Platinum

Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. Its name is derived from the Spanish term platino, meaning "little silver".[3][4]

Platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements. It has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is one of the rarer elements in Earth's crust, with an average abundance of approximately 5 μg/kg. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the world production. Because of its scarcity in Earth's crust, only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, and given its important uses, it is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity.[5]

Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. It has remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a noble metal. Consequently, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts. It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombian origin in 1748 that it began to be investigated by scientists.

Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry. Being a heavy metal, it leads to health problems upon exposure to its salts; but due to its corrosion resistance, metallic platinum has not been linked to adverse health effects.[6] Compounds containing platinum, such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer.[7]

As of 2018, the value of platinum is $833.00 per ounce.[8]

Platinum,  78Pt
Platinum crystals
Platinum
Pronunciation/ˈplætɪnəm/ (PLAT-ə-nəm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Pt)195.084(9)[1]
Platinum in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Pd

Pt

Ds
iridiumplatinumgold
Atomic number (Z)78
Groupgroup 10
Periodperiod 6
Blockd-block
Element category  transition metal
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point2041.4 K ​(1768.3 °C, ​3214.9 °F)
Boiling point4098 K ​(3825 °C, ​6917 °F)
Density (near r.t.)21.45 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)19.77 g/cm3
Heat of fusion22.17 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization510 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.86 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2330 (2550) 2815 3143 3556 4094
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−3, −2, −1, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6 (a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.28
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 870 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1791 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 139 pm
Covalent radius136±5 pm
Van der Waals radius175 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of platinum
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for platinum
Speed of sound thin rod2800 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion8.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity71.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity105 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility+201.9·10−6 cm3/mol (290 K)[2]
Tensile strength125–240 MPa
Young's modulus168 GPa
Shear modulus61 GPa
Bulk modulus230 GPa
Poisson ratio0.38
Mohs hardness3.5
Vickers hardness400–550 MPa
Brinell hardness300–500 MPa
CAS Number7440-06-4
History
DiscoveryAntonio de Ulloa (1735)
Main isotopes of platinum
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
190Pt 0.012% 6.5×1011 y α 186Os
192Pt 0.782% stable
193Pt syn 50 y ε 193Ir
194Pt 32.864% stable
195Pt 33.775% stable
196Pt 25.211% stable
198Pt 7.356% stable

Characteristics

Physical

Pure platinum is a lustrous, ductile, and malleable, silver-white metal.[9] Platinum is more ductile than gold, silver or copper, thus being the most ductile of pure metals, but it is less malleable than gold.[10][11] The metal has excellent resistance to corrosion, is stable at high temperatures and has stable electrical properties. Platinum does oxidize, forming PtO2, at 500 °C; this oxide can be easily removed thermally.[12] It reacts vigorously with fluorine at 500 °C (932 °F) to form platinum tetrafluoride.[13] It is also attacked by chlorine, bromine, iodine, and sulfur. Platinum is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid, but dissolves in hot aqua regia (A mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids), to form chloroplatinic acid, H2PtCl6.[14]

Its physical characteristics and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications.[15] Its resistance to wear and tarnish is well suited to use in fine jewellery.

Chemical

Platin löst sich in heißem Königswasser
Platinum being dissolved in hot aqua regia

The most common oxidation states of platinum are +2 and +4. The +1 and +3 oxidation states are less common, and are often stabilized by metal bonding in bimetallic (or polymetallic) species. As is expected, tetracoordinate platinum(II) compounds tend to adopt 16-electron square planar geometries. Although elemental platinum is generally unreactive, it dissolves in hot aqua regia to give aqueous chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6):[16]

Pt + 4 HNO3 + 6 HCl → H2PtCl6 + 4 NO2 + 4 H2O

As a soft acid, platinum has a great affinity for sulfur, such as on dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); numerous DMSO complexes have been reported and care should be taken in the choice of reaction solvent.[17]

In 2007, Gerhard Ertl won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for determining the detailed molecular mechanisms of the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum (catalytic converter).[18]

Isotopes

Platinum has six naturally occurring isotopes: 190Pt, 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, and 198Pt. The most abundant of these is 195Pt, comprising 33.83% of all platinum. It is the only stable isotope with a non-zero spin; with a spin of 1/2, 195Pt satellite peaks are often observed in 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy (i.e., Pt-phosphine and Pt-alkyl complexes). 190Pt is the least abundant at only 0.01%. Of the naturally occurring isotopes, only 190Pt is unstable, though it decays with a half-life of 6.5×1011 years, causing an activity of 15 Bq/kg of natural platinum. 198Pt can undergo alpha decay, but its decay has never been observed (the half-life is known to be longer than 3.2×1014 years); therefore, it is considered stable. Platinum also has 31 synthetic isotopes ranging in atomic mass from 166 to 204, making the total number of known isotopes 39. The least stable of these is 166Pt, with a half-life of 300 µs, whereas the most stable is 193Pt with a half-life of 50 years. Most platinum isotopes decay by some combination of beta decay and alpha decay. 188Pt, 191Pt, and 193Pt decay primarily by electron capture. 190Pt and 198Pt are predicted to have energetically favorable double beta decay paths.[19]

Occurrence

Platinum-nugget
A native platinum nugget, Kondyor mine, Khabarovsk Krai

Platinum is an extremely rare metal,[20] occurring at a concentration of only 0.005 ppm in Earth's crust.[21][22] It is sometimes mistaken for silver. Platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum and as alloy with the other platinum-group metals and iron mostly. Most often the native platinum is found in secondary deposits in alluvial deposits. The alluvial deposits used by pre-Columbian people in the Chocó Department, Colombia are still a source for platinum-group metals. Another large alluvial deposit is in the Ural Mountains, Russia, and it is still mined.[14]

