Plan (drawing)

Plans are a set of drawings or two-dimensional diagrams used to describe a place or object, or to communicate building or fabrication instructions. Usually plans are drawn or printed on paper, but they can take the form of a digital file.

These plans are used in a range of fields from architecture, urban planning, landscape architecture, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, industrial engineering to systems engineering.

Latécoère 28
Three view plan of Latécoère 28 for presentation purpose.

Overview

Plans are often for technical purposes such as architecture, engineering, or planning. Their purpose in these disciplines is to accurately and unambiguously capture all the geometric features of a site, building, product or component. Plans can also be for presentation or orientation purposes, and as such are often less detailed versions of the former. The end goal of plans is either to portray an existing place or object, or to convey enough information to allow a builder or manufacturer to realize a design.

The term "plan" may casually be used to refer to a single view, sheet, or drawing in a set of plans. More specifically a plan view is an orthographic projection looking down on the object, such as in a floor plan.

The process of producing plans, and the skill of producing them, is often referred to as technical drawing. A working drawing is a type of technical drawing, which is part of the documentation needed to build an engineering product or architecture. Typically in architecture these could include civil drawings, architectural drawings, structural drawings, mechanical drawings, electrical drawings, and plumbing drawings. In engineering, these drawings show all necessary data to manufacture a given object, such as dimensions and angles.

Plan features

Format

Plans are often prepared in a "set". The set includes all the information required for the purpose of the set, and may exclude views or projections which are unnecessary. A set of plans can be on standard office-sized paper or on large sheets. It can be stapled, folded or rolled as required. A set of plans can also take the form of a digital file in a proprietary format such as DWG or an exchange file format such as DXF or PDF.

Plans are often referred to as "blueprints" or "bluelines". However, the terms are rapidly becoming an anachronism, since these copying methods have mostly been superseded by reproduction processes that yield black or multicolour lines on white paper, or by electronic representations of information.

Scale

Plans are usually "scale drawings", meaning that the plans are drawn at a specific ratio relative to the actual size of the place or object. Various scales may be used for different drawings in a set. For example, a floor plan may be drawn at 1:48 (or 1/4"=1'-0") whereas a detailed view may be drawn at 1:24 (or 1/2"=1'-0"). Site plans are often drawn at 1" = 20' (1:240) or 1" = 30' (1:360).

In the metric system the ratios commonly are 1:5, 1:10, 1:20, 1:50, 1:100, 1:200, 1:500, 1:1000, 1:2000 and 1:5000

Views and projections

Convention placement vues dessin technique
Symbols used to define whether a projection is either Third Angle (right) or First Angle (left).
Graphical projection comparison
Comparison of several types of graphical projection.

Because plans represent three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional plane, the use of views or projections is crucial to the legibility of plans. Each projection is achieved by assuming a vantage point from which to see the place or object, and a type of projection. These projection types are:

Planning approach

There is no universal standard for sheet order, however the following describes a common approach:

  • General Information : The first sheets in a set may include notes, assembly descriptions, a rendering of the project, or simply the project title.
  • Site : Site plans, including a key plan, appear before other plans and on smaller projects may be on the first sheet. A project could require a landscape plan, although this can be integrated with the site plan if the drawing remains clear.
  • Specific plans : Floor plans, starting with the lowest floor and ending with the roof plan usually appear near the beginning of the set. Further, for example, reflected Ceiling Plans (RCP)s showing ceiling layouts appear after the floor plans.
  • Elevations : Starting with the principal, or front elevation, all the building elevations appear after the plans. Smaller residential projects may display the elevations before the plans. Elevation details may appear on the same sheets as the building elevations.
  • Sections: Building sections that describe views cut through the entire building appear next, followed by wall sections, then detail sections.
  • Details: Details may appear on any of the previous sheets, or may be collected to appear on detail sheets. These details may include construction details that show how the components of the building fit together. These details may also include millwork drawings or other interior details.
  • Schedules: Many aspects of a building must be listed as schedules on larger projects. These include schedules for windows, doors, wall or floor finishes, hardware, landscaping elements, rooms, and areas.

