Play from scrimmage

A play from scrimmage is the activity of the games of Canadian football and American football during which one team tries to advance the ball, get a first down, or to score, and the other team tries to stop them or take the ball away. Once a play is over, and before the next play starts, the football is considered dead. A game of American football (or Canadian Football) consists of many (about 120-150) such plays.


The term is also used to denote a specific plan of action, or its execution, under a particular set of circumstances faced by either team.[1] For instance, the offensive team may be faced with one or two downs left in a possession and still ten or more yards to go to earn a new set of downs. In this instance, they may decide to employ a forward pass. Well in advance of the particular game, a number of different kinds of forward pass plays will have been planned out and practiced by the team. They will be designated by obscure words, letters and/or numbers so that the name of a play does not reveal its exact execution to outsiders. The team's coach, or perhaps the quarterback, will choose one of the planned forward passing strategies, and tell the team, during the huddle which one has been chosen. Because of planning and practice, each player is expected to know what his role in the play is to be, and how to execute it. This will be the offensive play.

Conversely, the defensive team will know that the offense has to cover a good deal of ground in a single play, will expect a forward pass, and will know from earlier study something of the propensities of the offense they face. The defensive captain is likely to call out a specific formation or defensive play, to anticipate and counteract the expected action by the offense.

The play

The play will begin with the snap of the ball (typically but not exclusively to the quarterback), and it will end when the effort by the offensive squad to advance the ball has either succeeded in scoring, or has been frustrated by the ball being downed before the aim of the offensive play is accomplished, or by the defensive squad having managed to come into possession of the ball without first downing it. In the event of change of possession during a play, the team newly in possession of the ball may try to advance it toward their opponent's goal, which the team formerly in possession will naturally resist. Change of possession during a routine play may occur by interception or by fumble (often collectively referred to as turnovers).

Change of possession may also occur in other ways. A change of possession can occur "on downs", if the offensive team fails to achieve a first down or a touchdown in a specified number of consecutive attempts, known as "downs" (four in American football; three in Canadian football). Another way is through a change of possession play, when the offensive team (having perhaps surmised the unlikelihood of scoring or of achieving a first down within the allowed consecutive attempts to do so) kicks the ball away in what is known as a punt. A touchdown (and subsequent conversion attempt, whether successful or not) or successful field goal attempt will be followed by a kickoff. Kickoffs and field goal attempts are not considered true change of possession plays. An unsuccessful field goal attempt will usually also result in a change of possession (without a kickoff), but is usually not counted as a turnover.

See also


  1. ^ Shields, Patricia and Rangarajan, Nandhini. 2013. A Playbook for Research Methods: Integrating Conceptual Frameworks and Project Management Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press, p. 1.
1950 NFL Championship Game

The 1950 National Football League Championship Game was the 18th National Football League (NFL) title game, played on Sunday, December 24th at Cleveland Stadium in Cleveland, Ohio.In their first NFL season after four years in the rival All-America Football Conference, the Cleveland Browns defeated the Los Angeles Rams, 30–28. The championship was the first of three won by Cleveland in the 1950s under head coach Paul Brown behind an offense that featured quarterback Otto Graham, fullback Marion Motley, and ends Dante Lavelli and Mac Speedie.

Cleveland began the season with a win against the Philadelphia Eagles, who had won the previous two NFL championships. The Browns won all but two of their regular-season games, both losses coming against the New York Giants. Cleveland ended the season with a 10–2 win–loss record, tied with the Giants for first place in the American Conference. The tie forced a playoff that the Browns won, 8–3. Los Angeles, meanwhile, finished the season 9–3, tied with the Chicago Bears for first place in the National Conference. The Rams won their playoff, setting up the championship matchup with the Browns, in which the Browns were four-point favorites at home.The game began with a long touchdown pass from Rams quarterback Bob Waterfield to halfback Glenn Davis on the first play from scrimmage, giving Los Angeles an early lead. Cleveland tied the game later in the first quarter with a touchdown from Graham to Dub Jones, but the Rams quickly went ahead again on a Dick Hoerner touchdown run. Cleveland scored two unanswered touchdowns in the second and third quarters, retaking a 20–14 lead. A pair of Rams touchdowns in the third quarter, however, gave Los Angeles a two-possession advantage going into the final period. Cleveland responded with a diving touchdown catch by Rex Bumgardner in the final minutes of the game, followed by a field goal by placekicker Lou Groza with 28 seconds left to win, 30–28.

