Plaek Phibunsongkhram

Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram (Thai: แปลก พิบูลสงคราม  [plɛ̀ːk pʰí.būːn.sǒŋ.kʰrāːm]; alternatively transcribed as Pibulsongkram or Pibulsonggram; 14 July 1897 – 11 June 1964), locally known as Chomphon Por (Thai: จอมพล ป.; [tɕɔ̄ːm.pʰōn.pɔ̄ː]), contemporarily known as Phibun (Pibul) in the West, was the third and longest serving Prime Minister of Thailand and dictatorial leader of Thailand from 1938 to 1944 and 1948 to 1957.


Plaek Phibunsongkhram

แปลก พิบูลสงคราม
Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram
Prime Minister of Thailand
In office
16 December 1938 – 1 August 1944
MonarchAnanda Mahidol
Preceded byPhraya Phahonphonphayuhasena
Succeeded byKhuang Aphaiwong
In office
8 April 1948 – 16 September 1957
MonarchBhumibol Adulyadej
Preceded byKhuang Aphaiwong
Succeeded byPote Sarasin
Minister of Defence
In office
22 September 1934 – 15 November 1943
Prime MinisterPhot Phahonyothin
himself
Preceded byPhot Phahonyothin
Succeeded byPichit Kriengsakpichit
In office
28 June 1949 – 26 February 1957
Prime Ministerhimself
Preceded bySuk Chatnakrob
Succeeded bySarit Thanarat
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
15 December 1941 – 19 June 1942
Prime Ministerhimself
Preceded byDirek Jayanama
Succeeded byLuang Wichitwathakan
Minister of Agriculture and Cooperatives
In office
12 September 1957 – 16 September 1957
Prime Ministerhimself
Preceded bySiri Siriyothin
Succeeded byWiboon Thammaboot
Minister of Culture
In office
12 September 1957 – 16 September 1957
Prime Ministerhimself
Preceded byposition establish
Succeeded byPisan Sunavinvivat
Minister of Commerce
In office
4 February 1954 – 23 March 1954
Prime Ministerhimself
Preceded byBoonkerd Sutantanon
Succeeded bySiri Siriyothin
Finance Minister of Thailand
In office
13 October 1949 – 18 July 1950
Prime Ministerhimself
Preceded byPrince Vivatchai Chaiyant
Succeeded byChom Jamornmarn
Minister of Interior
In office
13 October 1949 – 18 July 1950
Prime Ministerhimself
Preceded byThawan Thamrongnawasawat
Succeeded byChuang Kwancherd
Minister of Education
In office
1942–1942
Prime Ministerhimself
Preceded bySindhu Kamolnavin
Succeeded byPrayun Phamonmontri
Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces
In office
13 November 1940 – 24 November 1943
Preceded byposition establish
Succeeded bySarit Thanarat
Commander in Chief of the Royal Thai Army
In office
4 January 1938 – 5 August 1944
Preceded byPhraya Phahonphonphayuhasena
Succeeded byPhichit Kriangsakphichit
Personal details
Born
Plaek Khittasangkha

14 July 1897
Mueang Nonthaburi, Nonthaburi, Siam
Died11 June 1964 (aged 66)
Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan
NationalityThai
Political partySeri Manangkhasila Party (1955–57)
Other political
affiliations
Khana Ratsadon (1927–54)
Spouse(s)La-iad Bhandhukravi
Children6, including Nitya
Signature
Plaek Phibunsongkhram's signature
Military service
Allegiance Siam
Thailand Thailand
Branch/service Royal Thai Army
Emblem of the Royal Thai Armed Forces HQ.svgRoyal Armed Forces
Years of service1914–1957
RankRTA OF-10 (Field Marshal).svg Field Marshal
RTN OF-10 (Admiral of the Fleet).svg Admiral of the Fleet
RTAF OF-10 (Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force).svg Marshal of the Air Force
CommandsSupreme Commander
Battles/warsBoworadet Rebellion
Franco-Thai War
Pacific War
Palace Rebellion

Early years

Pibun
Phibun as a teenager.

He was born Plaek Khittasangkha (Thai: แปลก ขีตตะสังคะ  [plɛ̀ːk kʰìːt.tà.sǎŋ.kʰá]) in Nonthaburi Province to Keed Khittasangkha and his wife.[1] Plaek's paternal grandfather was said to be a Cantonese-speaking Chinese immigrant. However, the family was completely assimilated and Plaek did not show any features deemed to be typical of ethnic Chinese,[2] which is why he could later successfully conceal and deny his Chinese roots.[3] Plaek's parents owned a durian orchard. He received his given name – meaning 'strange' in Thai – because of his unusual appearance as a child. Plaek Khittasangkha studied at Buddhist temple schools, then was appointed to Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy. He graduated in 1914 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the artillery. Following World War I, he was sent to study artillery tactics in France. In 1928, as he rose in rank, he received the noble title Luang from King Prajadhipok and became known as Luang Phibunsongkhram. He would later drop his title, but adopted Phibunsongkhram as his surname.