Where additional systems are complex and require many details for installation, specialized additional plan drawings may be used, such as:

  • Structural: While smaller projects may only show structural information on the plans and sections, larger projects have separate sheets describing the structure of the building.
  • Mechanical: Mechanical drawings show plumbing, heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, or fire protection systems.
  • Electrical :Electrical plan drawings may include equipment and cable tray layout, lighting and power, grounding, telephone, local area network, special communications or signal systems, or a reflected lighting plan.

See also

Amatasi

Amatasi are a type of Samoan double outrigger canoe watercraft. Its sails were woven pandanus leaves tied to 2 spars. The hull was sometimes built of planks. Lashed together, large double canoes 30–60 feet (9–18 metres) long could carry 25 men on journeys of hundreds of miles.

Christiansborg Palace (1st)

The first Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen, Denmark, was built on Slotsholmen in 1745 as a new main residence for King Christian VI of Denmark. It was built on the same site as its predecessor, Copenhagen Castle, which had assumed a monstrous appearance and started to crumble under its own weight after several extensions.

The palace existed for just under half a century since it was almost completely destroyed by a fire in 1794. The surviving parts, which included the show grounds, the court theatre and the Marble Bridge with its two pavilions, were incorporated into the second Christiansborg Palace which succeeded it. These parts also survived the fire of 1884 which destroyed the second palace and are now part of the present day Christiansborg Palace which houses both the Danish Parliament, Supreme Court and Prime Minister's Office.

Criticism of copyright

Opposition to copyright or anti-copyright is opposition to the current state of copyright law, or perhaps copyright as a concept. Opposition groups often criticize philosophical, economical, or social rationales of such laws and the laws' implementations, the benefits of which they claim do not justify the policy's costs to society. Adherents advocate for changing the current system, though different groups have different ideas of what that change should be. Some call for remission of the policies to a previous state—copyright once covered few categories of thing and had shorter term limits—or they may seek to expand concepts like Fair Use that allow permissionless copying. Others seek the abolition of copyright itself.

Opposition to copyright is often a portion of platforms advocating for broader social reform. For example, Lawrence Lessig, a free-culture movement speaker, advocates for loosening copyright law as a means of making sharing information easier or addressing the orphan works issue and the Swedish Pirate Party has advocated for limiting copyright to five year terms in order to legalize the majority of its members' downloading of modern works.

Dannebroge

The Dannebroge was a Dano-Norwegian ship-of-the-line that exploded and sunk October 4, 1710, during the Great Northern War. Almost all of its crew of 600 were killed.

English barn

The English barn, or three bay barn, is a barn style that was most popular in the northeast region of the USA, but are the most widespread barn type in America. This barn type is, with the New World Dutch barn the oldest type and has been called the "...grandfather of the American barn." New barns in this style were constructed for over a century, from the 1770s through the 1900s.

IEC 61355

The standard IEC 61355-1 Classification and designation of documents for plants, systems and equipment describes rules and guidelines for the uniform classification and identification of documents based on their characteristic content of information.

It is applied for all documents within the life cycle of a technical products like plants, systems or equipment. It also includes non-technical documents. The main application is the construction, erection and operation of chemical plants and power plants, where the number of documents may sum up to some 100,000 documents.

Ogof y Daren Cilau

Ogof y Daren Cilau is one of several cave systems in the Llangattock escarpment near Crickhowell in south Powys, Wales. The cave was discovered in 1957 and is one of the longest cave systems in the country.

Palazzo Antonini, Udine

Palazzo Antonini is a palazzo in Udine, northern Italy, designed by architect Andrea Palladio in the middle of the 16th century for the Antonini family, owner of various other palaces in Udine.

The present owner is the Bank of Italy.

Plot plan

A plot plan is an architecture, engineering, and/or landscape architecture plan drawing—diagram which shows the buildings, utility runs, and equipment layout, the position of roads, and other constructions of an existing or proposed project site at a defined scale. Plot plans are also known more commonly as site plans. The plot plan is a 'top-down' orientation.

The specific objects and relations shown are dependent on the purpose for creating the plot plan, but typically contain: retained and proposed buildings, landscape elements, above ground features and obstructions, major infrastructure routes, and critical legal considerations such as property boundaries, setbacks, and rights of way.

