Pixiu

Pixiu (Chinese: 貔貅; pinyin: píxiū; Wade–Giles: P'i-hsiu), is a Chinese mythical hybrid creature, commonly (but incorrectly) referred to in the West by the Greek word "chimera", and considered a powerful protector of practitioners of Feng Shui. It resembles a strong, winged lion. Pixiu is an earth and sea variation, particularly an influential and auspicious creature for wealth. It is said to have a voracious appetite towards only gold, silver and jewels. Therefore, traditionally to the Chinese, Pixiu have always been regarded as auspicious creatures that possessed mystical powers capable of drawing Cai Qi (財氣wealth) from all directions.[1][2] Because of this, according to Chinese zodiac, it is especially helpful for those who are going through a bad year.

There are two different types of Pixiu, a male and a female. The physical difference is seen by their antlers. The one with two antlers is the female of the species and is called a "Bìxié"  and the one with one antler is the male of the species and is called a "Tiān lù".[3]

  • Bìxié (Chinese: 辟邪; pinyin: bìxié; Wade–Giles: pi-hsieh; lit. "to ward off evil spirits") - The female of the species; wards off evil. It is also believed that Bìxié has the ability of assisting anyone who is suffering from bad Feng Shui that is due to having offended the Grand Duke Jupiter (also called as Tai Sui (太岁)).
  • Tiān lù (Chinese: 天祿; pinyin: tiānlù; Wade–Giles: t'ien-lu) - The male of the species; in charge of wealth. Tiān lù is said to go out into the world in search of gold and other forms of wealth and, bringing it home to its Master, the Bìxié is then said to hold onto it, guarding it within the home of the Master. Displaying Tiān lù at home or in the office is said to prevent wealth from flowing away.

Pixiu crave the smell of gold and silver and like to bring their masters money in their mouth. Statues of this creature are often used to attract wealth in feng shui.[4][5]

Today, Pixiu are also a popular design on jade pendants. It was also featured as a design on the sword of Fa Mulan's character in the 1998 Disney animated feature Mulan.

Pixiu
Pixiu qianlong
Pixiu
Chinese貔貅
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyinpíxiū
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese辟邪
Literal meaningto ward off evil spirits
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyinbìxié
Southern Min
Hokkien POJphì-siâ, phek-siâ
Segalen-25-Qi-Wudi-Chimera-left
A Chinese Pixiu, (Chinese: 貔貅; pinyin: píxiū; Wade–Giles: P'i-hsiu) head of a Chinese dragon, body of a lion and with a pair of feathered wings, at the tomb of Emperor Wu of Southern Qi (Xiao Ze) in Danyang (near Nanjing, China).
Nanjing - Chaotian Palace - Bixie
A Chinese Pixiu, part Chinese dragon, part lion and with feathered wings, Chaotian Palace, Nanjing.

Characteristics

Pixiu3
Pixiu
Funerary Sculpture of a Chimera (Bixie) LACMA AC1997.1.1
A sculpture of a Chinese Pixiu "Bìxié" − a female Pixiu with two antlers. Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA)

Fierce-looking and covered with whitish-grey fur, Pixiu are a type of auspicious, winged animal, written about in ancient Chinese history and heralded through the millennia by fantastic stories of powerful and grandiose feats of victory in battle.[6] Their fantastic legend has been passed down through two-thousand years of Chinese lore. They have the powerful head of a Chinese dragon, the bold body of a lion, and—historically—sport on their heads either one antler (male) or two antlers (female). In modern times, the historical physical appearance of this legendary creature has been somewhat lost, and, as time has passed, it is now more commonly depicted with only one antler, which would be a male according to the ancient descriptions.[7]

Ancient Chinese descriptions, depictions and stone carvings of Pixiu from the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) show the male with a single antler and the female with two. As with the Chinese Phoenix, the common image today is a representation of a single sex with one antler (male). Pixiu have protruding eyes and sharp teeth. Its strong body resembles a Chinese lion and its feet have paws and claws. There is one ancient, stone sculpture variation found with hooves, but all Pixiu always have wings. Many have a bifurcated (split) tail that hangs low and downward, covering their buttocks and rectums, a representative metaphor that they hold gold inside their stomachs but will not let it out.

Looking at the posture of Pixiu, the creatures seem to project a sense of strength, elegance and mobility. Likewise, they have a big, opened mouth ready to gobble up gold and fortunes for its master. Because of this, a Pixiu statue is often employed in the home as a way of receiving and keeping fortunes and wealth.