1932 revolution

Phibunsongkhram was one of the leaders of the military branch of the People's Party (Khana Ratsadon) that staged a coup d'état and overthrew the absolute monarchy in 1932. Then-Lieutenant Colonel Phibunsongkhram rose to prominence as a man-on-horseback.[4] Nationalisation of some companies and increasing state control of the economy followed the 1932 coup.

Abdication of the king

The following year, Phibunsongkhram, along with officers allied in the same cause, successfully crushed the Boworadet Rebellion. This was a royalist revolt led by Prince Boworadet. While King Prajadhipok was not in any way involved in the rebellion, it marked the beginning of a slide which ended in his 1935 abdication and replacement by King Ananda Mahidol. The new king was still a child studying in Switzerland, and parliament appointed Colonel Prince Anuwatjaturong, Lieutenant Commander Prince Aditya Dibabha, and Chao Phraya Yommaraj (Pun Sukhum) as his regents.

Prime Minister of Thailand

In 1938, Phibunsongkhram replaced Phraya Phahol as Prime Minister and Commander of the Royal Siamese Army, and consolidated his position by rewarding several members of his own army clique with influential positions in his government.

Phibunsongkhram began to increase the pace of modernisation in Thailand. He supported fascism and nationalism. Together with Luang Wichitwathakan, the Minister of Propaganda, he built a leadership cult in 1938 and thereafter. Photographs of Phibun were to be found everywhere, and those of the abdicated King Prajadhipok were banned. His quotes appeared in newspapers, were plastered on billboards and were repeated over the radio.

Imitating Italian fascism

Plaek Pibulsonggram said Chulalongkorn university student on 8 October 1940
Phibun gave ultranationalism speech to the crowds at the Ministry of Defence which is opposite Swasti Sopha gate of Grand Palace in 1940.

After the revolution of 1932, the Thai governments of Phraya Phahol Pholphayuhasena were impressed by the success of the March on Rome of the fascist movement of Benito Mussolini in Italy. Phibun also seemed to be an admirer of the Italian fascism. Phibun sought to imitate the fascist Italian regime's cinema propaganda, valued as one of the most powerful propaganda instruments of Italian political power, the main purpose was to promote the ideologies of nationalism and militarism, strengthening unity and harmony of the state, and also glorifying the policy of ruralisation in Italy and abroad. With the pro-fascist leanings of Thai political leaders, Italian propaganda films: newsreels, documentaries, short films, and full-length feature films, such as Istituto Luce Cinecittà, were shown in Thailand during the interwar period.

Phibun adopted the Italian fascist salute, modeled on the Roman salute, and he used it during speeches. The salute was not compulsory in Thailand. It was opposed by Luang Wichitwathakan and many cabinet members as they believed it inappropriate for Thai culture.

Thai Cultural Revolution

Thai culture poster
Thai poster from the Phibun era, showing prohibited "uncivilised" dress on the left, and proper Western dress on the right.

"Aimed to uplift the national spirit and moral code of the nation and instilling progressive tendencies and a newness into Thai life", a series of cultural mandates were issued by the government. These mandates encouraged all Thais to salute the flag in public places, know the new national anthem, and use the Thai language, not regional dialects. People were encouraged to adopt Western, as opposed to traditional, attire. Similarly, people were encouraged to eat with a fork and spoon, rather than with their hands as was customary. Phibun saw these policies as necessary, in the interest of progressivism, to change Thailand in the minds of foreigners from an undeveloped country into a civilised and modern one.

Phibun's administration encouraged economic nationalism. Anti-Chinese policies were imposed, and the Thai people were to purchase as many Thai products as possible, thereby reducing Chinese economic power. In a speech in 1938, Luang Wichitwathakan, himself of Chinese ancestry, followed Rama VI's book Jews of the East in comparing the Chinese in Siam to the Jews in Germany, who at the time were harshly repressed.

In 1939, Phibun changed the country's name from "Siam" to "Thailand". In 1941, in the midst of World War II, he decreed 1 January as the official start of the new year instead of the traditional 13 April.

Franco-Thai War

จอมพลป. พิบูลสงคราม ในปี 2484
Phibunsongkhram inspecting troops during the Franco-Thai War

Ardently pro-Japanese at the beginning, Phibun and his administration soon distanced themselves from Japan following the aftermath of the French-Thai War. This conflict lasted from October 1940 to May 1941. Following the peace talks, the Japanese gained the right to occupy French Indo-China. Threatened with war, Phibun stated that the Japanese would be the transgressors. The administration also realised that Thailand would have to fend for itself when the Japanese invasion came, considering its deteriorating relationships with the major Western powers in the area.