In nickel and copper deposits, platinum-group metals occur as sulfides (e.g. (Pt,Pd)S), tellurides (e.g. PtBiTe), antimonides (PdSb), and arsenides (e.g. PtAs2), and as end alloys with nickel or copper. Platinum arsenide, sperrylite (PtAs2), is a major source of platinum associated with nickel ores in the Sudbury Basin deposit in Ontario, Canada. At Platinum, Alaska, about 17,000 kg (550,000 ozt) was mined between 1927 and 1975. The mine ceased operations in 1990.[23] The rare sulfide mineral cooperite, (Pt,Pd,Ni)S, contains platinum along with palladium and nickel. Cooperite occurs in the Merensky Reef within the Bushveld complex, Gauteng, South Africa.[24]

In 1865, chromites were identified in the Bushveld region of South Africa, followed by the discovery of platinum in 1906.[25] In 1924, the geologist Hans Merensky discovered a large supply of platinum in the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa. The specific layer he found, named the Merensky Reef, contains around 75% of the world's known platinum.[26][27] The large copper–nickel deposits near Norilsk in Russia, and the Sudbury Basin, Canada, are the two other large deposits. In the Sudbury Basin, the huge quantities of nickel ore processed make up for the fact platinum is present as only 0.5 ppm in the ore. Smaller reserves can be found in the United States,[27] for example in the Absaroka Range in Montana.[28] In 2010, South Africa was the top producer of platinum, with an almost 77% share, followed by Russia at 13%; world production in 2010 was 192,000 kg (423,000 lb).[29]

Large platinum deposits are present in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.[30]

Platinum exists in higher abundances on the Moon and in meteorites. Correspondingly, platinum is found in slightly higher abundances at sites of bolide impact on Earth that are associated with resulting post-impact volcanism, and can be mined economically; the Sudbury Basin is one such example.[31]

Compounds

Halides

Hexachloroplatinic acid mentioned above is probably the most important platinum compound, as it serves as the precursor for many other platinum compounds. By itself, it has various applications in photography, zinc etchings, indelible ink, plating, mirrors, porcelain coloring, and as a catalyst.[32]

Treatment of hexachloroplatinic acid with an ammonium salt, such as ammonium chloride, gives ammonium hexachloroplatinate,[16] which is relatively insoluble in ammonium solutions. Heating this ammonium salt in the presence of hydrogen reduces it to elemental platinum. Potassium hexachloroplatinate is similarly insoluble, and hexachloroplatinic acid has been used in the determination of potassium ions by gravimetry.[33]

When hexachloroplatinic acid is heated, it decomposes through platinum(IV) chloride and platinum(II) chloride to elemental platinum, although the reactions do not occur stepwise:[34]

(H3O)2PtCl6·nH2O ⇌ PtCl4 + 2 HCl + (n + 2) H2O
PtCl4 ⇌ PtCl2 + Cl2
PtCl2 ⇌ Pt + Cl2

All three reactions are reversible. Platinum(II) and platinum(IV) bromides are known as well. Platinum hexafluoride is a strong oxidizer capable of oxidizing oxygen.

Oxides

Platinum(IV) oxide, PtO2, also known as 'Adams' catalyst', is a black powder that is soluble in potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions and concentrated acids.[35] PtO2 and the less common PtO both decompose upon heating.[9] Platinum(II,IV) oxide, Pt3O4, is formed in the following reaction:

2 Pt2+ + Pt4+ + 4 O2− → Pt3O4

Other compounds

Unlike palladium acetate, platinum(II) acetate is not commercially available. Where a base is desired, the halides have been used in conjunction with sodium acetate.[17] The use of platinum(II) acetylacetonate has also been reported.[36]

Several barium platinides have been synthesized in which platinum exhibits negative oxidation states ranging from −1 to −2. These include BaPt, Ba
3
Pt
2
, and Ba
2
Pt
.[37] Caesium platinide, Cs
2
Pt
, a dark-red transparent crystalline compound[38] has been shown to contain Pt2−
anions.[39] Platinum also exhibits negative oxidation states at surfaces reduced electrochemically.[40] The negative oxidation states exhibited by platinum are unusual for metallic elements, and they are attributed to the relativistic stabilization of the 6s orbitals.[39]

Zeise's salt, containing an ethylene ligand, was one of the first organometallic compounds discovered. Dichloro(cycloocta-1,5-diene)platinum(II) is a commercially available olefin complex, which contains easily displaceable cod ligands ("cod" being an abbreviation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene). The cod complex and the halides are convenient starting points to platinum chemistry.[17]

Cisplatin, or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) is the first of a series of square planar platinum(II)-containing chemotherapy drugs.[41] Others include carboplatin and oxaliplatin. These compounds are capable of crosslinking DNA, and kill cells by similar pathways to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents.[42] (Side effects of cisplatin include nausea and vomiting, hair loss, tinnitus, hearing loss, and nephrotoxicity.)[43][44]

Hexachloridoplatinat-Ion

The hexachloroplatinate ion

Zeise's-salt-anion-3D-balls

The anion of Zeise's salt

Dichloro(cycloocta-1,5-diene)platinum(II)-from-xtal-3D-balls-E

Dichloro(cycloocta-1,5-diene)platinum(II)

Cisplatin-3D-balls

Cisplatin

History

Early uses

Archaeologists have discovered traces of platinum in the gold used in ancient Egyptian burials as early as 1200 BC. However, the extent of early Egyptians' knowledge of the metal is unclear. It is quite possible they did not recognize there was platinum in their gold.[45]

The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy. Archeologists usually associate the tradition of platinum-working in South America with the La Tolita Culture (circa 600 BC - AD 200), but precise dates and location is difficult, as most platinum artifacts from the area were bought secondhand through the antiquities trade rather than by direct archeological excavation.[46] To work the metal, they employed a relatively sophisticated system of powder metallurgy. The platinum used in such objects was not the pure element, but rather a naturally occurring mixture of the platinum group metals, with small amounts of palladium, rhodium, and iridium.[47]

European discovery

The first European reference to platinum appears in 1557 in the writings of the Italian humanist Julius Caesar Scaliger as a description of an unknown noble metal found between Darién and Mexico, "which no fire nor any Spanish artifice has yet been able to liquefy".[48] From their first encounters with platinum, the Spanish generally saw the metal as a kind of impurity in gold, and it was treated as such. It was often simply thrown away, and there was an official decree forbidding the adulteration of gold with platinum impurities.[47]

Platinum-symbol 2
This alchemical symbol for platinum was made by joining the symbols of silver (moon) and gold (sun).
Almirante Antonio de Ulloa
Antonio de Ulloa is credited in European history with the discovery of platinum.

