Plan S

Plan S is an initiative for open-access science publishing that was launched by Science Europe on 4 September 2018.[1][2] It is an initiative of "cOAlition S",[3] a consortium launched by the European Research Council and major national research agencies and funders from twelve European countries. The plan requires scientists and researchers who benefit from state-funded research organisations and institutions to publish their work in open repositories or in journals that are available to all by 2020.[4] The "S" stands for "shock".[5]

Principles of the plan

The plan is structured around ten principles.[3] The key principle states that by 2020, research funded by public grants must be published in open access journals or platforms. The ten principles are:

  1. authors should retain copyright on their publications, which must be published under an open license such as Creative Commons;
  2. the members of the coalition should establish robust criteria and requirements for compliant open access journals and platforms;
  3. they should also provide incentives for the creation of compliant open access journals and platforms if they do not yet exist;
  4. publication fees should be covered by the funders or universities, not individual researchers;
  5. such publication fees should be standardized and capped;
  6. universities, research organizations, and libraries should align their policies and strategies;
  7. for books and monographs, the timeline may be extended beyond 2020;
  8. open archives and repositories are acknowledged for their importance;
  9. hybrid open-access journals are not compliant with the key principle;
  10. members of the coalition should monitor and sanction non-compliance.

Members of the coalition

Organisations in the coalition behind Plan S include:[6]

Institutional statements of support

Specific implementation guidance

A task force of Science Europe, lead by John-Arne Røttingen (RCN) and David Sweeney (UKRI), has developed a specific implementation guidance on the Plan S principles, released on November 27, 2018.[42] The development of the implementation guidance also drew on input from interested parties such as research institutions, researchers, universities, funders, charities, publishers, and civil society.[43]

Transition period

During a transition period, publishing in a hybrid journal that is covered by a transformative agreement to become a full open-access venue will remain permissible.[44] The contracts of such transformative agreements need to be made publicly available (including costs), and may not last beyond 2023.[42]

Green Open Access

Publishing in any journal will continue to be permissible subject to the condition that a copy of the manuscript accepted by the journal, or the final published article, will be deposited in an approved open-access repository (Green Open Access) with no embargo on access and with a CC-BY licence.[44]

Licensing and rights

In order to re-use scholarly content, proper attribution needs to be given to the authors, and publications need to be granted a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, irrevocable license to share and adapt the work for any purpose, including commercially. Scholarly articles must be published under a Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY 4.0, or alternatively CC BY-SA 4.0 Share-alike or CC0 Public Domain.[42]

Mandatory criteria for Open Access journals and platforms

Open Access journals and platforms need to meet the following criteria to be compliant with Plan S:

  • All scholarly content must be immediately accessible upon publication without any delay and free to read and download, without any kind of technical or other form of obstacles.
  • Content needs to be published under CC BY, CC BY-SA or CC0.
  • The journal/platform must implement and document a solid review system according to the standards within the discipline, and according to the standards of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
  • The journal/platform must be listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) or be in the state of being registered.
  • Automatic article processing charge waivers for authors from low-income countries and discounts for authors from middle-income countries must be provided.
  • Details about publishing costs (including direct costs, indirect costs and potential surplus) impacting the publication fees must be made transparent and be openly available on the journal website/publishing platform.
  • DOIs must be used as permanent identifiers.
  • Long-term digital preservation strategy by deposition of content in a archiving programme such as LOCKSS/CLOCKSS.
  • Accessability of the full text in a machine readable format (e.g. XML / JATS) to foster Text and Data Mining (TDM).
  • Link to raw data and code in external repositories.
  • Provide high quality and machine readable article level metadata and cited references under a CC0 public domain dedication.
  • Embed machine readable information on the Open Access status and the license of the article.

Mirror journals, with one part being subscription based and the other part being Open Access, are considered to be de facto hybrid journals. Mirror journals are not compliant with Plan S unless they are a part of a transformative agreement.