Alliance with Japan

When the Japanese invaded Thailand on 8 December 1941, (because of the international date line this occurred an hour and a half before the attack on Pearl Harbor),[5] Phibun was reluctantly forced to order a general ceasefire after just one day of resistance and allow the Japanese armies to use the country as a base for their invasions of Burma and Malaya.[6] Hesitancy, however, gave way to enthusiasm after the Japanese rolled their way through Malaya in a "Bicycle Blitzkrieg" with surprisingly little resistance.[7][8] On 21 December Phibun signed a military alliance with Japan. The following month, on 25 January 1942, Phibun declared war on Britain and the United States. South Africa and New Zealand declared war on Thailand on the same day. Australia followed soon after.[9] All who opposed the Japanese alliance were purged from his government. Pridi Phanomyong was appointed acting regent for the absent King Ananda Mahidol, while Direk Jayanama, the prominent foreign minister who had advocated continued resistance against the Japanese, was later sent to Tokyo as an ambassador. The United States considered Thailand to be a puppet of Japan and refused to declare war. When the allies were victorious, United States blocked British efforts to impose a punitive peace.[10]

As Japan neared defeat and the underground anti-Japanese resistance Seri Thai steadily grew in strength, the National Assembly ousted Phibun. His six-year reign as the military commander-in-chief was at an end. His resignation was partly forced by two grandiose plans. One was to relocate the capital from Bangkok to a remote site in the jungle near Phetchabun in north central Thailand. The other was to build a "Buddhist city" in Saraburi. Announced at a time of severe economic difficulty, these ideas turned many government officers against him.[11] Phibunsongkhram went to stay at the army headquarters in Lopburi.

Khuang Aphaiwong replaced him as prime minister, ostensibly to continue relations with the Japanese, but, in reality, to secretly assist the Seri Thai.

At war's end, Phibun was put on trial at Allied insistence on charges of having committed war crimes, mainly that of collaborating with the Axis powers. However, he was acquitted amid intense public pressure. Public opinion was still favourable to Phibun, as he was thought to have done his best to protect Thai interests. His alliance with Japan had Thailand take advantage of Japanese support to expand Thai territory in Malaya and Burma.[12]

Coup, second premiership and more coups

PPS 2
Plaek Phibunsongkhram at Hyde Park, New York, 1955

In November 1947, Royal Thai Army units under the control of Phibun carried out a coup which forced then Prime Minister Thawal Thamrong Navaswadhi to resign. Khuang was again installed as prime minister as the military coup risked international disapproval. Pridi Phanomyong was persecuted. He was, however, aided by British and US intelligence officers, and thus managed to escape the country. On 8 April 1948, the military forced Khuang out of office and Phibun assumed his second premiership.

On 1 October 1948, the unsuccessful Army General Staff Plot was launched to topple Phibun's government. As a result, more than fifty army and reserve officers and several prominent supporters of Pridi Phanomyong were arrested.

A Palace Rebellion in 1949 was another failed coup attempt. Its plotters' aim was to overthrow the Phibun's government and restore his main civilian rival Pridi Phanomyong to the Thai political scene.

Instead of the fascism that characterised his first premiership, Phibun and his regime promoted a façade of democracy. US aid was received in large quantities following Thailand's entry into the Korean War as part of the United Nations' multi-national allied force in the Cold War against the communists.

Phibun's anti-Chinese campaign was resumed, with the government restricting Chinese immigration and undertaking various measures to restrict economic domination of the Thai market by those of Chinese descent. Chinese schools and associations were once again shut down. Despite open pro-Western and anti-Chinese policies, in the late-1950s Phibun arranged to send to China two of the children of Sang Phathanothai, his closest advisor, with the intention of establishing a backdoor channel for dialogue between China and Thailand. The girl, aged eight, and her brother, aged twelve, were sent to be brought up under the assistants of Premier Zhou Enlai as his wards. The girl, Sirin Phathanothai, later wrote The Dragon's Pearl, an autobiography telling her experiences growing up in the 1950s and 1960s among the leaders of China.

On 29 June 1951, Phibun was attending a ceremony aboard the Manhattan dredge when he was taken hostage by a group of naval officers, who then quickly confined him aboard the warship Sri Ayutthaya. Negotiations between the government and the coup organizers swiftly broke down, leading to violent street fighting in Bangkok between the navy and the army, which was supported by the air force. Phibun was able to swim back ashore when the Sri Ayutthaya was bombed by the air force. With their hostage gone, the sailors and marines were forced to lay down their arms.

On 29 November 1951, the Silent Coup was staged by the army-led Coup Group and it consolidated the military's hold on the country. It reinstated the Constitution of 1932, which effectively eliminated the Senate, established a unicameral legislature composed equally of elected and government-appointed members, and allowed serving military officers to supplement their commands with important ministerial portfolios.