In 1735, Antonio de Ulloa and Don Jorge Juan y Santacilia saw Native Americans mining platinum while the Spaniards were travelling through Colombia and Peru for eight years. Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and took them home to Spain. Antonio de Ulloa returned to Spain and established the first mineralogy lab in Spain and was the first to systematically study platinum, which was in 1748. His historical account of the expedition included a description of platinum as being neither separable nor calcinable. Ulloa also anticipated the discovery of platinum mines. After publishing the report in 1748, Ulloa did not continue to investigate the new metal. In 1758, he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica.[48]

In 1741, Charles Wood,[49] a British metallurgist, found various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation.

In 1750, after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society, stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals.[50] Brownrigg also made note of platinum's extremely high melting point and refractoriness toward borax. Other chemists across Europe soon began studying platinum, including Andreas Sigismund Marggraf,[51] Torbern Bergman, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, William Lewis, and Pierre Macquer. In 1752, Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic. Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion.[48]

Means of malleability

Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in 1772. He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in hot aqua regia, precipitating the platinum with ammonium chloride, igniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere. Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in 1784. He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic.[48]

Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet (platinum was the first in the list), Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron—platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold. Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and iridium, amongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy. Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals.[52]

In 1786, Charles III of Spain provided a library and laboratory to Pierre-François Chabaneau to aid in his research of platinum. Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron. This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals. This led to inconsistent results in his experiments. At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle. Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize. After several months, Chabaneau succeeded in producing 23 kilograms of pure, malleable platinum by hammering and compressing the sponge form while white-hot. Chabeneau realized the infusibility of platinum would lend value to objects made of it, and so started a business with Joaquín Cabezas producing platinum ingots and utensils. This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain.[48]

Production

Platinum Mining
An aerial photograph of a platinum mine in South Africa. South Africa produces 80% of the world production and has most of the world's known platinum deposits.
Platinum world production
Time trend of platinum production[53]

Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals, is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing. During electrorefining of copper, noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as "anode mud", which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals.[54]

If pure platinum is found in placer deposits or other ores, it is isolated from them by various methods of subtracting impurities. Because platinum is significantly denser than many of its impurities, the lighter impurities can be removed by simply floating them away in a liquid. Platinum is paramagnetic, whereas nickel and iron are both ferromagnetic. These two impurities are thus removed by running an electromagnet over the mixture. Because platinum has a higher melting point than most other substances, many impurities can be burned or melted away without melting the platinum. Finally, platinum is resistant to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, whereas other substances are readily attacked by them. Metal impurities can be removed by stirring the mixture in either of the two acids and recovering the remaining platinum.[55]

One suitable method for purification for the raw platinum, which contains platinum, gold, and the other platinum-group metals, is to process it with aqua regia, in which palladium, gold and platinum are dissolved, whereas osmium, iridium, ruthenium and rhodium stay unreacted. The gold is precipitated by the addition of iron(II) chloride and after filtering off the gold, the platinum is precipitated as ammonium chloroplatinate by the addition of ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloroplatinate can be converted to platinum by heating.[56] Unprecipitated hexachloroplatinate(IV) may be reduced with elemental zinc, and a similar method is suitable for small scale recovery of platinum from laboratory residues.[57] Mining and refining platinum has environmental impacts.[58]

Applications

Of the 218 tonnes of platinum sold in 2014, 98 tonnes were used for vehicle emissions control devices (45%), 74.7 tonnes for jewelry (34%), 20.0 tonnes for chemical production and petroleum refining (9.2%), and 5.85 tonnes for electrical applications such as hard disk drives (2.7%). The remaining 28.9 tonnes went to various other minor applications, such as medicine and biomedicine, glassmaking equipment, investment, electrodes, anticancer drugs, oxygen sensors, spark plugs and turbine engines.[59]

Catalyst

The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black. It has been employed as a catalyst since the early 19th century, when platinum powder was used to catalyze the ignition of hydrogen. Its most important application is in automobiles as a catalytic converter, which allows the complete combustion of low concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons from the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor. Platinum is also used in the petroleum industry as a catalyst in a number of separate processes, but especially in catalytic reforming of straight-run naphthas into higher-octane gasoline that becomes rich in aromatic compounds. PtO2, also known as Adams' catalyst, is used as a hydrogenation catalyst, specifically for vegetable oils.[32] Platinum also strongly catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen[60] and it is used in fuel cells[61] as a catalyst for the reduction of oxygen.[62]

Standard

Platinum-Iridium meter bar
Prototype International Meter bar

From 1889 to 1960, the meter was defined as the length of a platinum-iridium (90:10) alloy bar, known as the International Prototype Meter bar. The previous bar was made of platinum in 1799. Until May 2019, the kilogram is defined by the International Prototype Kilogram; a cylinder of the same platinum-iridium alloy made in 1879.[63]

The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes.[64]

As an investment

One litre of Platinum
1,000 cubic centimeters of 99.9% pure platinum, worth about US$696,000 at 29 Jun 2016 prices[65]

Platinum is a precious metal commodity; its bullion has the ISO currency code of XPT. Coins, bars, and ingots are traded or collected. Platinum finds use in jewellery, usually as a 90–95% alloy, due to its inertness. It is used for this purpose for its prestige and inherent bullion value. Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches (which they term patina) as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products.[66][67]

In watchmaking, Vacheron Constantin, Patek Philippe, Rolex, Breitling, and other companies use platinum for producing their limited edition watch series. Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out (the latter quality relative to gold).[68]

Pt price 92 12
Average price of platinum from 1992 to 2012 in US$ per troy ounce (~$20/g)[69]

The price of platinum, like other industrial commodities, is more volatile than that of gold. In 2008, the price of platinum dropped from $2,252 to $774 per oz,[70] a loss of nearly 2/3 of its value. By contrast, the price of gold dropped from ~$1,000 to ~$700/oz during the same time frame, a loss of only 1/3 of its value.