Public feedback

The implementation guidance was open for general feedback until 8 February 2019.[45]


The plan was met with opposition from a number of publishers of non-open access journals. Springer Nature "urge[d] research funding agencies to align rather than act in small groups in ways that are incompatible with each other, and for policymakers to also take this global view into account", adding that removing publishing options from researchers "fails to take this into account and potentially undermines the whole research publishing system".[46] The AAAS, publisher of the journal Science, argued that Plan S "will not support high-quality peer-review, research publication and dissemination", and that its implementation "would disrupt scholarly communications, be a disservice to researchers, and impinge academic freedom" and "would also be unsustainable for the Science family of journals".[46][47] Tom Reller of Elsevier said, "if you think that information should be free of charge, go to Wikipedia".[48] Reactions to the Plan also include an Open Letter, currently signed by more than 1500 researchers, expressing their concerns about perceived unintended outcomes of the Plan if implemented as stated before the publication of the specific implementation guidance.[49] Another Open Letter in support of Plan S was issued after the publication of the specific implementation guide, and had been signed by over 1,900 researchers by the end of 2018.[50][51]

Stephen Curry, a structural biologist and open access advocate at Imperial College London, called the policy a "significant shift" and "a very powerful declaration".[46] Ralf Schimmer, head of the Scientific Information Provision at the Max Planck Digital Library, told The Scientist that "This will put increased pressure on publishers and on the consciousness of individual researchers that an ecosystem change is possible ... There has been enough nice language and waiting and hoping and saying please. Research communities just aren't willing to tolerate procrastination anymore."[47] Political activist George Monbiot – while acknowledging that the plan was "not perfect" – wrote in The Guardian that the publishers' responses to Plan S was "ballistic", and argued that Elsevier's response regarding Wikipedia "inadvertently remind[ed] us of what happened to the commercial encyclopedias".[52] He said that, until Plan S is implemented, "The ethical choice is to read the stolen material published by Sci-Hub."[52]

On 7 September 2018 the European University Association (EUA) published a statement in which it generally welcomed the Plan's ambitions to turn Open Access into reality by 2020, but stated that, while the plan developed a bold vision for the transition, it hinged on turning principles into practice.[53]

On September 12, 2018 UBS repeated their "sell" advice on Elsevier (RELX) stocks.[54] Elsevier’s share price fell by 13% between Aug 28 and Sept 19, 2018.[55]

On September 24, 2018, the three large researcher organizations Eurodoc, Marie Curie Alumni Association and Young Academy of Europe released a "Joint Statement on Open Access for Researchers" announcing their support for Plan S.[56]

On October 25, 2018, the Digital Research Infrastructure for the Arts and Humanities (DARIAH) endorsed the main ambitions set out by the Plan S, namely the elimination of paywalls, copyright retention, and the rejection of hybrid models of Open Access publishing.[33] DARIAH published recommendations[57] for the practical implementation of the principles of the Plan S. DARIAH perceived a strong bias toward the STEM perspective within the current principles of Plan S, and called for a broader range of publication funding mechanisms to better cover the situation for researchers in the arts and humanities. DARIAH was established as a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC) in August 2014 and as of 1 January 2019 had 17 member countries and several cooperating partners in eight non-member countries.[58] Further detailed recommendations for the implementation of Plan S were published on 19 October 2018 by the board of the Fair Open Access Alliance (FOAA).[59]

In October 2018 the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) was considering changing its OA policy for US publicly funded research, and cOAlition S had received further invitations to visit with officials of South Africa, India, China, and Japan.[60]

On 28 November 2018 the journal Epidemiology and Infection published by Cambridge University Press announced that it would convert to the Open Access model of publication from 1 January 2019, citing changed funder policies and Plan S.[61]

On 4 December 2018 a statement of support was signed by 113 institutions from 37 nations in 5 continents, affirming that there was a strong alignment among the approaches taken by OA2020, Plan S, the Jussieu Call for Open science and bibliodiversity, and others to facilitate a full transition to immediate Open Access.[36][37]

On 5 December 2018 it emerged that the Ministry of Science and Technology (China) would support Plan S and the goal of immediate Open Access for publicly funded projects.[38][62] In 2018 China had become the world's largest producer of scientific articles in terms of volume.[63]

Some commentators have suggested that the adoption of Plan S in one region would encourage its adoption in other regions.[64]

On 17 January 2019 Europe's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) pledged support for Plan S and announced that the current Open Access policy will be reviewed.[41] The NIHR is the largest national clinical research funder in Europe with a budget of over £1 billion (approximately USD 1.3 billion).