On 13 November 1956, Thailand's Criminal Code BE 2499 was signed into law by King Bhumibol Adulyadej. Field Marshal Phibunsongkhram countersigned the code.

1957 coup and exile

At the end of his second term, suspicions of fraudulent practices during an election emerged. The US-equipped Thai army played a major role in the coup d'état of 1957, and the United States was "deeply involved".[13] The resulting unrest led to a second coup in October 1958 by Field Marshal Sarit Dhanaraj, who had earlier sworn to be Phibun's most loyal subordinate. Sarit was supported by many royalists who wanted to regain a foothold. Phibun was then forced into exile in Japan, where he lived until his death in 1964.

Honours

Royal decorations of Thailand

Plaek Phibunsongkhram received the following royal decorations in the Honours System of Thailand:[14]

  • 1911 -
    King Rama VI Coronation Medal (Thailand) ribbon
    King Rama VI Coronation Medal
  • 1925 -
    King Rama VII Coronation Medal (Thailand) ribbon
    King Rama VII Coronation Medal
  • 1932 -
    150 Years Commemoration of Bangkok Medal ribbon
    150 Years Commemoration of Bangkok Medal
  • 1934 -
    Dushdi Mala - Military (Thailand)
    Dushdi Mala - Military
  • 1937 -
    Order of the Crown of Thailand - Special Class (Thailand) ribbon
    Knight Grand Cordon (Special Class) of The Most Noble Order of the Crown of Thailand
  • 1938 -
    King Rama IV Royal Cypher Medal (Thailand) ribbon
    King Rama VIII Royal Cypher Medal
  • 1940 -
    Order of the White Elephant - Special Class (Thailand) ribbon
    Knight Grand Cordon (Special Class) of The Most Exalted Order of the White Elephant
  • 1941 -
    Victory Medal - Indochina with flames (Thailand)
    Victory Medal - Indochina
  • 1941 -
    Order of the Nine Gems (Thailand) ribbon
    Knight of The Ancient and Auspicious Order of the Nine Gems
  • 1942 -
    Order of Chula Chom Klao - 1st Class (Thailand) ribbon
    Knight Grand Cross (First Class) of The Most Illustrious Order of Chula Chom Klao
  • 1942 -
    Ratana Varabhorn Order of Merit ribbon
    The Ratana Varabhorn Order of Merit
  • 1943 -
    Medal for Service in the Interior - Asia (Thailand) ribbon
    Medal for Service Rendered in the Interior (Asia)
  • 1943 -
    Victory Medal - World War 2 (Thailand)
    Victory Medal - World War II
  • 1943 -
    Dushdi Mala - Civilian (Thailand)
    Dushdi Mala - Civilian
  • 1944 -
    Bravery Medal with wreath (Thailand) ribbon
    Bravery Medal - World War II
  • 1956 -
    King Rama IX Royal Cypher Medal (Thailand) ribbon
    Bhumibol Adulyadej King Rama IX Royal Cypher Medal, First Class
  • 1957 -
    Border Service Medal (Thailand) ribbon
    Border Service Medal
King Rama VI Coronation Medal (Thailand) ribbon
King Rama VII Coronation Medal (Thailand) ribbon
150 Years Commemoration of Bangkok Medal ribbon
Dushdi Mala - Military (Thailand)
Order of the Crown of Thailand - Special Class (Thailand) ribbon
King Rama IV Royal Cypher Medal (Thailand) ribbon
Order of the White Elephant - Special Class (Thailand) ribbon
Victory Medal - Indochina with flames (Thailand)
Order of the Nine Gems (Thailand) ribbon
Order of Chula Chom Klao - 1st Class (Thailand) ribbon
Ratana Varabhorn Order of Merit ribbon
Medal for Service in the Interior - Asia (Thailand) ribbon
Victory Medal - World War 2 (Thailand)
Dushdi Mala - Civilian (Thailand)
Bravery Medal with wreath (Thailand) ribbon
King Rama IX Royal Cypher Medal (Thailand) ribbon
Border Service Medal (Thailand) ribbon

Foreign honours

ribbon bar
PHL Order of Sikatuna - Grand Cross BAR
Ribbon of Order of the German Eagle
UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon
Cavaliere di gran Croce Regno SSML BAR