During periods of sustained economic stability and growth, the price of platinum tends to be as much as twice the price of gold, whereas during periods of economic uncertainty,[71] the price of platinum tends to decrease due to reduced industrial demand, falling below the price of gold. Gold prices are more stable in slow economic times, as gold is considered a safe haven. Although gold is used in industrial applications, its demand is not so driven by industrial uses. In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king.[72]

Other uses

In the laboratory, platinum wire is used for electrodes; platinum pans and supports are used in thermogravimetric analysis because of the stringent requirements of chemical inertness upon heating to high temperatures (~1000 °C). Platinum is used as an alloying agent for various metal products, including fine wires, noncorrosive laboratory containers, medical instruments, dental prostheses, electrical contacts, and thermocouples. Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets.[32] Platinum-based anodes are used in ships, pipelines, and steel piers.[14]

Symbol of prestige in marketing

Platinum nuggets
An assortment of native platinum nuggets

Platinum's rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity and wealth. "Platinum" debit and credit cards have greater privileges than "gold" cards.[73] "Platinum awards" are the second highest possible, ranking above "gold", "silver" and "bronze", but below diamond. For example, in the United States, a musical album that has sold more than 1 million copies will be credited as "platinum", whereas an album that has sold more than 10 million copies will be certified as "diamond".[74] Some products, such as blenders and vehicles, with a silvery-white color are identified as "platinum". Platinum is considered a precious metal, although its use is not as common as the use of gold or silver. The frame of the Crown of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, manufactured for her coronation as Consort of King George VI, is made of platinum. It was the first British crown to be made of this particular metal.[75]

Health problems

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, short-term exposure to platinum salts may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and long-term exposure may cause both respiratory and skin allergies. The current OSHA standard is 2 micrograms per cubic meter of air averaged over an 8-hour work shift.[76] The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) for platinum as 1 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday.[77]

Platinum-based antineoplastic agents are used in chemotherapy, and show good activity against some tumors.

As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of medical implants (breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports, etc.), the possibility that platinum could enter the body and cause adverse effects has merited study. The Food and Drug Administration and other institutions have reviewed the issue and found no evidence to suggest toxicity in vivo.[78][79]

See also

References

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Further reading

External links

Aftermath Entertainment

Aftermath Entertainment is an American record label founded by hip hop producer and rapper Dr. Dre. It operates as a subsidiary of, and is distributed through, Universal Music Group's Interscope Records. Current acts include Dr. Dre himself, Eminem, Kendrick Lamar, Anderson Paak, Jon Connor and Justus with former acts including 50 Cent, Busta Rhymes, The Game, Raekwon, Eve, Rakim and many others. The label's acts over the years have earned RIAA certifications of platinum or higher on 19 of its 28 released albums.

Drake (musician)

Aubrey Drake Graham (born October 24, 1986) is a Canadian rapper, singer, songwriter, record producer, actor, and entrepreneur. Drake initially gained recognition as an actor on the teen drama television series Degrassi: The Next Generation in the early 2000s, and intent on pursuing a career in music, he departed the series in 2007 following the release of his debut mixtape, Room for Improvement. He released two further independent projects, Comeback Season and So Far Gone, before signing to Lil Wayne's Young Money Entertainment in June 2009.Drake released his debut studio album Thank Me Later in 2010, which debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 and was soon certified platinum. His next two releases, 2011's Take Care and 2013's Nothing Was the Same, were critically and commercially successful; the former earned him his first Grammy Award for Best Rap Album. In 2015, he released two mixtapes—the trap-influenced If You're Reading This It's Too Late and a collaboration with Future titled What a Time to Be Alive—both of which earned platinum certification in the U.S.His fourth album, Views (2016), broke several chart records. The dancehall-influenced album sat atop the Billboard 200 for 13 nonconsecutive weeks, becoming the first album by a male solo artist to do so in over 10 years. The album's second single, "One Dance", topped the charts in several countries, and became his first number-one single as a lead artist. That year, Drake led both the Billboard Hot 100 and the Billboard 200 charts simultaneously for eight weeks. Views achieved quadruple platinum status in the US, and earned over 1 million album-equivalent units in the first week of its release. Its lead single "Hotline Bling" received Grammy Awards for Best Rap/Sung Performance and Best Rap Song.In 2017, he released the mixtape More Life. Described by Drake as a "playlist", it became his seventh consecutive number one on the Billboard 200, and set multiple streaming records. A year later, he released the double album Scorpion, which also broke several streaming records, and housed the Grammy Award winning number-one single "God's Plan", and the bounce-infused number ones "Nice for What" and "In My Feelings".

Drake holds several Billboard chart records. He has the most charted songs (186) among solo artists in the history of the Billboard Hot 100, the most simultaneously charted Hot 100 songs in a single week (27), the most time on the Hot 100 (431 weeks) and the most Hot 100 debuts in a week (22). He also has the most number one singles on the Hot Rap Songs, Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Airplay and Rhythmic Charts. Drake has also won three Juno Awards, six American Music Awards, and fifteen Billboard Music Awards. He is the RIAA's top certified digital singles artist and one of the world's best-selling music artists, with more than 12 million albums and 95 million singles sold globally. As an entrepreneur, Drake has founded the OVO Sound record label with longtime collaborator 40, as well as using the "OVO" moniker to create a clothing line and program on Beats 1 Radio.