Imperial Pixiu used during the Qing dynasty developed the physical characteristic of a fatter, more rotund body, indicating a stomach that could be loaded with unlimited amounts of gold and all forms of wealth and good fortune.

Due to their similar appearances, the Pixiu is often confused with fu dogs or "Qilin", but Pixiu can easily be distinguished apart from those two animals by its pair of feathered wings with which it can fly between Heaven and Earth.[4]

Mythology

Tomb Yongning of the Ts'en Dynasty
Pixiu are a type of ancient mythological, guardian animal species that have feathered wings, a head like a dragon and a body like a lion (sometimes described as a body like a horse). The male Pixiu of this winged, mythological animal species is called a “Tiān lù"[4] and he bears a single antler on his head; Pixiu females, also with wings, are called “Bìxié”.[4] They look exactly like their winged male counterparts, except they grow two[4] antlers on their heads rather than one. All Pixiu fly between Earth and Heaven where they patrol and fight against demons and other evil creatures.[8] "The mythological, dragon-headed, lion-bodied Pìxiū 貔貅(also spelled 豼貅) were traditionally depicted in China as a male-female pair, one with a single horn (male, Pì 貔) and the other with two horns (female, Xiū 貅)".[3] National Palace Museum (Taipei, Taiwan): “In China during the Han dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD), the pi-hsieh (aka Bixie)[9] were commonly represented as winged, four-legged beasts, a form that was probably transmitted from Western Asia."

One story of the Pixiu tells that it violated a law of Heaven by defecating on the floor of Heaven. When it was found out, it was punished by a spanking executed by the Jade Emperor. The spanking was hard enough to cause its rectum to be permanently sealed. The Jade Emperor further declared that the diet of the Pixiu would be restricted to gold, silver and jewels. This is why Pixiu can eat gold, silver and jewels but cannot expel it. This is one of the origins of the status of Pixiu statues as a symbol of the acquisition and preservation of wealth.

Another story says that Pixiu was the well-behaved, youngest son of the Dragon King and was spoiled by its parents. One day, Pixiu was playing on the Dragon King's desk and accidentally broke a very important seal that represented the power of the Dragon King. The Dragon King became very angry and used magic to turn Pixiu into an animal. He then sealed his rectum and declared that from then on, Pixiu could only eat things that represented wealth, such as gold, silver and jewels.[10]

Pixiu was reputed as a very fierce creature. The large fangs, visible in the creatures' snarling mouths, are used to attack demons and evil spirits, draining their essence and converting it to wealth. Pixiu also guard against disease caused by these same evil spirits. It is written that Pixiu patrols the Heavens to keep demons at bay and to protect their owners from all harm.[8]

It was believed that the ferociously devoted Pixiu would always and constantly guard its Master, even after he passed from this life into the next world. It was also believed that Pixiu would help their Masters ascend to heaven by flying them up to Heaven while they rode on their strong backs.[6]

History

"Pixiu" appear to have their origin in the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) where they are found mentioned and were originally called "táo bá" in the Book of Han, an ancient written account of the history of China.

Ming Dynasty wood carving books in Tian Yi Chamber colllection
Book of Han, Tian Yi Chamber Library Collection. The Tian Yi Ge, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China is the oldest library in China; Photo supplied by Wikipedia User:Gisling

The Book of Han was completed in the year 111 A.D. In Chapter 96, it is written,

"In the country of Wū Gē Shān Lí there exist creatures called "táo bá" (meaning "selected peach"), lions and rhinoceros."[7] -from the section entitled Accounts of the Western Regions.

An annotation is also found therein where the female and male "táo bá" are further described as having antlers like a deer, but the male, which was referred to as “Tiān lù", has only one antler, while the female, referred to as "Bìxié", has two antlers.

In tribute to the legend of the ferocity and prowess of the Pixiu in battle, the Pixiu became synonymous with the army in ancient China. In fact, the word "pixiu", interpreted as meaning "fierce beast" and also "brave warrior", was used as a symbol on battle flags and banners.[6]

The Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty, in ancient China, declared that the wonderful, magnificent and devoted Pixiu, who obtained and guarded the Master's gold, would be forever known as the "Treasure of the Emperor".[11] It is said that the Emperor declared that only Royal persons could possess a Pixiu and it was strictly forbidden for all others to own one, including officials.[11] This law was kept through to the end of the Qing dynasty.[11]

Chinese Architecture

HighStatusRoofDeco
Ceramic figures decorating the Hall of Supreme Harmony at the Imperial Palace Museum. The 10 mystical beasts indicate the highest status in the empire for this building. Picture taken late September 2002 by Leonard G.