On 12 February 2019 K. VijayRaghavan, the principal scientific adviser of the Government of India, announced that India is joining Plan S.[11] India is the third biggest producer of scientific papers in the world.[64] Earlier this year Jordan and Zambia signed up Plan S.[11]

On March 6 2019, the Swedish Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, an initial supporter of Plan S, wrote a letter withdrawing its support, noting that "Coalition S is a network of research funding organizations with a commitment to Open Science. Plan S is one attempt at achieving this goal, but for Riksbankens Jubileumsfond the currently chosen path is not realistic and sustainable" (see external links)[65]

See also


  1. ^ "Coalition of European Funders Announces "Plan S" to Require Full OA, Cap APCs, & Disallow Publication in Hybrid Journals". SPARC. 4 September 2018.
  2. ^ "Plan S: Accelerating the transition to full and immediate Open Access to scientific publications" (PDF). Science Europe. 4 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Science Europe – cOAlition S". Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  4. ^ "European countries demand that publicly funded research should be free to all". The Economist. 15 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  5. ^ Biemans, Claud (March 2019). "Hobbels op weg naar open wetenschap". Nederlands Tijschrift voor Natuurkunde (in Dutch). 'De S staat voor shock. (Robbert-Jan Smits, presentation at the Physics@Veldhoven conference, 22 January 2019).'
  6. ^ a b "National Research Funding Organisations Participating in cOAlition S" (PDF). Science Europe. 2018-10-09. Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  7. ^ "'Plan S' and 'cOAlition S' – Accelerating the transition to full and immediate Open Access to scientific publications - European Commission". European Commission. 2018-09-04. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  8. ^ "ERC Scientific Council joins new effort to push for full open access". ERC: European Research Council. 2018-09-03. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  9. ^ Else, Holly (28 September 2018). "Finland joins Europe's bold open-access push". Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-06895-z.
  10. ^ Noorden (9 November 2018). "RJ ansluter sig till Plan S" (in Swedish). Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  11. ^ a b c d Craig Nicholson (12 February 2019). "India agrees to sign up to Plan S". Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  12. ^ Mohammad (2019-03-13). "The Higher Council for Science and Technology is the first organisation in the Middle East who joined cOAlition PLAN S". Retrieved 2019-03-25.
  13. ^ a b Noorden, Richard Van (5 November 2018). "Wellcome and Gates join bold European open-access plan". doi:10.1038/d41586-018-07300-5. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  14. ^ Moody, Glyn (6 November 2018). "Big Boost For Open Access As Wellcome And Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Back EU's 'Plan S'". Techdirt. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  15. ^ "Stellungnahme der DFG zur Gründung von "cOAlition S" zur Unterstützung von Open Access". Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (in German). 4 September 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  16. ^ "Freier Zugang zu Publikationen: Der SNF unterstützt den europäischen Plan S". Swiss National Science Foundation (in German). 4 September 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  17. ^ ""The transfer to open access should take place as soon as it is possible"". Swedish Research Council. 4 September 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  18. ^ "Portugal and FCT'S position towards Plan S". Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT). 2 October 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  19. ^ "LIBER Supports New Plan to Make Open Access A Reality By 2020". LIBER. 4 September 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  20. ^ "Accelerating the transition to full and immediate Open Access to scientific publications: LERU's reaction to Plan S". LERU. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  21. ^ "Response to Science Europe's Open Access plan". EMBO. September 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  22. ^ "EU-LIFE reacts to Plan S: Support to Open Access and 10 key recommendations". EU-Life. 12 November 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  23. ^ "Internationale coalitie wil versnelling Open Access". ZoneMw (in Dutch). 4 September 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  24. ^ "Publications". Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  25. ^ a b "Joint Statement on Open Access for Researchers via Plan S" (PDF). Researchers Support Open Access via Plan S. September 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  26. ^ "New coalition of European funders join together to place unprecedented mandate on researchers to publish OA". 5 September 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  27. ^ "COAR's response to Plan S". 12 September 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  28. ^ "Building a Sustainable Knowledge Commons. COAR's response to the draft implementation requirements in Plan S". 13 December 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  29. ^ "The Fair Open Access Alliance (FOAA) on Plan S". 19 September 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  30. ^ "PRESS RELEASE: Researchers Support Open Access via Plan S | Eurodoc". Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  31. ^ "YERUN Position Statement on Plan". Young European Research Universities Network. 18 October 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  32. ^ "OASPA Offers Support on the Implementation of Plan S". 2 October 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  33. ^ a b "Towards a Plan(HS)S: DARIAH's position on PlanS". DARIAH-EU. 25 September 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  34. ^ "Plan S: A European Open Access Mandate". 5 October 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  35. ^ "F1000 supports EC's plan for full and immediate open access (Plan S)". 4 September 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  36. ^ a b "Final Statement of the 14th Berlin Open Access Conference". 2018-12-04. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
  37. ^ a b "Expression of interest in the large-scale implementation of Open Access to scholarly journals". 2018-12-04. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
  38. ^ a b c d Roussi, Antoaneta (5 December 2018). "China backs Plan S". Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  39. ^ "Systemic reforms and further consultation needed to make Plan S a success". 12 December 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  40. ^ "Supporting Plan S, a model making research accessible & advancing science globally". Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  41. ^ a b "NIHR gives support to international Open Access initiative". 17 January 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  42. ^ a b c "Guidance on the Implementation of Plan S" (PDF). cOAlition S. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  43. ^ "cOAlition S Adopts Implementation Guidance on Plan S". cOAlition S. 22 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  44. ^ a b Else, Holly (27 November 2018). "Funders flesh out details of Europe's bold open-access plan". Nature. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  45. ^ "Public Feedback on the Guidance on the Implementation of Plan S". cOAllition S. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  46. ^ a b c Else, Holly (September 2018). "Radical open-access plan could spell end to journal subscriptions". Nature. 561 (7721): 17–18. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-06178-7. ISSN 0028-0836.
  47. ^ a b Yeager, Ashley (4 September 2018). "Open-Access Plan in Europe Bans Publishing in Paywalled Journals". The Scientist. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  48. ^ Keulemans, Maarten (4 September 2018). "11 EU-landen besluiten: vanaf 2020 moet alle wetenschappelijke literatuur gratis beschikbaar zijn". De Volkskrank (in Dutch). Retrieved 25 September 2018. 'Als je vindt dat informatie gratis moet zijn: ga naar Wikipedia.'
  49. ^ Open Letter from Undersigned Researchers. Reaction of Researchers to Plan S: Too Far, Too Risky. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  50. ^ Open Letter in Support of Funder Open Publishing Mandates. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  51. ^ Van Noorden, Richard (4 December 2018). "Researchers sign petition backing plans to end paywalls". Nature. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  52. ^ a b Monbiot, George (13 September 2018). "Scientific publishing is a rip-off. We fund the research – it should be free". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  53. ^ "Open Access by 2020: EUA supports Plan S for an open scholarly system". European University Association. 7 September 2018. Retrieved 2018-11-16.
  54. ^ Elder, Bryce (12 September 2018). "Stocks to watch: SSE, BAT, Galápagos, RELX, Telefónica, RBS". Financial Times. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  55. ^ Smith, Richard (6–12 October 2018). "Film. The business of academic publishing: "a catastrophe"". The Lancet. 392 (10152): 1186–1187. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  56. ^ O'Neill, Gareth; DiFranco, Matthew; Swart, Marcel (2018-09-24). "Joint Statement on Open Access for Researchers via Plan S". Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1465451.
  57. ^ "Towards a Plan(HS)S: DARIAH's position on PlanS. Recommendations" (PDF). DARIAH-EU. 25 September 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  58. ^ "Members and Cooperating Partners". DARIAH-EU. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  59. ^ "FOAA Board recommendations for the implementation of Plan S" (PDF). Fair Open Access Alliance (FOAA). 19 October 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  60. ^ Kramer, David (11 October 2018). "Open access at a crossroads". Physics Today. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  61. ^ Norman, Noah (2 December 2018). "Epidemiology & Infection goes open access". Epidemiology and Infection. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  62. ^ Schiermeier, Quirin (5 December 2018). "China backs bold plan to tear down journal paywalls". Nature. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  63. ^ Tollefson, Jeff (18 January 2018). "China declared world's largest producer of scientific articles". Nature. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  64. ^ a b Rabes, Tania (2 January 2019). "Will the world embrace Plan S, the radical proposal to mandate open access to science papers?". Science.
  65. ^ Riksbankens Jubileumsfond: "Riksbankens Jubileumsfond withdraws support for Plan S". 7 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.