Drake discography

Canadian rapper Drake has released five studio albums, two extended plays, six mixtapes, one hundred thirty singles (including seventy-five as a featured artist), five promotional singles and eighty-four music videos. His music has been released on record labels Universal Motown Records and Universal Republic Records, along with subsidiaries Aspire Music Group, Young Money Entertainment and Cash Money Records. He has the most number one singles on the US Hot Rap Songs chart with fifteen, and the most number one singles on the US Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart with nineteen.Following him signing to Young Money Entertainment imprint, Drake's mixtape, So Far Gone was repackaged as a 2009 release of his seven-song extended play. The EP peaked at number 6 on the US Billboard 200, and later became certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). So Far Gone contains three singles: "Best I Ever Had", "Successful" and "I'm Goin' In". These singles peaked at numbers 2, 17 and 40 on the US Billboard Hot 100, respectively. In June 2010, Drake released his debut studio album, Thank Me Later. It debuted atop both the Billboard 200 and the Canadian Albums Chart, and later became certified platinum by both the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and Canadian Recording Industry Association (CRIA). Thank Me Later featured the single, "Find Your Love", peaking it at number 5 on the US Billboard Hot 100.

In November 2011, Drake released his second studio album, Take Care becoming diamond and debuted at number one in both the United States and Canada, becoming his second album to achieve this feat. The album produced the singles such as "Marvins Room", "Headlines", "Make Me Proud", "The Motto", "Take Care", "HYFR (Hell Ya Fucking Right)", "Crew Love" and "Lord Knows", four of which reached the top 15 of the Billboard Hot 100 and were certified platinum by the RIAA (RIAA). "Take Care" became the most commercially successful single from the album in many overseas territories such as Australia, where it was certified double platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA), Ireland and the United Kingdom. In September 2013, Drake released his third studio album, Nothing Was the Same becoming his third consecutive number-one album in Canada and the US and produced two of his top 10 singles "Started from the Bottom" and "Hold On, We're Going Home".

In 2015, Drake released two mixtapes, If You're Reading This It's Too Late which became available for purchase in February and a surprise joint mixtape with Future, What a Time to Be Alive, which was released in September. Drake's fourth studio album Views was released in April 2016, once again debuting at number one in both the United States and Canada, while also debuting at number one in the United Kingdom where it became his first number one album. The album achieved huge commercial success, becoming the most popular release of 2016 in the US. The album included the singles "Hotline Bling", "One Dance", "Pop Style", "Controlla" and "Too Good", all of which peaked within the top 20 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. "One Dance" became the most successful single of Drake's career, becoming an international hit and peaking at number one in fifteen different countries, including the US, UK and Canada where it became his first number one single. "One Dance" has since also become the second most played song on streaming media service Spotify, with over one billion individual streams.Drake's fifth studio album, Scorpion was released in June 2018 and again debuted at number one in Canada and in the US. The album was certified platinum on the day it was released and became the first album to be streamed over one billion times in its release week. It sold 732,000 album-equivalent units, which included 160,000 pure album sales, making it the biggest first week of the year at the time. All 25 tracks on the album entered the Billboard Hot 100. The album was supported by six singles, including the number-one singles "God's Plan", "Nice for What" and "In My Feelings".

Halsey (singer)

Ashley Nicolette Frangipane (; born September 29, 1994), known professionally as Halsey (), is an American singer and songwriter. Musically talented from a young age, she began songwriting at seventeen. In 2012, she began releasing music on social media platforms, and was signed by Astralwerks in 2014. Soon after, she released her debut EP, Room 93 (2014), and toured with larger acts to promote it.

Her debut studio album Badlands was released in 2015. Spawning four platinum tracks and two gold tracks, Badlands peaked at number two on the US Billboard 200 and was certified platinum in the US. To promote the album, she embarked on her debut headlining world tour. In 2017, Halsey released her second studio album Hopeless Fountain Kingdom, which consisted of more "radio friendly" music than her prior releases. It peaked at number one in the US, and was preceded by "Now or Never", which debuted at number 17 on the Billboard Hot 100 and became Halsey's first solo track to earn multi-platinum status. The album also produced "Bad at Love", which became her first top-five entry on the Billboard hot 100 as a solo artist. In 2018, Halsey released "Without Me", which became her first number-one single on the Billboard Hot 100 as a solo artist.

Outside of her solo music, several of Halsey's collaborations had top-twenty entries on the Billboard Hot 100. "Closer", which Halsey also cowrote, topped charts in major music markets and won a number of accolades.

Halsey is noted for her distinctive singing voice. Her music focuses on her personal experiences and telling a story. Her accolades include a Grammy nomination and four Billboard Music Awards. Outside of her career, Halsey has been involved in suicide prevention awareness and sexual assault victim advocacy.

Hozier (musician)

Andrew Hozier-Byrne (born 17 March 1990), known professionally by the mononym Hozier (), is an Irish musician, singer and songwriter from County Wicklow. In 2013, he released his debut EP, featuring the hit single "Take Me to Church". His eponymous debut studio album released in 2014, went number one in Ireland and scored top ten positions on global charts. It has attained a 6× Platinum accreditation from Ireland, indicating sales of over 90,000 copies. Hozier released his fourth EP in 2018 entitled Nina Cried Power, featuring the title track as a single.

Iridium

Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77. A very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum group, iridium is the second-densest metal (after osmium) with a density of 22.56 g/cm3 as defined by experimental X-ray crystallography. However at room temperature and standard atmospheric pressure, iridium has a density of 22.65 g/cm3, 0.04 g/cm3 higher than osmium measured the same way. It is the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at temperatures as high as 2000 °C. Although only certain molten salts and halogens are corrosive to solid iridium, finely divided iridium dust is much more reactive and can be flammable.

Iridium was discovered in 1803 among insoluble impurities in natural platinum. Smithson Tennant, the primary discoverer, named iridium for the Greek goddess Iris, personification of the rainbow, because of the striking and diverse colors of its salts. Iridium is one of the rarest elements in Earth's crust, with annual production and consumption of only three tonnes. 191Ir and 193Ir are the only two naturally occurring isotopes of iridium, as well as the only stable isotopes; the latter is the more abundant of the two.

