Plasă (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈplasə], plural plăși [ˈpləʃʲ]) was a territorial division unit of Romania, ranking below county (județ) and above commune. It was headed by a Pretor, appointed by the county Prefect. The institution headed by the Pretor was called Pretură.
The division of counties into plăși was used starting from the rule of Carol I as Domnitor, throughout the existence of a Romanian Kingdom, and during the first two years of Communist Romania, until they were replaced in 1950 by raions, following the Soviet system. In 1938, the country's 71 judeţe were divided into 429 plăşi.
Romania's administration is relatively centralized and administrative subdivisions are therefore fairly simplified.
According to the Constitution of Romania, its territory is organized administratively into communes, towns and counties:
At the county level: 41 counties, and one city with special status (Bucharest, the national capital)
At the town/commune level: 103 municipalities and 217 other cities (for urban areas), and 2861 communes (for rural areas). Municipality (municipiu) status is accorded to larger towns, but it does not give their administrations any greater powers.Below communal or town level, there are no further formal administrative subdivisions. However, communes are divided into villages (which have no administration of their own). There are 12,957 villages in Romania. The only exception is Bucharest, which has six sectors, each with an administration of its own.Al. Gherghel
Al. Gherghel (Romanian pronunciation: [alekˈsandru ˈɟerɟel]; April 27, 1879 — December 20, 1951) was a Romanian Symbolist poet.
Born in Pitești into a family of intellectuals, his father Ion was a German teacher in Câmpulung. He spent his childhood and adolescence in the latter town, where he first began writing verse. He attended his first two years of high school at Saint Sava National College in the national capital Bucharest but completed his secondary studies in Pitești. He and Ion Minulescu, a year his junior, edited a literary magazine called Luceafărul for a short period before it was shut down by the headmaster. Entering the University of Bucharest in 1904, where he studied at the Law and Literature faculties, he studied under Titu Maiorescu and Mihail Dragomirescu, and was a classmate of Vasile Pârvan, Panait Cerna, Ion Petrovici, Oreste Georgescu and I. Dragoslav.His debut volume, Cântece în amurg ("Songs in Twilight"), appeared in 1906. Drawn into the capital's literary circles, he became close to Alexandru Macedonski's circle as well as to that of Ovid Densusianu and his Vieața Nouă review. He would meet fellow writers at the Kübler Coffeehouse on Calea Victoriei. In March 1908, several months after finishing his studies in Bucharest, he went to Berlin to study law at Humboldt University, but soon had to return home due to lack of funds. At this point, he began a career as a bureaucrat. Passing an examination, he became a plasă administrator at Brăhășești, followed by the same post in the Iași neighborhood of Târgu Cucului and at Cotești. In September 1911, he settled in Constanţa. After teaching for a time, he devoted himself to practicing law and writing poetry, of which he published six volumes. He died in the home of a retired Căile Ferate Române employee.Alexandru Macedonski
Alexandru Macedonski (Romanian pronunciation: [alekˈsandru mat͡ʃeˈdonski]; also rendered as Al. A. Macedonski, Macedonschi or Macedonsky; March 14, 1854 – November 24, 1920) was a Romanian poet, novelist, dramatist and literary critic, known especially for having promoted French Symbolism in his native country, and for leading the Romanian Symbolist movement during its early decades. A forerunner of local modernist literature, he is the first local author to have used free verse, and claimed by some to have been the first in modern European literature. As leader of a cosmopolitan and aestheticist trend formed around his Literatorul journal, he was diametrically opposed to the inward-looking traditionalism of contemporary Mihai Eminescu and his school.
Debuting as a Neoromantic in the Wallachian tradition, Macedonski went through the Realist-Naturalist stage deemed "social poetry", while progressively adapting his style to Symbolism and Parnassianism, and repeatedly but unsuccessfully attempting to impose himself in the Francophone world. Despite having theorized "instrumentalism", which reacted against the traditional guidelines of poetry, he maintained a lifelong connection with Neoclassicism and its ideal of purity. Macedonski's quest for excellence found its foremost expression in his recurring motif of life as a pilgrimage to Mecca, notably used in his critically acclaimed Nights cycle. The stylistic stages of his career are reflected in the collections Prima verba, Poezii, and Excelsior, as well as in the fantasy novel Thalassa, Le Calvaire de feu. In old age, he became the author of rondels, noted for their detached and serene vision of life, in contrast with his earlier combativeness.