During China's history, Pixiu were commonly displayed in ancient architecture to ward off Yin Qi (陰氣) and to harness auspicious Qi.

The statues of a Pixiu are commonly found on the four corners of the roofs of houses, palaces and halls of the most important people such as the Chinese Emperor. The Pixiu sits behind the dragon, the phoenix, the winged horse, the sea horse, and other, similar creatures in a guarding manner.

Tomb of Xiao Rong - P1200114
A very large pair of winged, stone Pixiu guarding a tomb in China.

In ancient China, stone statues of Pixiu (Bixie) were also used as tomb guardians of Han dynasty emperors and other royal persons.

Feng Shui

In Feng shui, Pixiu (aka "Pi Yao" in some modern cultural translations) is the heavenly variation of a particularly powerful and auspicious creature of good fortune. They are said to have the power to assist anyone suffering from bad Feng shui due to having offended the Grand Duke Jupiter (Tai Sui). In 2005, the Grand Duke resided in the West, so those born in the year of the Rabbit will have been in conflict with him. Practitioners of Feng Shui should ensure that they display the Pixiu (Pi Yao) in the West to appease Tai Sui. The Pixiu (Pi Yao) should also be displayed in homes for those enduring a period of bad luck soon after moving into a new home or soon after undertaking renovations. In 2006, Tai Sui moved to the Northwest. His exact position in 2006 is West-Northwest.

  • Pixiu (aka "Pi Yao" in some modern cultural translations) - must be placed facing out of the house.
  • Displaying Pixiu' (Pi Yao) at the affected area of the house or office can avoid misfortune and disasters.
  • For displaying towards openings or entrance, a pair of Pixiu' (Pi Yao) is needed.
  • Tiān lù (male Pixiu with one antler) and Bìxié (female Pixiu with two antlers) - are utilized for attracting and keeping wealth; you may place them in the desired wealth area, such as an attractive wealth area or an accumulative wealth area.
  • Do not place Pixiu facing directly on any person like a confronting position.
  • Ideally, Pixiu should not be place on the floor and they should never be placed above eye level.
  • One cannot touch the mouth of Pixiu because the touching of their mouths would ruin the wealth.

See also

References and footnotes

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ a b "JP = Hikyū貔貅, CHN = Pìxiū 貔貅". http://www.onmarkproductions.com. External link in |website= (help)
  4. ^ a b c d e Bates, Roy (2008). "Chapter 7". 29 Chinese Mysteries. Beijing, China: TuDragon Books Ltd. p. 49.
  5. ^ Bates, Roy (2008). "Chapter 7". 29 Chinese Mysteries. Beijing, China: TuDragon Books Ltd. pp. 48, 49.
  6. ^ a b c "Tianlu and Bixie". http://www.cultural-china.com/. Archived from the original on 2017-04-12. Retrieved March 18, 2017. External link in |website= (help)
  7. ^ a b "Book of Han".
  8. ^ a b Bates, Roy (2008). "Chapter 7". 29 Chinese Mysteries. Beijing, China: TuDragon Books, Ltd. p. 49.
  9. ^ "Animal Bixie en jade, Dynastie Han (206 av. J.-C.-220)". https://www.npm.gov.tw (in French). External link in |website= (help)
  10. ^ Bates, Roy (2008). "Chapter 7". 29 Chinese Mysteries. Beijing, China: TuDragon Books Ltd. p. 51.
  11. ^ a b c Li, Jinn (2015). Pi Xiu Celestial Coming with Fortune. Estalontech (PublishDrive). ISBN 9789634280958.

External links

Ancient Legends

Ancient Legends is a Chinese television series based on the myths and legends associated with the origins of the Chinese civilisation. It is based on stories in Chinese mythology and the ancient classic Shan Hai Jing. The series was first broadcast in mainland China on CCTV-1 from 15 August – 6 September 2010.

Art Institute of Chicago

The Art Institute of Chicago, founded in 1879 and located in Chicago's Grant Park, is one of the oldest and largest art museums in the United States. Recognized for its curatorial efforts and popularity among visitors, the museum hosts approximately 1.5 million guests annually. Its collection, stewarded by 11 curatorial departments, is encyclopedic, and includes iconic works such as Georges Seurat's A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, Pablo Picasso's The Old Guitarist, Edward Hopper's Nighthawks, and Grant Wood's American Gothic. Its permanent collection of nearly 300,000 works of art is augmented by more than 30 special exhibitions mounted yearly that illuminate aspects of the collection and present cutting-edge curatorial and scientific research.