The most important iridium compounds in use are the salts and acids it forms with chlorine, though iridium also forms a number of organometallic compounds used in industrial catalysis, and in research. Iridium metal is employed when high corrosion resistance at high temperatures is needed, as in high-performance spark plugs, crucibles for recrystallization of semiconductors at high temperatures, and electrodes for the production of chlorine in the chloralkali process. Iridium radioisotopes are used in some radioisotope thermoelectric generators.

Iridium is found in meteorites in much higher abundance than in the Earth's crust. For this reason, the unusually high abundance of iridium in the clay layer at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary gave rise to the Alvarez hypothesis that the impact of a massive extraterrestrial object caused the extinction of dinosaurs and many other species 66 million years ago. Similarly, an iridium anomaly in core samples from the Pacific Ocean suggested the Eltanin impact of about 2.5 million years ago.

It is thought that the total amount of iridium in the planet Earth is much higher than that observed in crustal rocks, but as with other platinum-group metals, the high density and tendency of iridium to bond with iron caused most iridium to descend below the crust when the planet was young and still molten.

List of music recording certifications

Music recording certifications are typically awarded by the worldwide music industry based on the total units sold, streamed, or shipped to retailers. These awards and their requirements are defined by the various certifying bodies representing the music industry in various countries and territories worldwide. The standard certification awards given consist of Gold, Platinum, and sometimes Diamond awards, in ascending order; the UK also has a Silver certification, ranking below Gold. In most cases, a "Multi-Platinum" or "Multi-Diamond" award is given for multiples of the Platinum or Diamond requirements.

Many music industries around the world are represented by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI). The IFPI operates in 66 countries and services affiliated industry associations in 45 countries. In some cases, the IFPI is merely affiliated with the already operational certification bodies of a country, but in many countries with lesser-developed industries, the IFPI acts as the sole certifying body servicing the country or region's music industry. Still other countries not represented by the IFPI have certifying bodies operating independently, such as individual record companies which service the country or region's music industry as a whole.

Though all certifying bodies give awards for album sales or shipments, many also certify singles, paid digital downloads, music videos, music DVDs, and master ringtones. Additionally, some certifying bodies have separate threshold scales for works of domestic or international origins, varying genres, lengths, and formats. From the 2010s digital streaming was included in some territories.

Marshmello

Christopher Comstock (born May 19, 1992), known professionally as Marshmello, is an American electronic music producer and DJ. He first gained international recognition by releasing remixes of songs by Jack Ü and Zedd. His debut studio album, Joytime, was released in January 2016 consisting of its lead single and Marshmello's debut career single "Keep It Mello". He is best known for the songs "Silence", "Wolves", "Friends" and "Happier", all of which have been certified multi-platinum in many countries and appeared in the Top 30 of the Billboard Hot 100.Marshmello's second song in 2016, a platinum-certified single titled "Alone" was released in May via the Canadian record label Monstercat. Having peaked on the US Billboard Hot 100 at number 60, it became his first single to be certified platinum in the US and Canada with over a million copies of certified units. That year, he released three subsequent singles. In 2017, after releasing singles such as "Chasing Colors", "Twinbow" and "Moving On", Marshmello collaborated with R&B singer Khalid to release "Silence" as a single, which was certified platinum and multi-platinum in eight countries. Succeeding another single, one of his best-selling singles, a collaboration with Selena Gomez was released, titled "Wolves".

His second single of 2018, titled "Friends", was released as a collaboration with singer Anne-Marie. Months later, his second studio album, Joytime II, was released with singles "Tell Me" and "Check This Out". Achieving similar charting success like the debut album with positions on three Billboard charts, Joytime II, failed to appear on charts outside the United States and was reviewed as below average by publications such as Rolling Stone and Pitchfork. Marshmello's highest-charted song on the Billboard Hot 100 and in the United Kingdom was released in August titled "Happier". He was named by Forbes in eighth place in their annual ranking of the world's highest-paid DJs in 2017 as he earned $21 million in the twelve months before June 2017.

Metro Boomin

Leland Tyler Wayne (born September 16, 1993), professionally known as Metro Boomin (also known as Young Metro or simply Metro), is an American record producer, record executive, songwriter, and DJ. Raised in St. Louis, Wayne began a production career while in high school and became best known for his successful recordings with Atlanta rap artists such as Future, 21 Savage, Gucci Mane, and Migos in the mid-2010s. In 2017, Forbes called him "easily one of the most in-demand hitmakers in the world," while Stereogum described him as "one of the most original, vivid, important voices in rap right now."Early production success for Wayne came with tracks such as ILoveMakonnen's 2014 hit "Tuesday" and Future and Drake's 2015 single "Jumpman". Since then, he has amassed over a dozen top 20 hits, including "Bad and Boujee" by Migos, "Mask Off" by Future, "Bank Account" by 21 Savage, "Congratulations" by Post Malone, and "Tunnel Vision" by Kodak Black. He has also released full-length collaborations, including Savage Mode (2016) with 21 Savage, Double or Nothing (2017) with Big Sean, and DropTopWop (2017) with Gucci Mane. His debut solo album Not All Heroes Wear Capes was released in November 2018, debuting at number one on the Billboard 200 chart.

Music recording certification

Music recording certification is a system of certifying that a music recording has shipped, sold, or streamed a certain number of units. The threshold quantity varies by type (such as album, single, music video) and by nation or territory (see List of music recording certifications).

Almost all countries follow variations of the RIAA certification categories, which are named after precious materials (gold, platinum and diamond).

The threshold required for these awards depends upon the population of the territory where the recording is released. Typically, they are awarded only to international releases and are awarded individually for each country where the album is sold. Different sales levels, some perhaps 10 times lower than others, may exist for different music media (for example: videos versus albums, singles, or downloads).

Osmium

Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76. It is a hard, brittle, bluish-white transition metal in the platinum group that is found as a trace element in alloys, mostly in platinum ores. Osmium is the densest naturally occurring element, with an experimentally measured (using x-ray crystallography) density of 22.59 g/cm3. Manufacturers use its alloys with platinum, iridium, and other platinum-group metals to make fountain pen nib tipping, electrical contacts, and in other applications that require extreme durability and hardness. The element's abundance in the Earth's crust is among the rarest.