Military rank

Volunteer Defense Corps of Thailand rank

Academic rank

See also

References

  1. ^ (in Thai) ผู้นำทางการเมืองไทยกับสงครามโลกครั้งที่ 2 [df]: จอมพล ป.พิบูลสงคราม และ ปรีดี พนมยงค์ Archived 27 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Batson, Benjamin Arthur; Shimizu, Hajime (1990). The Tragedy of Wanit: A Japanese Account of Wartime Thai Politics. University of Singapore Press. p. 64. ISBN 9971622467. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  3. ^ Ansil Ramsay (2001). Grant H. Cornwell; Eve Walsh Stoddard (eds.). The Chinese in Thailand: Ethnicity, Power and Cultural Opportunity Structures. Global Multiculturalism: Comparative Perspectives on Ethnicity, Race, and Nation. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 63.
  4. ^ "man on horseback". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 30 June 2011. n. A man, usually a military leader, whose popular influence and power may afford him the position of dictator, as in a time of political crisis
  5. ^ Churchill, Winston S. The Second World War, Vol 3, The Grand Alliance, p.548 Cassell & Co. Ltd, 1950
  6. ^ A Slice of Thai History: The Japanese invasion of Thailand, 8 December 1941 (part one)
  7. ^ Ford, Daniel (June 2008). "Colonel Tsuji of Malaya (part 2)". Warbirds Forum. Retrieved 30 June 2011. Though outnumbered two-to-one, the Japanese never stopped to consolidate their gains, to rest or regroup or resupply; they came down the main roads on bicycles.
  8. ^ "The Swift Japanese Assault". National Archives of Singapore. 2002. Retrieved 30 June 2011. Even the long legged Englishmen could not escape our troops on bicycles.
  9. ^ A Slice of Thai History: The Japanese invasion of Thailand, 8 December 1941 (part three)
  10. ^ I.C.B Dear, ed, The Oxford companion to World War II (1995) p 1107
  11. ^ Roeder, Eric (Fall 1999). "The Origin and Significance of the Emerald Buddha". Southeast Asian Studies. Southeast Asian Studies Student Association. 3. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011. Judith A. Stowe, Siam becomes Thailand (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1991), pp. 228-283
  12. ^ Aldrich, Richard J. The Key to the South: Britain, the United States, and Thailand during the Approach of the Pacific War, 1929-1942. Oxford University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-19-588612-7
  13. ^ Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Mar., 1962), pp. 93-110
  14. ^ Biography of Field Marshal P. Archived 26 August 2002 at the Wayback Machine, Royal Thai Army website. Retrieved on 4 December 2008.
  15. ^ http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2484/A/981.PDF
  16. ^ http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2498/D/046/1.PDF
  17. ^ http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2482/D/809.PDF

Further reading

  • Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk (2009). A History of Thailand (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139194877. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  • Wyatt, David K. Thailand: A Short History, Yale University Press, 2004 ISBN 0-300-08475-7

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Phraya Phahol Pholphayuhasena
Prime Minister of Thailand
1938–1944
Succeeded by
Khuang Abhaiwongse
Preceded by
Khuang Abhaiwongse
Prime Minister of Thailand
1948–1957
Succeeded by
Pote Sarasin
Army General Staff plot

The Army General Staff plot (Thai: กบฏเสนาธิการ) was a failed 1948 attempt to overthrow the Thai government of Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram.The plotters were members of the army general staff, among whom were Lieutenant-General Chit Mansin Sinatyotharak, Pridi's former supreme commander, and Major General Net Khemayothin, a close associate of Phibun during the war and later a prominent Seri Thai member. They objected to the army's increasingly corrupt and inefficient leadership, and hoped to reorganise and professionalise the military. Their plan called for the arrest of Phibun, top government officials, and leading army officers during a birthday party for Sarit Thanarat scheduled for 1 October 1948.Although the plotters enjoyed widespread support within the general staff, the Coup Group which had re-installed Phibun received advance notice of their plans. On 21 September General Phin Chunhawan recommended that the ministry of defence and other ministries carry out a purge of government officials. His suggestion was approved by the cabinet, and on October 1 the arrests of the coup plotters began. Before the week was over, more than fifty army and reservist and several prominent supporters of Pridi were arrested.

Charun Rattanakun Seriroengrit

General Charun Rattanakun Seriroengrit (Luang Seriroengrit) (Thai: จรูญ รัตนกุล เสรีเริงฤทธิ์), [t͡ɕàruːn ráttànákun sěːriːrɤːŋrít] ; October 27, 1895 – July 19, 1983) was a Thai army officer, civil servant and politician. He was a general of the Phayap Army in the government of Plaek Phibunsongkhram in World War II.

In the days of absolute monarchy, the captain Charun Rattanakun got the feudal title of honor Luang Seriroengrit awarded. He joined the Khana Ratsadon, which means a Coup d'état in 1932 ended the absolute monarchy and replaced Thailand with a constitutional monarchy.

Seriroengrit meantime became colonel, took off in 1938 an important position in the government of Plaek Phibunsongkhram. He became head of the State Railway of Thailand.,After the end of Franco-Thai War, he was promoted to Lieutenant general in February 1942 and moved to the head of Phayap Army (Northeast Army). He was involved to the Burma Campaign and held in the connection part of the occupation of Shan State.

Deva Bandhumasena

Colonel Phraya Songsuradej (Thai: พระยาทรงสุรเดช) (12 August 1892 – 1 June 1944, common name Deva Bandhumasena (เทพ พันธุมเสน) was a Thai military officer and member of Khana Ratsadon (People's Party). As a cadet he studied military science in Imperial Germany, and was a leading member of the senior army officers responsible for the Siamese coup d'état of 1932 (Siamese revolution of 1932). After the revolution of 1932 he has conflicts with Plaek Phibunsongkhram, who was a junior military officer in many serious matters so all these conflicts became the allegations in the subsequent of Songsuradet rebellion.He was born in a military family on 12 August 1892 at his father's home on Charoen Krung Road, Phra Nakhon Province (later Bangkok) near to the present's Territorial Defense Command. His father was an artillery officer named First Lieutenant Tai Bandhumasena (ร้อยโท ไท้ พันธุมเสน), who served in the 1st Battery of Artillery. While he was studying in the Royal Military Academy (later Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy) his parents suddenly died. He therefore got his older brother to be a benefactor, with being an excellent student therefore received a scholarship to study the army engineer science in Imperial Germany. Upon graduation, he received the rank of Fähnrich (Private First Class). After that, he continued his studies at the commissioned military level until he received the rank of Degen-Fähnrich (Acting Second Lieutenant) and entered the military service in Magdeburg, later he returned to Siam (later Thailand) in the year 1915, total of 8 years of living in Imperial Germany. Fluent in both Thai and German.

In Siam, he is an engineer who has played a huge role in constructing railways in many regions of the country, such as northern line from Khun Tan Tunnel to Chiang Mai Province etc. He received the highest rank as a Colonel and highest duty was Chief of Directorate of Operations in 1932 shortly before the revolution. Which all plans in the revolution, he is all thinking and planning himself and did not reveal to anyone before until one day before actual action. Because he is a highly respected person in the military circles as a military academic. He is regarded as one of The Four Musketeers (สี่ทหารเสือ; consist of Phraya Songsuradej, Phraya Phahonphonphayuhasena, Phraya Ritthiakhaney and Phra Phrasasphithayayut) which is the highest leaders of Khana Ratsadon. Sulak Sivaraksa, political critic and thinker said that he is the smartest and most talented of these four.

He was exiled to Indochina in January 1939 following a rift with the Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram. Phraya Songsuradej died on 1 June 1944 at an abandoned mansion in Phnom Penh with sepsis (but with conspiracy theory that he died due to being poisoned).

Direk Jayanama

Direk Jayanama (Thai: ดิเรก ชัยนาม, RTGS: Direk Chainam; January 18, 1905 – May 1, 1967) was a Thai diplomat and politician.

He was one of the civilian Promoters of the Siamese Revolution of 1932 that changed the country's form of government from absolute to constitutional monarchy. He was closely associated with Pridi Banomyong. In the government of Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs, but resigned when Phibunsongkhram led Thailand into World War II alongside Japan. Direk became a member of the Free Thai Movement (Seri Thai) alongside Pridi, who fought for the full sovereignty of Thailand and against collaboration with Japan. After the end of war, he served as Minister of Justice, Finance, Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister in several short-lived cabinets. From 1949 to 1952 he was the first dean of the Faculty of Political Science, Thammasat University.

February 1957 Thai general election

General elections were held in Thailand on 26 February 1957. The result was a victory for the Seri Manangkasila party, which won 85 of the 160 elected seats, with the 123 appointed members of the previous parliament continued to serve in the newly elected one. Voter turnout was 57.5%, significantly higher than previous elections (the previous record had been 41.5% in 1933), which was an indicator of heavy fraud.

Khuang Aphaiwong

Khuang Aphaiwong (also spelled Kuang, Abhaiwong, or Abhaiwongse; Thai: ควง อภัยวงศ์, IPA: [kʰuaŋ ʔà.pʰaj.woŋ]; 17 May 1902 – 15 March 1968), also known by his noble title Luang Kowit-aphaiwong (Thai: หลวงโกวิทอภัยวงศ์, Thai pronunciation: [lǔaŋ koː.wít.ʔà.pʰaj.woŋ]), was three times the prime minister of Thailand: from August 1944 to 1945, from January to May 1946, and from November 1947 to April 1948.

List of Chiefs of Defence Forces (Thailand)

The Chief of Defence Forces, previously known as the Supreme Commander, (Thai: ผู้บัญชาการทหารสูงสุด) is the overall field commander of Royal Thai Armed Forces. He is also in charge of managing the Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters (abbreviated as the RTARF HQ). Prior to 1960 the post was an ad hoc creation by Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram, during World War II. However, under Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat the position became permanent, and in its early life was even combined with the post of Prime Minister of Thailand. In February 2008 the English name of the post was changed from Supreme Commander to Chief of Defence Forces with the reorganization of the Supreme Command Headquarters into the Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters (though the Thai term remained the same). It is customary to appoint the chief of defence to four-star rank in all three branches in the Armed Forces. The current commander is General Pornpipat Benyasri since October 2018. Not to be confused with the ceremonial Head of the Royal Thai Armed Forces who is the constitutional Head of State and Monarch of Thailand.

