Pogost

Pogost (Russian: погост, from Old East Slavic: погостъ[1]) is a historical term with several meanings in the Russian language. It has also been borrowed into Latgalian (pogosts), Finnish (pogosta) and Latvian (pagasts), with specific meanings.

The original usage applies to the coaching inn for princes and ecclesiastics[2] with the word being similar to modern Russian gost' (гость), "guest". It is assumed that originally pogosts were rural communities on the periphery of the ancient Russian state, as well as trading centers (Old Russian: gost'ba, гостьба).[3]

In the end of the 10th century pogosts transformed into administrative and territorial districts. Pogosts varied in size, ranging from tens to hundreds of villages in 11th—14th centuries. As Christianity spread in Russia, churches were built in pogosts. In 1775 the last pogosts that served as administrative districts were destroyed. Since then they became known as city pogosts (погосто - место), functioning as parish centers.

In the central uyezds of 15th-16th centuries pogosts were small settlements with a church and a graveyard, like Kizhi Pogost or Kadnikov Pogost. In modern Russian, pogosts usually designate a combination of a rural church and a graveyard, situated at some distant place.

1909 Церковь Спасителя и Покрова Пресвятой Богородицы. Вытегорский Погост
Vytegra Pogost, as photographed ca. 1912 by Prokudin-Gorskii.

Usage in Finland and Latvia

The central village of the Finnish kunta (‘municipality’) of Ilomantsi is usually called the pogosta of Ilomantsi (Ilomantsin pogosta), the word being obviously a borrowing from Russian. The local dialect of Finnish shows strong Russian influence, and there is a strong presence of Orthodox Christians in the municipality. Even the name of the local newspaper is Pogostan Sanomat ("The Pogosta News"), and a certain viral disease is locally called the Pogosta disease.

In modern Finnish language, pogosta is also used in references to historical places, as a historical synonym for "parish" or "municipality" in Karelian and Russian contexts.

Pagasts is the name for a basic unit of local self-government in the Republic of Latvia. The word "pagasts" is a commonly used Latvian word equivalent to civil parish, rural municipality or small rural district, originating in the Russian pogost. There are 432 rural municipalities or pagasti in Latvia.[4]

References

  1. ^ Hypatian Chronicle, 947 AD
  2. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Russian) Max Vasmer. Этимологический словарь русского языка
  3. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Russian) Большая энциклопедия русского языка
  4. ^ Latvian Association of Local and Regional Governments

Coordinates: 61°12′00″N 42°05′00″E / 61.2°N 42.0833°E

Guslitsa

Guslitsa, Guslica, or Guslicy (Russian: Гуслица, Гуслицы) is a region situated in the eastern part of Moscow Oblast. Guslitsa is famous for it was almost entirely inhabited by the Old Believers, mainly popovtsy (Belokrinitskaya Hierarchy, now — Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church). Name Guslitsa occurs from the Guslitsa River.

Guslitsa is also well known for its cultural heritage and its home-crafts, mainly hand-written singing books and copper mouldings. Guslitsa has its center in the Rudnya and Ilyinsky Pogost villages.

Nowadays Guslitsa lies almost entirely within Orekhovo-Zuyevsky District of Moscow Oblast.

The regions neighboring Guslitsa (currently also unofficial) were also mainly inhabited by the old believers and were influenced by the Guslitsa culture a lot. Among them are: Ramenye, Zakhod, Zaponorye, Patriarshina, Vokhna.

Guslitsa River

The Guslitsa River (Russian: Гу́слица), also known as Guslyanka (Гусля́нка) is a river in Moscow Oblast, Russia. It is a left tributary of the Nerskaya River (Moskva` tributary). It is 36 km in length. Source near the city of Yegoryevsk. Flows all over again on the North, and then on the West, running in the Nerskaya at the village Khoteichi. The upper reaches of the Guslitsa River up to village Ilyinsky Pogost are densely populated and almost without forest. The river has flat type. A feed mainly snow. Guslitsa freezes in November — the beginning of December, it is opened in the end of March — April.