Palladium

Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston. He named it after the asteroid Pallas, which was itself named after the epithet of the Greek goddess Athena, acquired by her when she slew Pallas. Palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium form a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGMs). These have similar chemical properties, but palladium has the lowest melting point and is the least dense of them.

More than half the supply of palladium and its congener platinum is used in catalytic converters, which convert as much as 90% of the harmful gases in automobile exhaust (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide) into less noxious substances (nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapor). Palladium is also used in electronics, dentistry, medicine, hydrogen purification, chemical applications, groundwater treatment, and jewelry. Palladium is a key component of fuel cells, which react hydrogen with oxygen to produce electricity, heat, and water.

Ore deposits of palladium and other PGMs are rare. The most extensive deposits have been found in the norite belt of the Bushveld Igneous Complex covering the Transvaal Basin in South Africa; the Stillwater Complex in Montana, United States; the Sudbury Basin and Thunder Bay District of Ontario, Canada; and the Norilsk Complex in Russia. Recycling is also a source, mostly from scrapped catalytic converters. The numerous applications and limited supply sources result in considerable investment interest.

Queen discography

British rock band Queen consisted of vocalist Freddie Mercury (d. 1991), guitarist Brian May, drummer Roger Taylor, and bassist John Deacon (r. 1997). Founded in 1970, Queen released their self-titled debut album in 1973. Despite not being an immediate success, Queen gained popularity in Britain with their second album Queen II in 1974. Their 1975 song, "Bohemian Rhapsody", was number 1 for nine weeks (and a further five weeks in 1991) and is the third biggest selling single of all time in the UK. In the US, Bohemian Rhapsody hit the Billboard Top 40 charts in three different decades, reaching number 9 in its original 1975 release, number 2 in 1992 after being featured in the film Wayne's World, and hitting the Top 40 once more in 2018 upon the release of the Queen biopic Bohemian Rhapsody. The band's 1981 Greatest Hits album is the biggest selling album in UK history with 6.0 million copies sold by 2014. The band's 1991 compilation Greatest Hits II is also one of the UK's top ten biggest sellers of all time, with 3.8 million copies sold by 2012.In 1972, Queen signed a production deal with Trident Studios. Later in their career, Queen signed a record contract with EMI, and Elektra in the United States. The band would remain with EMI for the rest of their career, though, in 1983, they terminated their American contract with Elektra and signed with Capitol Records. However in 1990, they terminated their US contract with Capitol and signed with Disney's Hollywood Records, which has remained the current owner and distributor of Queen's entire music catalogue in North America.In 1991, Queen's entire catalogue was remastered and released by Hollywood on CD in the United States, and thirteen albums (all studio albums up to The Works as well as Live Killers and Greatest Hits) were remastered at Abbey Road Studios and released on CD and cassette in the United Kingdom between July 1993 and March 1994. Queen's entire album back catalogue was remastered and re-released in the UK and rest of the world (excluding the US) through 2011 to commemorate their 40th anniversary (as well as being the 20th anniversary of Mercury's death). The 2011 remasters were released by Universal's Island Records label, as the band's contract with EMI Records ended in 2010. The 2011 remasters were released on SACD by Universal Music Japan, between November 2011 and April 2012. In an interview with BBC Wales, Brian May announced a new compilation album titled Queen Forever, which was later released by Hollywood in November 2014.

RIAA certification

In the United States, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) awards certification based on the number of albums and singles sold through retail and other ancillary markets. Other countries have similar awards (see music recording sales certification). Certification is not automatic; for an award to be made, the record label must request certification. The audit is conducted against net shipments after returns (most often an artist's royalty statement is used), which includes albums sold directly to retailers and one-stops, direct-to-consumer sales (music clubs and mail order) and other outlets.

Rhodium

Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45. It is a rare, silvery-white, hard, corrosion-resistant, and chemically inert transition metal. It is a noble metal and a member of the platinum group. It has only one naturally occurring isotope, 103Rh. Naturally occurring rhodium is usually found as the free metal, alloyed with similar metals, and rarely as a chemical compound in minerals such as bowieite and rhodplumsite. It is one of the rarest and most valuable precious metals.

Rhodium is found in platinum or nickel ores together with the other members of the platinum group metals. It was discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston in one such ore, and named for the rose color of one of its chlorine compounds, produced after it reacted with the powerful acid mixture aqua regia.

The element's major use (approximately 80% of world rhodium production) is as one of the catalysts in the three-way catalytic converters in automobiles. Because rhodium metal is inert against corrosion and most aggressive chemicals, and because of its rarity, rhodium is usually alloyed with platinum or palladium and applied in high-temperature and corrosion-resistive coatings. White gold is often plated with a thin rhodium layer to improve its appearance while sterling silver is often rhodium-plated for tarnish resistance.

Rhodium detectors are used in nuclear reactors to measure the neutron flux level.

Rick Astley

Richard Paul Astley (born 6 February 1966) is an English singer, songwriter and radio personality. His 1987 song "Never Gonna Give You Up" was a number 1 hit single in 25 countries and won the 1988 Brit Award for Best British Single. By the time of his retirement in 1993, Astley had sold approximately 40 million records worldwide.Astley made a comeback in 2007, becoming an Internet phenomenon when the music video for "Never Gonna Give You Up" became integral to the meme known as "rickrolling". Astley was voted "Best Act Ever" by Internet users at the MTV Europe Music Awards 2008, and his 2016 album 50 debuted in the UK at No. 1.