List of Defence Ministers of Thailand

This is list of defence ministers of Thailand. Aside from Prime Ministers holding the post concurrently, all ministers have been active-duty or retired flag officers.

National Defence College of Thailand

The National Defence College of Thailand or NDC (Thai: วิทยาลัยป้องกันราชอาณาจักร, witayalay bongan rachanajak) is an education organization that provides advanced training for both senior military officers and civilians. It is operated by the Royal Thai Armed Forces of the Thai Ministry of Defence. The NDC was founded in on 2 February 1955 by Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram.

Nitya Pibulsonggram

Nitya Pibulsonggram (Thai: นิตย์ พิบูลสงคราม, RTGS: Nit Phibunsongkhram, June 30, 1941 – May 24, 2014) was a Thai career diplomat and politician.After receiving his B.A. in Government from Dartmouth College and his M.A. in Political Science from Brown University, he joined Thailand's Foreign Service in 1968. Between 1984 and 2000 he was ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Thailand to the United States and then few years later, he became Thailand's Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the United Nation in New York. He served briefly as the Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs' Permanent Secretary (the most senior civil servant of the Ministry) before retiring from bureaucratic career.

After his retirement, he served as advisor to the foreign minister and as Thailand's chief negotiator for a Thai-US free trade agreement negotiations.

In 2006 he was appointed by the military junta to be Foreign Minister of Thailand, serving in that post until early 2008.

At Dartmouth College, Nitya Pibulsonggram was a member of Kappa Kappa Kappa society class of 1962.

He was the sixth child of Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram and Than Phu Ying La-iad Bhandhukravi with three sisters and two brothers. One of them, Prasong, was a Vice-Admiral who had served under the Royal Thai Armed Forces.

Palace Rebellion

The Palace Rebellion was a 1949 coup attempt in Thailand. Its plotters aimed to overthrow the government of Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram and to restore his main civilian rival, Pridi Phanomyong, to the Thai political scene.

Pridi had disavowed the use of violence during the immediate aftermath of the 1947 coup, but the frustrations of exile eventually overcame him. Although in the People's Republic of China, he still maintained contacts with his supporters in Thailand and, with their help, he laid plans for a countercoup.

In the first week of February 1949, he secretly returned to Thailand. Phibun, however, soon learned of Pridi's intentions and quickly, a radio announcement was made in which he called Pridi his "friend." He went on to offer Pridi a position in the government, but Pridi decided to go ahead with his plans, and the field marshal's overtures were rebuffed.

A state of emergency was declared by the government in anticipation of the countercoup. It began on February 26, when a Royal Thai Army officer loyal to Pridi and a group of supporters seized a radio station, and Free Thai elements and Thammasat University teachers and students occupied the Grand Palace. The group at the radio station announced on the air the formation of a new government headed by Pridi's friend, Direk Chaiyanam.

Major-General Sarit Thanarat then moved troops in and easily mandged to oust Pridi from the palace grounds. In the meanwhile, the Royal Thai Navy and the Royal Thai Marine Corps took up defensive positions around Bangkok, to protect their allies.

The rebels managed to escape in naval vessels across the Chao Phraya River, and navy units engaged the army in fierce street fighting. A ceasefire was declared that afternoon, but it would take the navy and the army a full week to negotiate a resolution to the crisis.

Pao Pienlert Boripanyutakit

General Pao Pienlert Boripanyutakit (Thai: เภา เพียรเลิศ บริภัณฑ์ยุทธกิจ; November 10, 1893 to March 4, 1970) was a Thai political figure who served as a Minister of Finance and Minister of Commerce.

Phibunsongkhram Province

Phibunsongkhram Province (Thai: พิบูลสงคราม) was a former province of Thailand that existed between 1941 and 1946. It was created as a result of the annexation of Cambodian territory by Thailand following the 1940-41 Franco-Thai war. This province was named after Plaek Phibunsongkhram, prime minister of Thailand at that time.

Pote Sarasin

Pote Sarasin (Thai: พจน์ สารสิน, RTGS: Phot Sarasin, pronounced [pʰót sǎː.rā.sǐn]; 25 March 1905 – 28 September 2000) was a Thai diplomat and politician from the influential Sarasin family. He served as foreign minister from 1949 to 1951 and then served as ambassador to the United States. In September 1957 when Sarit Thanarat seized power in a military coup, he appointed Pote to be the acting prime minister. He resigned in December 1957. Pote also served as the first Secretary General of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization from September 1957 until 1964.