External links

Aaron Swartz

Aaron Hillel Swartz (November 8, 1986 – January 11, 2013) was an American computer programmer, entrepreneur, writer, political organizer, and Internet hacktivist. He was involved in the development of the web feed format RSS and the Markdown publishing format, the organization Creative Commons, and the website framework, and was a co-founder of the social news site Reddit. He was given the title of co-founder by Y Combinator owner Paul Graham after the formation of Not a Bug, Inc. (a merger of Swartz's project Infogami and a company run by Alexis Ohanian and Steve Huffman).

Swartz's work also focused on civic awareness and activism. He helped launch the Progressive Change Campaign Committee in 2009 to learn more about effective online activism. In 2010, he became a research fellow at Harvard University's Safra Research Lab on Institutional Corruption, directed by Lawrence Lessig. He founded the online group Demand Progress, known for its campaign against the Stop Online Piracy Act.

In 2011, Swartz was arrested by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) police on state breaking-and-entering charges, after connecting a computer to the MIT network in an unmarked and unlocked closet, and setting it to download academic journal articles systematically from JSTOR using a guest user account issued to him by MIT. Federal prosecutors later charged him with two counts of wire fraud and eleven violations of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, carrying a cumulative maximum penalty of $1 million in fines, 35 years in prison, asset forfeiture, restitution, and supervised release.Swartz declined a plea bargain under which he would have served six months in federal prison. Two days after the prosecution rejected a counter-offer by Swartz, he was found dead in his Brooklyn apartment, where he had hanged himself.In 2013, Swartz was inducted posthumously into the Internet Hall of Fame.

Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities

The Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities is an international statement on open access and access to knowledge. It emerged from a conference on open access hosted in the Harnack House in Berlin by the Max Planck Society in 2003.

Carol Burnett

Carol Creighton Burnett (born April 26, 1933) is an American actress, comedian, singer and writer, whose career spans seven decades of television. She is best known for her groundbreaking television variety show, The Carol Burnett Show, originally aired on CBS. It was the first of its kind to be hosted by a woman. She has achieved success on stage, television and film in varying genres including dramatic and comedic roles. She has also appeared on various talk shows and as a panelist on game shows.

Born in San Antonio, Texas, Burnett moved with her grandmother to Hollywood, where she attended Hollywood High School and eventually studied theater and musical comedy at UCLA. Later she performed in nightclubs in New York City and had a breakout success on Broadway in 1959 in Once Upon a Mattress, for which she received a Tony Award nomination. She soon made her television debut, regularly appearing on The Garry Moore Show for the next three years, and won her first Emmy Award in 1962. Burnett had her television special debut in 1963 when she starred as Calamity Jane in the Dallas State Fair Musicals production of Calamity Jane on CBS. Burnett moved to Los Angeles, California, and began an 11-year run as star of The Carol Burnett Show on CBS television from 1967 to 1978. With its vaudeville roots, The Carol Burnett Show was a variety show that combined comedy sketches with song and dance. The comedy sketches included film parodies and character pieces. Burnett created many memorable characters during the show's run, and both she and the show won numerous Emmy and Golden Globe Awards.

During and after her variety show, Burnett appeared in many television and film projects. Her film roles include Pete 'n' Tillie (1972), The Front Page (1974), The Four Seasons (1981), Annie (1982), Noises Off (1992), and Horton Hears a Who! (2008). On television, she has appeared in other sketch shows; in dramatic roles in 6 Rms Riv Vu (1974) and Friendly Fire (1979); in various well-regarded guest roles, such as in Mad About You, for which she won an Emmy Award; and in specials with Julie Andrews, Dolly Parton, Beverly Sills, and others. She returned to the Broadway stage in 1995 in Moon Over Buffalo, for which she was again nominated for a Tony Award.