Specific design disciplines' plot plans can be part of a complex project's documents, such as grading, landscape, foundation engineering, and utilities (e.g. in architecture, a plot plan drawing shows all the major features and structures on a piece of property like: buildings, porches, decks, sheds, swimming pool, etc.).

R112 road (Ireland)

The R112 road is a regional road in south Dublin, Ireland. It begins at the junction with the R148 road at Chapelizod and arcs southeastwards, then eastwards across the middle of south Dublin, ending at the Mount Merrion junction of the R138. The road is single carriageway, with cycle lanes on some stretches. Improvements to the road have been made over the last 10 years, the most significant being at Dundrum Cross where the road was widened to make room for the new Luas bridge and Dundrum bypass (R117 road).

The official description of the R112 from the Roads Act 1993 (Classification of Regional Roads) Order 2012 reads:

R112: Chapelizod - Churchtown - Mount Merrion, County DublinBetween its junction with R148 at Chapelizod Bypass in the city of Dublin and its junction with R138 at Stillorgan Road in the county of Dun Laoghaire — Rathdown via Kylemore Road and Walkinstown Avenue in the city of Dublin: Saint Peters Road, Greentrees Road, Templeville Road and Springfield Avenue, Dodder View Road and Dodder Park Road in the county of South Dublin: Dodder Park Road, Braemor Road, Churchtown Road Upper, Taney Road, Mount Anville Road and Fosters Avenue in the county of Dun Laoghaire — Rathdown.The R112 is 15.2 kilometres (9.4 mi) long (map of the road).

Red Lion Hotels Corporation

Red Lion Hotels Corporation, doing business as RLH Corporation, is an American hospitality corporation that primarily engages in the franchising, management and ownership of upscale, midscale and economy hotels.

Red Lion, headquartered in Denver, Colorado, has 90,000 rooms across more than 1,400 properties (as of May 2018) in North America.

SS Aeolus (1884)

SS Aeolus was a Swedish coastal freighter built in 1884 and wrecked in 1927.

Shunting (rail)

Shunting, in railway operations, is the process of sorting items of rolling stock into complete trains, or the reverse. In the United States this activity is known as "switching".

Technical drawing

Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed.

Technical drawing is essential for communicating ideas in industry and engineering.

To make the drawings easier to understand, people use familiar symbols, perspectives, units of measurement, notation systems, visual styles, and page layout. Together, such conventions constitute a visual language and help to ensure that the drawing is unambiguous and relatively easy to understand. Many of the symbols and principles of technical drawing are codified in an international standard called ISO 128.

The need for precise communication in the preparation of a functional document distinguishes technical drawing from the expressive drawing of the visual arts. Artistic drawings are subjectively interpreted; their meanings are multiply determined. Technical drawings are understood to have one intended meaning.A drafter, draftsperson, or draughtsman is a person who makes a drawing (technical or expressive). A professional drafter who makes technical drawings is sometimes called a drafting technician.

Vettor Pisani-class cruiser

The Vettor Pisani class consisted of two armoured cruisers built for the Royal Italian Navy (Regia Marina) in the 1890s. The two ships of the class, Vettor Pisani and Carlo Alberto, were frequently deployed overseas during their careers. The former served in the Far East during the Boxer Rebellion of 1900 while the latter was involved in pioneering long-range radio experiments several years later before deploying to South American waters. Carlo Alberto then served as a training ship for several years. Both ships participated in the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–12 and played minor roles in World War I, during which time Carlo Alberto was converted into a troop transport and Vettor Pisani into a repair ship. They were both discarded in 1920 and subsequently scrapped.

Villa Piovene

Villa Piovene is a Palladian villa built in Lonedo di Lugo, province of Vicenza, northern Italy. The building was commissioned in the 16th century for the aristocratic Venetian Piovene family, their architect believed to have been Andrea Palladio. It is part of the World Heritage Site "City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto" since 1996.

William Siborne

William Siborne, Sibourne or Siborn (15 October 1797 – 9 January 1849) was a British officer and military historian whose most notable work was a history of the Waterloo Campaign.

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