Pramarn Adireksarn

Pramarn Adireksarn (Thai: ประมาณ อดิเรกสาร, RTGS: Praman Adireksan, 31 December 1913 – 20 August 2010) was a Thai military officer and politician. He was a co-founder and chairman of the Thai Nation Party, deputy prime minister and minister in several cabinets.

Talat Nang Loeng

Talat Nang Loeng or Talad Nang Loeng (Thai: ตลาดนางเลิ้ง, pronounced [tā.làːt nāːŋ lɤ́ːŋ]; lit: Nang Loeng market; also known as "Nang Loeng") is a market and historic neighbourhood in Bangkok. Located in Wat Sommanat sub-district, Pom Prap Sattru Phai district.

Talat Nang Loeng was built in the reign of King Rama V. His Majesty the King officially opened on March 29, 1900 as the first land market of Thailand.

The name Nang Loeng comes from I Loeng (อีเลิ้ง, [ʔīː lɤ́ːŋ]), its one type of jar of the Mon people, this has been boat trading in the past around this area (Khlong Phadung Krung Kasem). Until the era of Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram was Prime Minister, so it was changed to Nang Loeng to this day.

Today, around the Talat Nang Loeng is full of old shophouses built with beautiful colonial architecture. And in the market is also a traditional community, which have lived since the market launch. Notable for its food especially Thai desserts. And there's also old cinema (Sala Chaloem Thani; ศาลาเฉลิมธานี), the current closed down in 1993, which has now become a warehouse.

Thai cultural restoration of 1946–48

Thai cultural restoration of 1946–48 was the cultural and social policy of the government of Khuang Aphaiwong and Pridi Banomyong following Thailand's participation in World War II. It abolished the Thai cultural mandates that had been introduced between 1939 and 1942 by the government of Plaek Phibunsongkhram with the goal of modernising the country and abolishing traditional practices, which were seen as backwards. Khuang Aphaiwong, a conservative royalist, decided to order a restoration of traditional Thai culture to reverse the wartime policy of Phibunsongkhram. On 8 April 1948, a military coup d'état forced Khuang out of office and Phibunsongkhram assumed the premiership a second time. The cultural policy of Khuang and Pridi was canceled

The hallmarks of the cultural restoration, as promulgated in January 1946, were:

Restore Songkran Day as traditional new year day along with modern Gregorian calendar New Year's Day.

Abolish Thai cultural mandates.

Abolish Thai spelling reform of 1942 has been used since the Phibun period, Khuang supports encourages the use of the correct Thai writing system.

Promulgate Thai royal and noble titles back and return the title to politician who was canceled.

Adopt traditional Raj pattern uniform with the wearing of Chang Kben and used formal Thai national costume.On 7 September 1946 the Thai government announced that the name of the country would revert to Siam, since the country did not only belong to the Thai race. The name reverted to Thailand in 1949.After the coup d'état in 1947, in which Khuang was restored to power, the Supreme Council of State of Siam (Thai: อภิรัฐมนตรีสภา), which was dissolved during the Siamese revolution of 1932, was restored.

Thai spelling reform of 1942

The Thai spelling reform of 1942 was initiated by the government of Prime Minister Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram. The prime minister's office announced a simplification of the Thai alphabet on 29 May 1942. The announcement was published in the Royal Gazette on 1 June 1942. The reform was cancelled by the government of Khuang Aphaiwong on 2 August 1944. Following the November 1947 coup, Phibunsongkhram became prime minister for a second time, but did not revive the Thai language reform.

Thawan Thamrongnawasawat

Thawan Thamrongnawasawat (also spelt Thawal Thamrongnavaswadhi or Thawal Thamrongnavasawat; Thai: ถวัลย์ ธำรงนาวาสวัสดิ์, IPA: [tʰà.wǎn tʰam.roŋ.naː.waː.sà.wàt]; Chinese: 郑连淡; pinyin: Zhèng Liándàn), born Thawan Tharisawat (Thai: ถวัลย์ ธารีสวัสดิ์, IPA: [tʰà.wǎn tʰaː.riː.sà.wàt]; 21 November 1901 – 3 December 1988), was the eighth Prime Minister of Thailand from 1946-1947. Before becoming a politician, he was a naval officer, holding the rank of rear admiral.

A career naval officer of Chinese ancestry, Thamrong was a leading member of the anti-Japanese Free Thai Movement resistance movement during World War II. He became Thailand's elected prime minister on 23 August 1946, replacing Pridi Banomyong. However, he was removed from office by a military coup orchestrated by Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram on 8 November 1947. Abhaiwongse then assumed the post of prime minister.

King Rama VII
King Rama VIII
King Rama IX
King Rama X
Kingdom of Siam
Kingdom of Thailand

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