Lavelli set a then championship-game record with 11 receptions, and Waterfield's 82-yard pass to Davis on the first play of the game was then the longest scoring play in championship history. Los Angeles had 407 total yards to Cleveland's 373, but Cleveland had five interceptions, compared to just one for the Rams. The Browns' Warren Lahr had two interceptions in the game. After the game, NFL commissioner Bert Bell called Cleveland "the greatest team ever to play football".

1987 Astro-Bluebonnet Bowl

The 1987 Astro-Bluebonnet Bowl was a college football postseason bowl game between the Texas Longhorns and the Pittsburgh Panthers. This was the final Bluebonnet/Astro-Bluebonnet Bowl.

1987 Sugar Bowl

The 1987 edition of the Sugar Bowl featured the fifth-ranked LSU Tigers of the Southeastern Conference and sixth-ranked Nebraska Cornhuskers of the Big Eight Conference. Played on the afternoon of January 1 at the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana, it was the third time in five seasons that the two teams had met in a major bowl game (1983 Orange, 1985 Sugar), and Nebraska won all three.

2006 Texas Bowl

The 2006 Texas Bowl, part of the 2006 college football season, was played on December 26, 2006 at Reliant Stadium in Houston, Texas. The game featured the Rutgers Scarlet Knights and the Kansas State Wildcats.

Rutgers running back Ray Rice ran for 170 yards and a touchdown, Tim Brown caught two TD passes and the 16th-ranked Scarlet Knights won a bowl game for the first time in program history, beating Kansas State 37–10 in the Texas Bowl.

Linebacker Quintero Frierson returned an interception 27 yards for a touchdown on the first play from scrimmage of the second half and Rutgers (11–2) cruised from there, earning an 11th victory for the second time in 137 seasons. The Scarlet Knights' seventh-ranked defense manhandled Kansas State's offense, holding the Wildcats to 162 total yards and six first downs. Freshman quarterback Josh Freeman was 10-for-21 for 129 yards with two interceptions.

Kansas State (7–6) mustered only 85 yards after Frierson's return of Freeman's first interception put Rutgers up 24–10 just 33 seconds out of halftime. The Wildcats' only touchdown came on Yamon Figurs' 76-yard punt return with 9:37 left in the second quarter. Rice had a 24-yard run on Rutgers' next possession and Teel found Brown deep down the sideline for a 14–0 lead. Brown, a freshman from Miami, had only four catches and one touchdown reception coming into the game. Rutgers outscored its opponents 103–28 in the first quarter this season. On the first play of the second quarter, Freeman found Jordy Nelson on a crossing route for a 33-yard gain to set up Jeff Snodgrass' 44-yard field goal. Four minutes later, Figurs took Joe Radigan's punt up the middle, sidestepped Radigan and scored Kansas State's seventh special-teams touchdown of the season. Rice, the nation's fourth-leading rusher, had 74 yards rushing at halftime to move into third place on the school's career list. The Wildcats' offense had only one more yard at halftime (77) than Figurs gained on his punt return.