In parallel to his literary career, Macedonski was a civil servant, notably serving as prefect in the Budjak and Northern Dobruja during the late 1870s. As journalist and militant, his allegiance fluctuated between the liberal current and conservatism, becoming involved in polemics and controversies of the day. Of the long series of publications he founded, Literatorul was the most influential, notably hosting his early conflicts with the Junimea literary society. These targeted Vasile Alecsandri and especially Eminescu, their context and tone becoming the cause of a major rift between Macedonski and his public. This situation repeated itself in later years, when Macedonski and his Forța Morală magazine began campaigning against the Junimist dramatist Ion Luca Caragiale, whom they falsely accused of plagiarism. During World War I, the poet aggravated his critics by supporting the Central Powers against Romania's alliance with the Entente side. His biography was also marked by an enduring interest in esotericism, numerous attempts to become recognized as an inventor, and an enthusiasm for cycling.
The scion of a political and aristocratic family, the poet was the son of General Alexandru Macedonski, who served as Defense Minister, and the grandson of 1821 rebel Dimitrie Macedonski. Both his son Alexis and grandson Soare were known painters.Alexandru Philippide
Alexandru I. Philippide (Romanian pronunciation: [alekˈsandru filiˈpide]; May 1, 1859 – August 12, 1933) was a Romanian linguist and philologist. Educated in Iași and Halle, he taught high school for several years until 1893, when he secured a professorship at the University of Iași that he would hold until his death forty years later. He began publishing books on the Romanian language around the time he graduated from university, but it was not until he became a professor that he drew wider attention, thanks to a study of the language's history. Although not particularly ideological, he penned sharp, witty polemics directed at various intellectual figures, both at home and, in one noted case, in Germany.
In 1898, Philippide began work on a Romanian dictionary; by 1906, he and his team had completed the first four letters of the alphabet before others took over the task. His major work, which appeared in two hefty volumes in 1925 and 1928, brings together a wide range of ancient sources and linguistic evidence to analyze the ethnogenesis of the Romanians and the development of their language. Although attacked for parochialism by one set of academics, the students he trained carried forth his ideas by forming the core of an Iași-based linguistic school.Alexandru Slătineanu
Alexandru Slătineanu (January 5, 1873 – November 27, 1939) was a Romanian bacteriologist, civil servant, and art collector. From an aristocratic and intellectual background, he embraced socialism while studying in Paris in the 1890s, becoming a lifelong associate of the socialist physician Ioan Cantacuzino. Slătineanu served his country in the Second Balkan War and World War I, creating a medical infrastructure designed to combat cholera and typhus, and improving immunology research. His laboratory continued to set the national standard in the field of bacteriology during the interwar years.
From 1923 to 1926, Slătineanu was rector of the University of Iași, where he fought against antisemitism and curbed attempts at imposing racial segregation. He managed a private clinic and a rural sanitarium, seconded Cantacuzino at the Health Ministry, and set up a model village in Tomești. His large collection of decorative art and manuscripts was opened as a private museum after his death. Managed and enriched by his son, Barbu Slătineanu, it passed into state property during the communist period, when the surviving Slătineanus were exposed to political persecution.Bihor County
Bihor County (Romanian pronunciation: [biˈhor] (listen)) is a county (județ) of Romania, in Crișana. Its capital city is Oradea.Coronini
Coronini (Romanian pronunciation: [koroˈnini]; until 1996 Pescari [pesˈkarʲ]; Hungarian: Lászlóvára or Koronini; occasionally referred to as Peskari in German) is a commune in Caraș-Severin County, western Romania, with a population of 1,674. Part of the region of Banat, it includes Coronini and Sfânta Elena villages. Situated on the Danube and the border with Serbia, part of the mountainous area known as Clisura Dunării, Coronini holds several archeological sites, which trace its history back to the Bronze Age. The locality is home to a medieval fortress built by rulers of the Hungarian Kingdom, but was re-founded during the Banat colonization of the 1790s, and officially in 1858. A center for immigration from the Czech lands in the early 19th century, Sfânta Elena is among the traditional places founded by and associated with the Czech-Romanian community.
Coronini as a whole was transformed by 20th century political changes, industrialization and economic fluctuations: Coronini village became a center for the mining industry, while Sfânta Elena was heavily affected rural-urban migration, and eventually by voluntary resettlement in the Czech Republic. During the 1990s, the commune became ill-famed as a hub for contraband in petroleum products.Former administrative divisions of Romania
The 41 județe (English: counties) and the municipality of Bucharest comprise the official administrative divisions of Romania. They also represent the European Union' s NUTS-3 geocode statistical subdivision scheme of Romania.General Toshevo
General Toshevo (Bulgarian: Генерал Тошево; Romanian: Casim) is a town in northeastern Bulgaria, part of Dobrich Province. Located in the historic region of Southern Dobruja, it is the administrative centre of the homonymous municipality and was named after the noted Bulgarian General Stefan Toshev. As of December 2009, the town has a population of 7,130 inhabitants.Hotin County
Hotin County was a county (ținut is Middle Ages and Early Modern Period, județ after) in the Principality of Moldavia (1359-1812), the Governorate of Bessarabia (1812–1917), the Moldavian Democratic Republic (1917–1918), and the Kingdom of Romania (1918–1940, 1941-1944).