Burnett has written and narrated several memoirs, earning Grammy nominations for almost all of them, and a win for In Such Good Company: Eleven Years Of Laughter, Mayhem, And Fun In The Sandbox.In 2005, she was recognized as "one of America's most cherished entertainers" and awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom "for enhancing the lives of millions of Americans and for her extraordinary contributions to American entertainment."

Copyright infringement

Copyright infringement (colloquially referred to as piracy) is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works. The copyright holder is typically the work's creator, or a publisher or other business to whom copyright has been assigned. Copyright holders routinely invoke legal and technological measures to prevent and penalize copyright infringement.

Copyright infringement disputes are usually resolved through direct negotiation, a notice and take down process, or litigation in civil court. Egregious or large-scale commercial infringement, especially when it involves counterfeiting, is sometimes prosecuted via the criminal justice system. Shifting public expectations, advances in digital technology, and the increasing reach of the Internet have led to such widespread, anonymous infringement that copyright-dependent industries now focus less on pursuing individuals who seek and share copyright-protected content online, and more on expanding copyright law to recognize and penalize, as indirect infringers, the service providers and software distributors who are said to facilitate and encourage individual acts of infringement by others.

Estimates of the actual economic impact of copyright infringement vary widely and depend on many factors. Nevertheless, copyright holders, industry representatives, and legislators have long characterized copyright infringement as piracy or theft – language which some U.S. courts now regard as pejorative or otherwise contentious.

Distance education

Distance education or long-distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school. Traditionally, this usually involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via post. Today it involves online education. Courses that are conducted (51 percent or more) are either hybrid, blended or 100% distance learning. Massive open online courses (MOOCs), offering large-scale interactive participation and open access through the World Wide Web or other network technologies, are recent developments in distance education. A number of other terms (distributed learning, e-learning, online learning, virtual classroom etc.) are used roughly synonymously with distance education.

Do-it-yourself biology

Do-it-yourself biology (DIY biology, DIY bio) is a growing biotechnological social movement in which individuals, communities, and small organizations study biology and life science using the same methods as traditional research institutions. DIY biology is primarily undertaken by individuals with extensive research training from academia or corporations, who then mentor and oversee other DIY biologists with little or no formal training. This may be done as a hobby, as a not-for-profit endeavour for community learning and open-science innovation, or for profit, to start a business.


Elsevier (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɛlzəviːr]) is a Dutch information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information. It was established in 1880 as a publishing company. It is a part of the RELX Group, known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier. Its products include journals such as The Lancet and Cell, the ScienceDirect collection of electronic journals, the Trends and Current Opinion series of journals, the online citation database Scopus, and the ClinicalKey solution for clinicians. Elsevier's products and services include the entire academic research lifecycle, including software and data-management, instruction and assessment tools.Elsevier publishes more than 430,000 articles annually in 2,500 journals. Its archives contain over 13 million documents and 30,000 e-books. Total yearly downloads amount to more than 900 million.Elsevier's high operating profit margins (37% in 2017) and its copyright practices have subjected it to criticism by researchers.

Lands administrative divisions of Australia

Lands administrative divisions of Australia are the cadastral divisions of Australia for the purposes of identification of land to ensure security of land ownership. Most states term these divisions as counties, parishes, hundreds, and other terms. The eastern states of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania were divided into counties and parishes in the 19th century, although the Tasmanian counties were renamed land districts in the 20th century. Parts of South Australia (south-east) and Western Australia (south-west) were similarly divided into counties, and there were also five counties in a small part of the Northern Territory. However South Australia has subdivisions of hundreds instead of parishes, along with the Northern Territory, which was part of South Australia when the hundreds were proclaimed. There were also formerly hundreds in Tasmania. There have been at least 600 counties, 544 hundreds and at least 15,692 parishes in Australia, but there are none of these units for most of the sparsely inhabited central and western parts of the country.