Main tributaries: Desna River, Shuvoyka River, Silenka River.

The city of Yegoryevsk and the villages of Ilyinsky Pogost and Slobodishche are situated on the Guslitsa River.

The river Guslitsa has denominated historical area Guslitsa.

Ilyinsky Pogost

Ilyinsky Pogost (Russian: Ильи́нский Пого́ст) is a village (selo) in Orekhovo-Zuyevsky District of Moscow Oblast, Russia, located on the Guslitsa River (Nerskaya's tributary). In the past, it was named Guslitsa (Гу́слица) and Pogost na Guslitse (Пого́ст на Гу́слице).

Ilyinsky Pogost is the administrative center of Ilynskoye Rural Settlement, the population of which was 4,000 as of the 2002 Census. The postal code of the village is 142651.

Ilyinsky Pogost was first mentioned in 1585 and later served as the center of the historical area of Guslitsa (Guslitskaya volost).

A large Resurrection of Jesus church (of the Moscow Patriarchate) is located in Ilyinsky Pogost. The church was built in 1822 and consecrated in 1840. In 1849, the construction of a belltower over 70 meters (230 ft) in height was finished. In 1937, the church was closed, and its building was used to house a sewing workshop between 1940 and 1953. In 1953, the building was turned into a warehouse used by the village's collective farm, and was used for this purpose until 1961. In 1961–1990 it housed a tare shop. During the German-Soviet War the belltower was used as an observation post. On March 25, 1990 the church was returned to the local community of believers.

Kandala

Kandala (or similar) may refer to:

Kandala (pogost), a Sami pogost (populated place) in Kolsky Uyezd of the Tsardom of Russia

Kandala Subrahmanyam (b. 1920), Indian lawyer, socialist leader, freedom activist, and parliamentarian

Kevin Kandala (b. 1992), Zimbabwean first-class cricketer

Kizhi Island

Kizhi (Russian: Ки́жи, IPA: [ˈkʲiʐɨ], Karelian: Kiži) is an island near the geometrical center of the Lake Onega in the Republic of Karelia (Medvezhyegorsky District), Russia. It is elongated from north to south and is about 6 km long, 1 km wide and is about 68 km away from the capital of Karelia, Petrozavodsk.

Settlements and churches on the island were known from at least the 15th century. The population was rural, but was forced by the government to assist development of the ore mining and iron plants in the area that resulted in a major Kizhi Uprising in 1769–1771. Most villages had disappeared from the island by the 1950s and now only a small rural settlement remains. In the 18th century, two major churches and a bell tower were built on the island, which are now known as Kizhi Pogost. In the 1950s, dozens of historical wooden buildings were moved to the island from various parts of Karelia for preservation purposes. Nowadays, the entire island and the nearby area form a national open-air museum with more than 80 historical wooden structures. The most famous is the Kizhi Pogost, which is a UNESCO World Heritage site.

Kizhi Pogost

Kizhi Pogost (Russian: Кижский Погост) is a historical site dating from the 17th century on Kizhi island. The island is located on Lake Onega in the Republic of Karelia (Medvezhyegorsky District), Russia. The pogost is the area inside a fence which includes two large wooden churches (the 22-dome Transfiguration Church and the 9-dome Intercession Church) and a bell-tower. The pogost is famous for its beauty and longevity, despite that it is built exclusively of wood. In 1990, it was included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage sites and in 1993 listed as a Russian Cultural Heritage site.

Kolsko-Loparskaya Volost

Kolsko-Loparskaya Volost (Russian: Ко́льско-Лопа́рская во́лость) was at various times an administrative division (a volost) of Kemsky, Kolsky, and Alexandrovsky Uyezds of Arkhangelsk Governorate of the Russian Empire (and later of the Russian SFSR), and then of Murmansk Governorate of the Russian SFSR. It existed in 1868–1927.The volost was established in 1868 when Ekostrovskaya, Pechengskaya, and Voronyinskaya Volosts of Kemsky Uyezd were merged. In 1871, Murmansko-Kolonistskaya Volost was split off from it. When Kolsky Uyezd (known as Alexandrovsky since 1899 and, alternatively, Murmansky since 1920) was restored on February 19 [O.S. February 8], 1883, Kolsko-Loparskaya Volost was one of the six volosts transferred to it from Kemsky Uyezd. On January 14 [O.S. January 1], 1912, Teriberskaya Volost was split off.On January 8, 1918, the community assembly of Voronezhskoye (Voronyinskoye) Rural Community decided to establish a separate Lovozerskaya Volost out of four of the pogosts of Kolsko-Loparskaya Volost (Lovozersky, Lyaozersky, Semiostrovsky, and Voronezhsky). The request was considered by the Alexandrovsk zemstvo on March 29, 1919, but no final decision was made and the matter was postponed pending the review of the reasons substantiating the request. The new volost was not established until the restoration of the Soviet power on the Kola Peninsula in 1920. On March 2, 1920, the Murmansk Soviet of the Commissars issued Resolution No. 4 which established the new volost under the name of Loparskaya (instead of Lovozerskaya), the population of which was predominantly Sami. The Murmansky Uyezd Executive Committee issued its own resolution on June 1, 1920.The creation of selsoviets within the volost started in February 1920.

In the beginning of 1921, as a result of the Treaty of Tartu signed between Russia and Finland on October 14, 1920, portions of Kolsko-Loparskaya Volost (a part of Songelsky Selsoviet in particular) were ceded to Finland.The volost became a part of Murmansk Governorate at the time of its establishment on June 13, 1921.By the Resolution of the volost Executive Committee of August 26, 1921, new Pulozersky Selsoviet, with the administrative center in the pogost of Pulozero, was established in the first half of 1922 on the territory split off from Yekostrovsky Selsoviet. Imandrsky Selsoviet was mentioned in some of the documents in 1922–1924, but its existence is not corroborated by other documents, which included the station of Imandra as a part of Yekostrovsky Selsoviet. In 1923, when the pogost of Notozersky was moved down the Tuloma River, the settlement of Restikent became the administrative center of Notozersky Selsoviet. On July 8, 1924, the Presidium of the Murmansk Governorate Executive Committee issued a resolution transferring the pogost of Motovsky to Novozerskaya Volost. While the resolution was never approved by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, it was nevertheless implemented in practice. On December 9, 1924, the volost Executive Committee issued a resolution to move the administrative center of Yekostrovsky Selsoviet from the selo of Polovinka to the station of Khibino.The volost was abolished on August 1, 1927 along with the rest of the volosts of Murmansk Governorate when the latter was transformed into Murmansk Okrug, redistricted, and transferred to the newly created Leningrad Oblast. The territory of the former Kolsko-Loparskaya Volost became a part of Kolsko-Loparsky District.

Lake Onega

Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Russian: Оне́жское о́зеро, tr. Onezhskoe ozero, IPA: [ɐˈnʲɛʂskəɪ ˈozʲɪrə]; Finnish: Ääninen or Äänisjärvi; Karelian: Oniegu or Oniegu-järve; Veps: Änine or Änižjärv) is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast. It belongs to the basin of the Baltic Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and is the second largest lake in Europe after Lake Ladoga. The lake is fed by about 50 rivers and is drained by the Svir River.

There are about 1,650 islands on the lake. They include Kizhi, which hosts a historical complex of 89 orthodox wooden churches and other wooden constructions of the 15th–20th centuries. The complex includes a UNESCO World Heritage site, Kizhi Pogost. Eastern shores of the lake contain about 1,200 petroglyphs (rock engravings) dated to the 4th–2nd millennia BC. The major cities on the lake are Petrozavodsk, Kondopoga and Medvezhyegorsk.

List of World Heritage Sites in the Soviet Union

During the existence of the Soviet Union, five objects on the territory of this country were included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. On October 12, 1988, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ratified the Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. The first objects located on the territory of the USSR were listed in December 1990 at the 14th session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. Then five names of objects located in various cities and settlements of the USSR were added to the list. In subsequent years, it was planned to expand this list with other objects on the territory of a huge country, but after exactly a year, in December 1991, the Soviet Union finally collapsed.

List of rural localities in Arkhangelsk Oblast

This is a list of rural localities in Arkhangelsk Oblast, organized by district. It also includes rural localities in Nenets Autonomous Okrug, which is fully within Arkhangelsk Oblast.

Arkhangelsk Oblast (Russian: Арха́нгельская о́бласть, Arkhangelskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). It includes the Arctic archipelagos of Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya, as well as the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. Arkhangelsk Oblast also has administrative jurisdiction over Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Including Nenetsia, Arkhangelsk Oblast has an area of 587,400 km2. Its population (including Nenetsia) was 1,227,626 as of the 2010 Census.

Lovozero (rural locality)

Lovozero (Russian: Лово́зеро; Kildin Sami: Луяввьр; Skolt Sami: Luujäuˊrr; Northern Sami: Lujávri; Finnish: Luujärvi) is a rural locality (a selo) and the administrative center of Lovozersky District in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on both banks of the Virma River, which is not far from Lake Lovozero, and 164 kilometers (102 mi) southeast of Murmansk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 2,871 (2010 Census); 3,141 (2002 Census); 3,638 (1989 Census). It is the second largest locality in the district after Revda.

Onezhsky District

Onezhsky District (Russian: Оне́жский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Onezhsky Municipal District. It is located in the northwest of the oblast and borders with Primorsky District in the northeast, Plesetsky District in the southeast, Pudozhsky, Medvezhyegorsky, and Segezhsky Districts of the Republic of Karelia in the southwest, and with Belomorsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the west. In the north, the district is washed by the White Sea. The area of the district is 23,740 square kilometers (9,170 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Onega (which is not administratively a part of the district). Population: 14,017 (2010 Census); 16,791 (2002 Census); 22,269 (1989 Census).

Pogost, Khavrogorsky Selsoviet, Kholmogorsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast

Pogost (Russian: Погост) is a rural locality (a village) in Khavrogorskoye Rural Settlement of Kholmogorsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. The population is 7 as of 2010.

Pogost, Oshevenskoye Rural Settlement

Pogost (Russian: Погост) is a rural locality (a village) in Oshevenskoye Rural Settlement of Kargopolsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. The population is 73 as of 2010.

Pogost, Seletsky Selsoviet, Kholmogorsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast

Pogost (Russian: Погост) is a rural locality (a village) in Seletskoye Rural Settlement of Kholmogorsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. The population is 464 as of 2010.

Pogost, Velsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast

Pogost (Russian: Погост) is a rural locality (a settlement) and the administrative center of Sudromskoye Rural Settlement of Velsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. The population is 465 as of 2014.

Pogost, Yemetsky Selsoviet, Kholmogorsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast

Pogost (Russian: Погост) is a rural locality (a village) in Yemetskoye Rural Settlement of Kholmogorsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. The population is 5 as of 2010.

Porzhensky Pogost

The Porzhensky Pogost (Russian: Порженский погост) is a pogost near Porzhenka River in the Kenozersky National Park, Russia, with several wooden religious buildings of 18th century, surrounded by partially preserved fence. Administratively, it is located in Plesetsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast. The Porzhensky Pogost is located at the outskirts of the abandoned Porzhenskoye village, on the top of a hill, in the center of a small field. The pogost was built on a secluded pagan site and includes an 18th-century church with a bell tower, emulating the Russian architectural style of the 16th–17th centuries.The pogost was designated by the Russian government as an architectural monument of federal significance (#2910079000).

Tsivozersky Pogost

Tsivozersky Pogost (Russian: Цивозерский Погост) is a rural locality (a village) in Belosludskoye Rural Settlement of Krasnoborsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. The population is 2 as of 2010.

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