Its capital was in the city of Hotin (today Khotyn). The territory of the county in currently divided between Ukraine (northern half) and Moldova (southern half).Iancu Jianu
Iancu Jianu (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈjaŋku ʒiˈanu]; 1787 – December 14, 1842), also Ioniţă Jianu, was a Wallachian Romanian hajduk.Ion Roată, Ialomița
Ion Roată is a commune in Ialomița County, Romania. It is composed of two villages, Broșteni and Ion Roată.
At the 2011 census, of the inhabitants for whom data were available, 87.4% were Romanians and 12.5% Roma. 99.9% of inhabitants were Romanian Orthodox.The commune stretches for some 5 km (3 mi) along the Ialomița River valley; Ion Roată village is to the east and Broșteni to the west. It lies in the center of the Bărăgan Plain, and the terrain is largely flat and arid. About 86.5% of the surface area is arable land, 6.5% forests, 3% waters, 2% buildings, 1.5% roads and 0.5% unproductive terrain. Valea Măcrișului is to the north; to the south, the river forms the border with Axintele; Sfântu Gheorghe is to the east and Alexeni to the west. There is a Căile Ferate Române rail station in the commune center; Urziceni is 12 km (7.5 mi) distant and the county seat Slobozia 50 km (31 mi).The oldest mention of part of the commune dates to 1582, when a Cioara village appears in a document of Mihnea Turcitul. As of 1778, the area belonged to the Grindu plasă. Between 1864 and 1882, the commune passed through various administrative changes, but from the latter date until after World War I, its villages were Principesa Maria (named after Princess Maria), Broștenii Noi, Slujitori and Malu. During the interwar period, they were Broștenii Vechi, Principesa Maria and Cioara (formerly Slujitori). In 1948, with the advent of the communist regime, the villages were Ion Roată (formerly Principesa Maria), Broștenii Noi (earlier a commune), Broștenii Vechi and Cioara. By 1968, when a new administrative law was passed, Cioara had become Colinele; that village plus Broștenii Vechi was merged into Ion Roată, leaving the commune with its present two villages.Northern Maramuresh
Northern Maramuresh is a geographic-historical region comprising roughly the eastern half of the Zakarpattia Oblast in southwestern Ukraine, near the border with Romania. Until 1920, it was part of the Maramureş (historical region) of Transylvania, at which time the former Máramaros County was divided into a northern part (incorporated into Czechoslovakia, the part which is now in Ukraine), and a southern part (incorporated into the Kingdom of Romania). Alternative names for the regions are Northern Máramaros (from Hungarian Észak Máramaros), Northern Maramureş (from Romanian Maramureşul de Nord), Northern Maramorshchyna (from Ukrainian Північна Мараморщина), Northern Marmatia (from Latin Marmatia).
From 1920 till 1939, the region belonged to Czechoslovakia, then until 1944 to Hungary, and then until 1991 to the Soviet Union. Since 1991, Northern Maramuresh has been part of Ukraine.
Part of the boundary that separates Northern Maramuresh from Romania runs along the Tisza River.
The majority of the population are Ukrainians (Rusyns, Boiko and Hutsuls - indigenous groups), while a Romanian community, totaling 32,100 according to the 2001 Ukraine census, lives compactly, mostly in some eighteen localities, in Rakhiv and Tiachiv raions (districts), close to the Romanian border. For most of the 20th century, communications between Southern and Northern Maramuresh were severed. After the collapse of Communism in Europe, and through cooperation between the Romanian and Ukrainian governments, the restoration of bridges across the Tisza has begun.Praetor
Praetor (Classical Latin: [ˈprajtoːr], also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history). The functions of the magistracy, the praetura (praetorship), are described by the adjective: the praetoria potestas (praetorian power), the praetorium imperium (praetorian authority), and the praetorium ius (praetorian law), the legal precedents established by the praetores (praetors). Praetorium, as a substantive, denoted the location from which the praetor exercised his authority, either the headquarters of his castra, the courthouse (tribunal) of his judiciary, or the city hall of his provincial governorship.Telenești District
Telenești is a district (Moldovan: raion) in central Moldova, with the administrative center at Telenești.
Designations for types of administrative territorial entities
1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics.