 Jews were killed and more than 40 were wounded. Polish courts later sentenced nine of the attackers to death in connection with the crimes.Some sources claim the massacre was instigated by the Soviet-backed Communist security corps, for propaganda purposes, attempting to discredit Poland's anti-Communist stance and to maintain totalitarian control over the country. As the top-secret case files were destroyed, the academic inquiry is ongoing with regard to possible secret coordination with the NKVD by the Moscow-Communist-controlled 'Polish' authorities.As the deadliest pogrom against Polish Jews after the Second World War, the incident was a significant point in the post-war history of Jews in Poland. It took place only a year after the end of the Second World War and the Holocaust, shocking Jews in Poland, Poles, and the international community. It has been recognized as a catalyst for the flight from Poland of most remaining Polish Jews who had survived the Holocaust.

Kishinev pogrom

This article is part of the History of the Jews in Bessarabia.

The Kishinev pogrom was an anti-Jewish riot that took place in Kishinev (modern Chișinău, Moldova), then the capital of the Bessarabia Governorate in the Russian Empire, on 6-9 April 1903. Further rioting erupted in October 1905. In the first wave of violence, beginning on Easter Day, 49 Jews were killed, a number of Jewish women were raped and 1,500 homes were damaged. American Jews began large-scale organized financial help, and assisted in emigration. The incident focused worldwide attention on the persecution of Jews in Russia and led Theodor Herzl to propose the Uganda Scheme for resettlement of the Jews.

Kristallnacht

Kristallnacht (German pronunciation: [kʁɪsˈtalnaχt]; lit. "Crystal Night") or Reichskristallnacht (German: [ˌʁaɪçs.kʁɪsˈtalnaχt] (listen)), also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht [ˌʁaɪçs.poˈɡʁoːmnaχt] or simply Pogromnacht [poˈɡʁoːmnaχt] (listen), and Novemberpogrome [noˈvɛmbɐpoɡʁoːmə] (listen) (Yiddish: קרישטאָל נאַכט krishtol nakht), was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and civilians. The German authorities looked on without intervening. The name Kristallnacht comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after the windows of Jewish-owned stores, buildings, and synagogues were smashed.

Estimates of the number of fatalities caused by the pogrom have varied. Early reports estimated that 91 Jews were murdered during the attacks. Modern analysis of German scholarly sources by historians such as Sir Richard Evans puts the number much higher. When deaths from post-arrest maltreatment and subsequent suicides are included, the death toll climbs into the hundreds. Additionally, 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps.Jewish homes, hospitals, and schools were ransacked, as the attackers demolished buildings with sledgehammers. The rioters destroyed 267 synagogues throughout Germany, Austria, and the Sudetenland, and over 7,000 Jewish businesses were either destroyed or damaged. The British historian Martin Gilbert wrote that no event in the history of German Jews between 1933 and 1945 was so widely reported as it was happening, and the accounts from the foreign journalists working in Germany sent shock waves around the world. The British newspaper The Times wrote at the time: "No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults on defenseless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday."The pretext for the attacks was the assassination of the Nazi German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan, a seventeen-year-old German-born Polish Jew living in Paris. Kristallnacht was followed by additional economic and political persecution of Jews, and it is viewed by historians as part of Nazi Germany's broader racial policy, and the beginning of the Final Solution and The Holocaust.

Legionnaires' rebellion and Bucharest pogrom

The Legionnaires' rebellion and the Bucharest pogrom occurred in Bucharest, Romania, between 21–23 January 1941. As the privileges of the Iron Guard paramilitary organization were being cut off gradually by the Conducător Ion Antonescu, its members, also known as the Legionnaires, revolted. During the rebellion and pogrom the Iron Guard killed 125 Jews, and 30 soldiers died in the confrontation with the rebels. Following this, the Iron Guard movement was banned and 9,000 of its members were imprisoned.

Lviv pogroms (1941)

The Lviv pogroms were the consecutive massacres of Jews living in the city of Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine), perpetrated by the German commandos, local crowds and the Ukrainian nationalists from 30 June to 2 July 1941, and from 25 to 29 July 1941, during the Wehrmacht's attack on the Soviet positions in occupied eastern Poland in World War II. Historian Peter Longerich and the Holocaust Encyclopedia estimate that the first pogrom cost at least 4,000 lives. It was followed by the additional 2,500 to 3,000 arrests and executions in subsequent Einsatzgruppe killings, and culminated in the so-called "Petlura Days" massacre of more than 2,000 Jews, all killed in a one-month span.Prior to the 1939 invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, and the ensuing Holocaust in Europe, the city of Lviv had the third-largest Jewish population in Poland during the interwar period, which swelled further to over 200,000 Jews as the refugees fled east from the Nazis. Right after the conquest of Poland, on 28 September 1939, the USSR and Germany signed a frontier treaty assigning about 200,000 km² of land inhabited by 13.5 million people of all nationalities to the Soviet Union. Lviv remained in the Soviet zone of occupation for two years. Of the estimated total of 20,000–30,000 former citizens of Poland executed by the Soviet NKVD as "enemies of the people," nearly 9,000 were murdered in the newly-acquired western Ukraine. Sovietization policies in Polish lands – cordoned off from the rest of the USSR – included confiscation of property and mass deportations of the hundreds of thousands of local citizens to Siberia. On Sunday, 22 June 1941 Germany attacked the Soviet Union.

Mass murders in Tykocin

The Mass murders in Tykocin occurred in August 25, 1941, during World War II, where the local Jewish population of Tykocin (Poland) was killed by German Einsatzkommando.

Ponary massacre

The Ponary massacre or Paneriai massacre (Polish: zbrodnia w Ponarach) was the mass murder of up to 100,000 people by German SD and SS and their Lithuanian collaborators, including Ypatingasis būrys killing squads, during World War II and the Holocaust in Reichskommissariat Ostland. The murders took place between July 1941 and August 1944 near the railway station at Ponary (now Paneriai), a suburb of today's Vilnius, Lithuania. Some 70,000 Jews were murdered at Ponary, along with up to 20,000 Poles, and 8,000 Russian POWs, most of them from nearby Vilna (Vilnius), and its newly-formed Vilna Ghetto.Lithuania and the Baltic States became one of the first locations outside occupied Poland in World War II where the Nazis would mass murder Jews as part of the Final Solution. Out of 70,000 Jews living in Vilna according to Snyder, only 7,000 (or 10 percent) survived the war. The number of dwellers, estimated by Sedlis, as of June 1941 was 80,000 Jews, or one-half of the city's population. According to the Holocaust Encyclopedia and others, more than two-thirds of them or at least 50,000 Jews had been killed before the end of 1941.

Szczuczyn pogrom

Szczuczyn pogrom was the massacre of some 300 Jews in the community of Szczuczyn carried out by its Polish inhabitants in June 1941 after the town was bypassed by the invading German soldiers in the beginning of Operation Barbarossa. The June massacre was stopped by German soldiers.

A subsequent massacre by Poles in July killed some 100 Jews, and following the German Gestapo takeover in August 1941 some 600 Jews were killed by the Germans, the remaining Jews placed in a ghetto, and subsequently sent to Treblinka extermination camp.

Wąsosz pogrom

The Wąsosz pogrom was the World War II mass murder of Jewish residents of Wąsosz in German-occupied Poland, on 5 July 1941.

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