Rihanna discography

Barbadian singer Rihanna has released eight studio albums, two compilation albums, two remix albums, one reissue, and 71 singles (including eighteen as a featured artist). Since the beginning of her career in 2005, Rihanna has sold over 280 million records and singles, making her one of the best-selling artists of all time. She has released seven Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) certified platinum and multi-platinum albums in the United States, that have totalled sales of over 10 million copies in the country. Fourteen of Rihanna's singles have reached number one on the US Billboard Hot 100, giving her the fourth most number-one singles on the chart. She is the only artist that produced number-one singles on the Hot 100 chart from seven consecutive albums.Rihanna made her chart debut in June 2005 with "Pon de Replay", which reached the top five in twelve countries. It was followed by the release of her debut studio album, Music of the Sun (2005), which reached the top ten in Canada and on the US Billboard 200. Rihanna's second studio album A Girl like Me (2006) produced four singles, including the chart-toppers "SOS" and "Unfaithful". The former became Rihanna's first number one single on the US Billboard Hot 100 and earned a Platinum RIAA certification. Good Girl Gone Bad (2007), Rihanna's third studio album, peaked at number two on the US Billboard 200 and was certified five-times Platinum in the United States and six-times Platinum in the United Kingdom. The album's lead single, "Umbrella", became a massive commercial success, peaking at number one in fifteen countries, including on the US Billboard Hot 100, where it stayed atop the chart for seven consecutive weeks. Seven further singles were released from the album and its reissued version, including the international hits "Don't Stop the Music", "Take a Bow" and "Disturbia".

Rihanna made guest appearances on numerous singles, including "Live Your Life" with rapper T.I., and "Run This Town" with Jay-Z and Kanye West. Rihanna's fourth studio album, Rated R (2009), spawned five singles including the commercial success "Rude Boy", which topped the Billboard Hot 100 for five straight weeks. Rihanna collaborated with American rapper Eminem on "Love the Way You Lie" in 2010; the song was a worldwide success, reaching number one in more than twenty countries globally. It was certified quintuple platinum by the RIAA for shipping more than five million copies. Rihanna's fifth studio album Loud (2010) produced seven singles including the commercially successful hits, "Only Girl (In the World)", "What's My Name?" and "S&M". The album was certified platinum in the United States and six-times platinum in the United Kingdom.Talk That Talk (2011), Rihanna's sixth studio album, included "We Found Love"; it became a worldwide success, peaking at number one in 29 countries. It remained at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 for ten weeks, becoming the singer's longest-running chart topper in the country. Rihanna's seventh studio album Unapologetic (2012) became Rihanna's first number one on the Billboard 200 and features the international successful singles "Diamonds" which topped the charts in over 20 countries worldwide and "Stay". "FourFiveSeconds", a collaboration with West and Paul McCartney was released in January 2015, and reached number one in Australia and New Zealand. She released her eighth album, Anti, the following year; it peaked at number-one in Canada and the United States. Its lead single "Work" topped the charts in Canada, France and the United States.

Ruthenium

Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44. It is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most other chemicals. Russian-born scientist of Baltic-German ancestry Karl Ernst Claus discovered the element in 1844 at Kazan State University and named it after the Latin name of his homeland, Ruthenia. Ruthenium is usually found as a minor component of platinum ores; the annual production has risen from about 19 tonnes in 2009 to some 35.5 tonnes in 2017. Most ruthenium produced is used in wear-resistant electrical contacts and thick-film resistors. A minor application for ruthenium is in platinum alloys and as a chemistry catalyst. A new application of ruthenium is as the capping layer for extreme ultraviolet photomasks. Ruthenium is generally found in ores with the other platinum group metals in the Ural Mountains and in North and South America. Small but commercially important quantities are also found in pentlandite extracted from Sudbury, Ontario and in pyroxenite deposits in South Africa.

The Beatles discography

In their native United Kingdom, between 1962 and 1970, the Beatles released 12 studio albums, 13 extended plays (EPs) and 22 singles. However, the band's international discography is complicated, due to different versions of their albums sometimes being released in other countries, particularly during their early years on Capitol Records in North America. The Beatles' discography was originally released on the vinyl format, with full-length long plays (LPs), shorter EPs and singles. Over the years, the collection has also been released on cassette, 8-track, compact disc (CD), and on a USB flash drive in MP3 and 24-bit FLAC format. Although their output has come to include vault items and remixed mash-ups, the Beatles' "core catalogue", recorded in 1962 to 1970, comprises 217 songs, totalling approximately 10 hours of music. Additionally, they released five tracks that are different versions of previously released songs: "Love Me Do", "Revolution", "Get Back", "Across the Universe" and "Let It Be"; two tracks in German: "Komm, Gib Mir Deine Hand" and "Sie Liebt Dich"; and two tracks that are duplicates of songs included on previous albums but also included on the album Yellow Submarine: "Yellow Submarine" and "All You Need Is Love".

Most of the Beatles' albums were released in both mono and stereo. Since mono record players were the most common at the time, the Beatles and their regular producer, George Martin, originally gave more time and attention to preparing the mono mixes of their recordings. The Beatles had involved themselves in creating only the mono mixes for the first four albums; the stereo mixes were prepared without their supervision. However, because by the late 1960s stereo record players became more common, their final two albums – Abbey Road and Let It Be – were mixed and released in stereo only.

From 1968, in both the UK and the US, starting with the single "Hey Jude" and the album The Beatles (better known as "the White Album"), new releases appeared on the Beatles' own Apple record label. Parlophone and Capitol catalogue numbers continued to be used for contractual reasons.

The Beatles' UK discography was first released on CD in 1987 and 1988. The first four albums were released in mono only, while the remaining albums were issued in only stereo. However, the sound of the digital transfers of the discs, produced by Martin using the best equipment available during the early days of the format, no longer meet the standards achievable with 21st-century techniques. Thus, from 2005 to 2009 the original recordings were remastered using the latest technology, and Apple and EMI released this version of the Beatles' catalogue on CD on 9 September 2009 in mono and stereo.

With the first CD releases of their albums, the Beatles' core catalogue was harmonised worldwide to encompass their original UK studio albums released in 1963–1970, the 1967 US Magical Mystery Tour LP and the Past Masters compilation, the latter two of which include the recordings released in 1962–1970 that are not present on the UK albums (mainly non-album singles and B-sides). Since then, other past releases have been reissued in digital formats.

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