Counties in Australia have no administrative or political function, unlike those in England, the United States or Canada. Australia instead uses local government areas, including shires, districts, councils and municipalities according to the state, as the second-level subdivision.

Some other states were also divided into land divisions and land districts; in the nineteenth century, land districts sometimes served as the region name for parts of the state where counties had not been proclaimed yet. Below these are groups of land parcels known as deposited plans, registered plans or title plans (depending on the state). Queensland has registered plans; New South Wales and Western Australia have deposited plans; while Victoria has certified plans. Land can be identified using the number of this plan of subdivision held with the lands department, rather than with a named unit such as a parish (or both can be used); it is becoming increasingly common to use only the plan number. Within these are individual land parcels such as lots; in total there are estimated to be about 10.2 million of these in Australia. The various cadastral units appear on certificates of title, which are given volume and folio numbers; these numbers by themselves are sometimes used to identify land parcels, or in combination with the other units. Detailed maps of these divisions have been required since the introduction of the Torrens title system of a central register of land holdings in South Australia in 1858, which spread to the other colonies. While cadastral data since the 1980s has been digitalised, there remain many old maps showing these divisions held in collections of Australian libraries such as the National Library of Australia, as well as in state libraries.

Location scouting

Location scouting is a vital process in the pre-production stage of filmmaking and commercial photography. Once scriptwriters, producers or directors have decided what general kind of scenery they require for the various parts of their work that is shot outside of the studio, the search for a suitable place or "location" outside the studio begins. Location scouts also look for generally spectacular or interesting locations beforehand, to have a database of locations in case of requests.Location scouts often negotiate legal access to filming locations.


Ni'ilya was a Palestinian village in the Gaza Subdistrict. It was depopulated during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War on November 4, 1948, under Operation Yo'av. It was located 19 km northeast of Gaza in the city territory of modern Ashkelon. The village was defended by the Egyptian Army.

Open-door academic policy

An open-door academic policy, or open-door policy, is a policy if a university accepting to enroll students without asking for evidence of previous education, experience, or references. Usually, payment of the academic fees (or financial support) is all that is required to enroll.

Universities may not employ the open-door policy for all their courses, and those that have a universal open-door policy where all courses have no entry requirements are called open universities. The policy is seen to be a part of the educational revolution. From the dictionary meaning of the open-door policy, which is the idea of granting access to those who want access to the country freely, a similar idea can be drawn in terms of education.According to Deepa Rao, the open-door academic policy is one of the main ways in which adult learners become a part of university/college life. The recognized demand for post-secondary education made many institutions commit strongly to the policy, but many concealed limitations in the policy can prevent some from securing a degree.

Open access in France

In France, open access to scholarly communication is relatively robust and has strong public support., a digital platform for social science and humanities publications, launched in 1999. Hyper Articles en Ligne (HAL) began in 2001. The French National Center for Scientific Research participated in 2003 in the creation of the influential Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities. Publishers EDP Sciences and OpenEdition belong to the international Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association.

Open admissions

Open admissions, or open enrollment, is a type of unselective and noncompetitive college admissions process in the United States in which the only criterion for entrance is a high school diploma or a certificate of attendance or General Educational Development (GED) certificate.

Open collaboration

Open collaboration is "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontributors alike." It is prominently observed in open source software, but can also be found in many other instances, such as in Internet forums, mailing lists and online communities. Open collaboration is also thought to be the operating principle underlining a gamut of diverse ventures, including bitcoin, TEDx, and Wikipedia.Open collaboration is the principle underlying peer production, mass collaboration, and wikinomics. It was observed initially in open source software, but can also be found in many other instances, such as in Internet forums, mailing lists, Internet communities, and many instances of open content, such as creative commons. It also explains some instances of crowdsourcing, collaborative consumption, and open innovation.Riehle et al. define open collaboration as collaboration based on three principles of egalitarianism, meritocracy, and self-organization. Levine and Prietula define open collaboration as "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontributors alike." This definition captures multiple instances, all joined by similar principles. For example, all of the elements — goods of economic value, open access to contribute and consume, interaction and exchange, purposeful yet loosely coordinated work — are present in an open source software project, in Wikipedia, or in a user forum or community. They can also be present in a commercial website that is based on user-generated content. In all of these instances of open collaboration, anyone can contribute and anyone can freely partake in the fruits of sharing, which are produced by interacting participants who are loosely coordinated.