Freeman was on the run when Frierson leaped to pick off his wobbly pass. Freeman's 14th interception of the season was his fifth in the Wildcats' last three games. Rice burst through the line and ran untouched through the defense for 46 yards and his 20th touchdown of the season to make it 31–10 with 11:41 left in the third quarter, and that was more than enough for Rutgers. The Wildcats' offense did nothing after that, failing to get a first down for the rest of the third quarter. Freshman Leon Patton, Kansas State's leading rusher, fumbled at the Wildcats' 22 near the end of the quarter, setting up the second of Jeremy Ito's three field goals. Teel finished 16 for 28 for 268 yards without an interception. Brown had four catches for 101 yards and Clark Harris made seven catches for 120. Kansas State was playing in a bowl for the 12th time in 14 seasons, but for the first time since the Fiesta Bowl following the 2003 season. The Wildcats dropped to 6–6 in those dozen. It was Kansas State's only bowl game with Ron Prince as head coach.

2008 Music City Bowl

The 2008 Music City Bowl was the eleventh edition of the college football bowl game played at LP Field in Nashville, Tennessee. The game started at 2:30 pm US CST (2030 UTC) on Wednesday, December 31, 2008. The game, telecast on ESPN, pitted the Vanderbilt Commodores against the Boston College Eagles. The Commodores, playing near their Nashville campus, won 16–14, earned their first bowl win in exactly 53 years, and completed their first winning season since 1982. Sponsored by Gaylord Hotels, it was officially named the Gaylord Hotels Music City Bowl.

2010 Auburn Tigers football team

The 2010 Auburn Tigers football team represented Auburn University in the 2010 NCAA Division I FBS football season. The Tigers, led by second-year head coach Gene Chizik were members of the Western Division of the Southeastern Conference and played their home games at Jordan–Hare Stadium. The Tigers completed a 12–0 regular season record and defeated South Carolina in the 2010 SEC Championship Game.

On January 10, 2011, Auburn defeated Oregon in the BCS National Championship Game in Glendale, Arizona, 22–19, to win the second consensus national championship in school history. Auburn was selected national champion by NCAA-designated major selectors of Anderson & Hester, Associated Press, Bowl Championship Series, Berryman, Billingsley, CFRA, Colley, Congrove, Dunkel, Football Writers Association, FWAA-NFF Grantland Rice Super 16, Massey, National Football Foundation, Sagarin, USA Today (coaches), and Wolfe.

Aaron Lockett (gridiron football)

Aaron Lockett (born September 6, 1978) is a former American football and Canadian football wide receiver (WR) and return specialist in the National Football League (NFL) for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, San Francisco 49ers, and in the Canadian Football League (CFL) for the Ottawa Renegades and BC Lions. He played college football at Kansas State University where he set school and Big 12 Conference football and track and field records. His brother Kevin Lockett and nephew Tyler Lockett also played WR at Kansas State where they also set records.

Lockett led the nation in punt return average for the 2000 NCAA Division I-A football season and was a 2nd team All-American. As of December 2011, he held the Big 12 Conference records for single-season punt return average (22.8) and longest pass reception (97 yards) as well as Kansas State Wildcats records for Freshman receiving yards and the longest play from scrimmage. He was a four-time All-Big 12 selection and formerly held Kansas State records for career all-purpose yards and consecutive 100-yard receiving games.

As a track and field athlete, he is a former Oklahoma Secondary School Activities Association (OSSAA) champion in both the 4 × 100 metres relay and the 100 metres, a former Kansas State Wildcats 60 metres record holder and one of the fastest NFL Combine 40-yard dash participants of all-time.

His professional career involved several short stints that included most of a season on the taxi squad for the 2002 49ers of the NFL and a few years with the BC Lions of the CFL. In his most productive professional season, he led the CFL in return yards for the 2005 CFL season.

American football positions

In American football each team has 11 players on the field at one time. The specific role that a player takes on the field is called their position. Under the modern rules of American football, teams are allowed unlimited substitutions; that is, teams may change any number of players after any play. This has resulted in the development of three "platoons" of players: the offense (the team with the ball, which is trying to score), the defense (the team trying to prevent the other team from scoring, and to take the ball from them), and the special teams (who play in kicking situations). Within those platoons, various specific positions exist depending on what each player's main job is.

Andy Russell (American football)

Charles Andrew "'Andy" Russell (born October 29, 1941) is a former American football linebacker who played his entire 12-year National Football League (NFL) career for the Pittsburgh Steelers. He played college football for, and earned a degree in economics from, the University of Missouri.

As a freshman in high school, he moved from the New York area to St. Louis, attending Ladue High School. He graduated from Ladue Horton Watkins High School in 1959. Having never played football in the East, he became a starter as a sophomore, playing end. In his junior and senior year, he played fullback and linebacker, earning all-state honors in his senior year. Heavily recruited by out-state universities, he selected Missouri and began a tradition of St. Louis area football players attending their home-state university under Coach Dan Devine.

After playing for the Steelers his rookie season in 1963 and just missing out on playing the Chicago Bears for the NFL Championship, Russell temporarily left the team for the Army to fulfill ROTC commitments from Missouri. He was stationed in Germany for two years, achieving the rank of second lieutenant, and serving as an aide to a three-star general. He then returned to the Steelers in 1966, where he would spend the next 11 seasons.

He was an early member of Pittsburgh's famed Steel Curtain defense, and was named the Steelers' MVP in 1971. He made seven Pro Bowl appearances—in 1969 and from 1971 through 1976—and earned two Super Bowl rings in Super Bowl IX and Super Bowl X. On December 27, 1975 he set the NFL playoff record for a returned touchdown–93 yards in a Three Rivers Stadium victory over the Baltimore Colts. Some have claimed it as the longest football play from scrimmage in time duration. In 2011, the Professional Football Researchers Association named Russell to the PRFA Hall of Very Good Class of 2011 Coming from a business oriented family (his father was a senior executive with Monsanto Company), Russell has had great success off the field as a partner of Laurel Mountain in Pittsburgh, involved in municipal finance and investment banking.

Russell is the author of two books: A Steeler Odyssey and An Odd Steelers Journey.

Arnaz Battle

Arnaz Jerome Battle (born February 22, 1980) is a former American football wide receiver. He was drafted by the San Francisco 49ers in the sixth round of the 2003 NFL Draft. He played college football at Notre Dame. Battle also played for the Pittsburgh Steelers. He is the son of former NFL tight end Ron Battle.

Cortez Hankton

Cortez Hankton (born January 20, 1981) is a former American football wide receiver who is currently the Wide Receivers coach at University of Georgia. He was originally signed by the Jacksonville Jaguars as an undrafted free agent in 2003. He played college football at Texas Southern. He attended St. Augustine High School in New Orleans. He lettered in football and track & field. He is a member of Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity.

He is Texas Southern University's record holder for career receiving yards (3,400 yds) and season receiving yards (1,270 yds). He also holds the records for most consecutive games with a receiving touchdown (10 games) and the longest play from scrimmage (99 yd receiving TD) against Texas State University. He finished his college career with 175 receptions and 30 touchdowns.

In 2010, Hankton was nominated for Offensive Player of the Year in the United Football League while playing with the Florida Tuskers.

Hankton has also been a member of the Minnesota Vikings, Tampa Bay Buccaneers, and New York Sentinels.

Field goal

A field goal (FG) is a means of scoring in American football and Canadian football. To score a field goal the team in possession of the ball must place kick, or drop kick, the ball through the goal, i.e., between the uprights and over the crossbar. American football requires that a field goal must only come during a play from scrimmage, while Canadian football retains open field kicks and thus field goals may be scored at any time from anywhere on the field and by any player. The vast majority of field goals, in both codes, are place kicked. Drop kicked field goals were common in the early days of Gridiron football but are almost never done in modern times. In most leagues, a successful field goal awards three points (a notable exception is in six-man football where, due to the difficulty of making a successful field goal because of the small number of players available to stop the opposing team from attempting a block, a field goal is worth four points).

A field goal may also be scored through a fair catch kick, but this is extremely rare. Since a field goal is worth only three points, as opposed to a touchdown, which is worth six points, it is usually only attempted in specific situations (see Strategy).

The goal structure consists of a horizontal crossbar suspended 10 feet (3.0 m) above the ground, with two vertical goalposts 18 feet 6 inches (5.64 m) apart extending vertically from each end of the crossbar. In American football, the goals are centered on each end line; in Canadian football, they are centered on each goal line.

Marc Logan

For the Filipino comedian and broadcast journalist, see Marc Logan (broadcast journalist)Marc Anthony Logan (born May 9, 1965) is a former American football running back that played NCAA D1-A before playing in the NFL.

Marc weighs in at 6'0, 228 lbs. Marc attended the University of Kentucky in college wearing the number 25. At Kentucky, Marc enjoyed four very successful seasons, leading his team in receptions in his Sophomore, Junior and Senior years. As a Sophomore in the 1985 Hall of Fame Bowl, Marc scored two touchdowns on just five plays in his MVP performance, setting two NCAA bowl records for the longest kick return (85 yards) as well as the longest play from scrimmage (63 yards). His kickoff return record still stands today.

Marc was selected in the fifth round of the 1987 NFL Draft by the Cincinnati Bengals. He then went on to play eleven years in the National Football League from 1987 to 1997 for the Bengals, Miami Dolphins, San Francisco 49ers and Washington Redskins. Throughout his career Marc rushed for 1,391 yards on 325 carries, averaging 4.4 yards per carry with 15 touchdowns. Marc also had 123 receptions for 1,135 yards, averaging 9.2 yards per reception with 3 touchdowns. He also added 1,830 yards on 89 returns, averaging 20.6 yards, with 1 touchdown. He played in Super Bowl XXIII for the Bengals and was a part of the Super Bowl XXIX winning San Francisco 49ers.

National Football League uniform numbers

Players in the National Football League wear uniform numbers between 1 and 99, and no two players on a team may wear the same number on the field at the same time. Rules exist which tie a player's number to a specific range of numbers for their primary position. Additionally, rules exist which limit who may handle the ball on offense, generally players who are designated as offensive lineman, who wear numbers 50-79, are not allowed to handle the ball during a play from scrimmage, though they are allowed to do so if they report to the referee as playing out of position.

Sandy Durko

Sandy Vincent Durko (born August 29, 1948) is a former American football defensive back in the National Football League.

Durko played football at West Covina High School in West Covina, California, leading the team to a 1965 CIF championship.Durko played college football for the USC Trojans as a starting defensive back. In the 1968 USC-Notre Dame game, on the second play from scrimmage Durko intercepted a Joe Theismann and returned it for a touchdown in a game that ended in a 21-21 tie.He was selected in the sixth round (137th overall) of the 1970 NFL Draft by the Cincinnati Bengals.He played in only one game in his rookie year of 1970, the Bengals' first year in the NFL after the AFL-NFL merger. In 1971, however, he saw significant playing time at free safety, playing in all 14 games with four interceptions returned for a total of 46 yards. He also returned six punts for 14 yards and even rushed once for seven yards.In 1973, he joined the New England Patriots and started in all of the Patriots' 14 games, picking off three passes. He also returned three punts for 21 yards. The following year, 1974, was his fourth and final NFL season, as Durko played 11 games and started four for the Patriots.In 2011, he was one of 12 honorees inducted into the West Covina Walk of Fame, which "honors athletes, coaches and sports volunteers from the city who have made significant contributions in making West Covina a better place to live, work and play.Durko is currently an investment management professional in Los Angeles.

Snap (gridiron football)

A snap (colloquially called a "hike", "snapback", or "pass from center") is the backwards passing of the ball in American and Canadian football at the start of play from scrimmage.

Starting lineup

In sports, a starting lineup is an official list of the set of players who will participate in the event when the game begins. The players in the starting lineup are commonly referred to as starters, whereas the others are substitutes or bench players.

The starters are commonly the best players on the team at their respective positions. Consequently, there is often a bit of prestige that is associated with being a starter. This is particularly true in sport with limited substitutions like baseball or soccer. In both baseball and basketball, it is common for players' positions to be denoted by a number as well as by a name. In that instance, the associated number is used as well. If a common abbreviation is known, the abbreviation is listed after the associated number.

Super Bowl XLVIII

Super Bowl XLVIII was an American football game between the American Football Conference (AFC) champion Denver Broncos and National Football Conference (NFC) champion Seattle Seahawks to decide the National Football League (NFL) champion for the 2013 season. The Seahawks defeated the Broncos 43–8, the largest margin of victory for an underdog and tied for the third largest point differential overall (35) in Super Bowl history with Super Bowl XXVII (1993). It was the first time the winning team scored over 40 points, while holding their opponent to under 10. This became the first Super Bowl victory for the Seahawks and the fifth Super Bowl loss for the Broncos, tied with the New England Patriots for the most of any team. The game was played on February 2, 2014 at MetLife Stadium at the Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford, New Jersey, the first Super Bowl played outdoors in a cold-weather city and the first Super Bowl to be played on February 2.This marked the third time the number one seed from each conference met in the league championship, joining Super Bowl XXVIII (1994) and Super Bowl XLIV (2010). The Seahawks posted a 13–3 record and were making their second Super Bowl appearance in eight years. The Broncos were making their seventh Super Bowl appearance after also posting a 13–3 record. The game also featured the league's top offense (Denver) against the top defense (Seattle), the first time this occurred since Super Bowl XXXVII (2003).Seattle built a 22–0 halftime lead, and then a 36–0 advantage before allowing Denver's first and only score on the final play of the third quarter. The Seahawks defense scored a safety on the first play from scrimmage (coincidentally, the final play from scrimmage of the previous Super Bowl was also a safety), the quickest score in Super Bowl history at 12 seconds. They also became the first team in a Super Bowl to score on a safety, a kickoff return for a touchdown (12 seconds into the second half), and an interception return for a touchdown. The Broncos were held to almost 30 points below their scoring average. Broncos quarterback Peyton Manning, a five-time NFL Most Valuable Player (MVP) award winner, threw two interceptions in the first half. Seahawks linebacker Malcolm Smith, who returned one of those interceptions 69 yards for a touchdown, recovered a fumble and made nine tackles, was named Super Bowl MVP.In the United States, the game was televised by Fox; with an average audience of 111.5 million viewers, and peaking at 115.3 million during the halftime show featuring Bruno Mars, the game was briefly the most-watched U.S. television broadcast of all time, until it was surpassed the following year. The game's inaugural Spanish-language telecast on Fox Deportes was also the highest-rated Spanish-language cable telecast outside of soccer.

Two-point conversion

In American and Canadian football, a two-point conversion or two-point convert is a play a team attempts instead of kicking a one-point conversion immediately after it scores a touchdown. In a two-point conversion attempt, the team that just scored must run a play from scrimmage close to the opponent's goal line (5-yard line in amateur Canadian, 3-yard line in professional Canadian, 3-yard line in amateur American, 2-yard line in professional American; in professional American football, there is a small dash to denote the line of scrimmage for a two-point conversion; it was the previous line of scrimmage for a point after kick until 2014) and advance the ball across the goal line in the same manner as if they were scoring a touchdown. If the team succeeds, it earns two additional points on top of the six points for the touchdown, for a total of eight points. If the team fails, no additional points are scored. In either case, if any time remains in the half, the team proceeds to a kickoff.

Various sources estimate the success rate of a two-point conversion to be between 40% and 55%, significantly lower than that of the extra point, though if the higher value is to be believed, a higher expected value is achieved through the two-point conversion than the extra point.

Special teams

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