An annual conference dedicated to the research and practice of open collaboration is the International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration (OpenSym, formerly WikiSym). As per its website, the group defines open collaboration as "collaboration that is egalitarian (everyone can join, no principled or artificial barriers to participation exist), meritocratic (decisions and status are merit-based rather than imposed) and self-organizing (processes adapt to people rather than people adapt to pre-defined processes)."

Open university

An open university is a university with an open-door academic policy, with minimal or no entry requirements. Open universities may employ specific teaching methods, such as open supported learning or distance education. However, not all open universities focus on distance education, nor do distance-education universities necessarily have open admission policies.

P2P Foundation

P2P Foundation: The Foundation for Peer to Peer Alternatives is an organization with the aim of studying the impact of peer to peer technology and thought on society. It was founded by Michel Bauwens, James Burke and Brice Le Blévennec.The P2P Foundation is a registered institute founded in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Its local registered name is: Stichting Peer to Peer Alternatives, dossier nr: 34264847.

Pan American World Airways

Pan American World Airways, originally founded as Pan American Airways and commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier and unofficial flag carrier of the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991. It was founded in 1927 as a scheduled air mail and passenger service operating between Key West, Florida and Havana, Cuba. The airline is credited for many innovations that shaped the international airline industry, including the widespread use of jet aircraft, jumbo jets, and computerized reservation systems. It was also a founding member of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the global airline industry association.Identified by its blue globe logo ("The Blue Meatball"), the use of the word "Clipper" in its aircraft names and call signs, and the white uniform caps of its pilots, the airline was a cultural icon of the 20th century. In an era dominated by flag carriers that were wholly or majority government-owned, it was also the unofficial overseas flag carrier of the United States. During most of the jet era, Pan Am's flagship terminal was the Worldport located at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City.

Social peer-to-peer processes

Social peer-to-peer processes are interactions with a peer-to-peer dynamic. These peers can be humans or computers. Peer-to-peer (P2P) is a term that originated from the popular concept of the P2P distributed computer application architecture which partitions tasks or workloads between peers. This application structure was popularized by file sharing systems like Napster, the first of its kind in the late 1990s.

The concept has inspired new structures and philosophies in many areas of human interaction. P2P human dynamic affords a critical look at current authoritarian and centralized social structures. Peer-to-peer is also a political and social program for those who believe that in many cases, peer-to-peer modes are a preferable option.

Tel Aviv–Jerusalem railway

The Tel Aviv–Jerusalem railway (also high-speed railway to Jerusalem, Plan A1, and Railway 29) is a railway line that will connect the cities of Tel Aviv and Jerusalem in Israel. It has been under construction in stages since 2001 and has been partially operational since 25 September 2018. It will serve as the main rail link between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, complementing the old Jaffa–Jerusalem railway. As such, the railway is often referred to in Israel as the high-speed railway to Jerusalem to distinguish it from the older, longer and slower line.

The newly constructed railway will span about 56 km of electrified double track, costing approximately NIS 7 billion (about US$2 billion) due to the extensive bridging and tunneling required along the mountainous route. The design speed is 160 km/h with a projected travel time of approximately 28 minutes from Tel Aviv HaHagana Railway Station and 20 minutes from Ben Gurion Airport Railway Station to Jerusalem's Navon station.

The line is the first heavy rail line in Israel to be electrified and was originally planned to open in 2008, but due to various objections, bureaucratic delays and engineering difficulties it only partially opened in September 2018 – with trains running between Jerusalem and Ben Gurion airport. The remaining electrification works necessary for trains originating in Jerusalem to continue to Tel Aviv and Herzliya may last "well into 2019". Until then, rail passengers from Jerusalem who wish to reach destinations other than Ben Gurion airport from Navon station must change trains at the airport station.

Eventually, trains from Jerusalem are expected to reach all the way to northern Israel as electrification works progress northwards along the Coastal Railway, with the long-term plan of trains originating from Jerusalem terminating at Karmiel by the mid 2020s.

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