As a research institution, the Art Institute also has a conservation and conservation science department, five conservation laboratories, and one of the largest art history and architecture libraries in the country—the Ryerson and Burnham Libraries.

The growth of the collection has warranted several additions to the museum's original 1893 building, which was constructed for the World's Columbian Exposition of the same year. The most recent expansion, the Modern Wing designed by Renzo Piano, opened in 2009 and increased the museum's footprint to nearly one million square feet, making it the second-largest art museum in the United States, after the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Art Institute is associated with the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, a leading art school, making it one of the few remaining unified arts institutions in the United States.

Battle of Banquan

The Battle of Banquan (simplified Chinese: 阪泉之战; traditional Chinese: 阪泉之戰; pinyin: Bǎn Quán Zhī Zhàn) is the first battle in Chinese history as recorded by Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian. It was fought by Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, and Yandi, the Flame Emperor. The "Battle of Banquan" may actually only refer to the third of a series of three battles. The Yellow Emperor shortly afterwards fought Chiyou at the Battle of Zhuolu. Both battles were fought not long apart, and on nearby plains, and both involved the Yellow Emperor. The Battle of Banquan is credited for the formation of the Huaxia tribe, the basis of the Han Chinese civilization.

Not much is known about this battle since it, along with other events of the era, are clouded by mythology. Thus, the historical accuracy of accounts of this battle is disputed. Chinese historiographical tradition places it in the 26th century BC.

The Shennong tribes originally were a branch of the late neolithic agricultural people from the Guanzhong Plain in the west, who expanded across the Loess Plateau before eventually venturing east beyond the Taihang Mountains. Generations later, the tribe was in conflict with other expanding tribes at the time, such as the Jiuli tribes led by Chiyou, and the Youxiong tribes led by the Yellow Emperor. The Flame Emperor first went to war with Chiyou but was defeated, and in retreating came to territorial conflict against the Yellow Emperor, who raised armies against Shennong.

The armies of Yellow Emperor, under the totems of the black bear (熊), the brown bear (羆), the pixiu (貔貅), the leopard (貙) and the tiger (虎), met the armies of Shennong in Banquan in the first large-scale battle in Chinese history. After three major engagements, the Flame Emperor lost the battle and surrendered the leadership to the Yellow Emperor. The Youxiong and the Shennong tribes then made an alliance, forming the Yanhuang tribes, incorporating the small tribes around them.

The ever-expanding Yanhuang tribe soon drew the envy of Chiyou, who attacked Shennong's territories again. The Yanghuang tribe then reacted by facing Chiyou in the Battle of Zhuolu, and emerged victorious. The Yanhuang tribe then could expand eastwards without hindrance and soon formed what came to be known as the Huaxia civilization, the precursor of the Han Chinese civilization. To this day, Chinese people still call themselves "the Descendants of Yan and Huang".

Cangjie

Cangjie (Chinese: 倉頡) is a legendary figure in ancient China (c. 2650 BCE), claimed to be an official historian of the Yellow Emperor and the inventor of Chinese characters. Legend has it that he had four eyes, and that when he invented the characters, the deities and ghosts cried and the sky rained millet. He is considered a legendary rather than historical figure, or at least, not considered to be sole inventor of Chinese characters. Cangjie was the eponym for the (c. 220 BCE) Cangjiepian proto-dictionary, the Cangjie method of inputting characters into a computer, and a Martian rock visited by the Mars rover Spirit, and named by the rover team.

Chimera (mythology)

The Chimera ( or , also Chimaera (Chimæra); Greek: Χίμαιρα, Chímaira "she-goat") according to writers, was a fire-breathing hybrid creature of Lycia in Asia Minor, composed of the parts of more than one animal. It is usually depicted as a lion, with the head of a goat arising from its back, and a tail that might end with a snake's head, and was one of the offspring of Typhon and Echidna and a sibling of such monsters as Cerberus and the Lernaean Hydra.

The term "chimera" has come to describe any mythical or fictional animal with parts taken from various animals, or to describe anything composed of very disparate parts, or perceived as wildly imaginative, implausible, or dazzling.

The sight of a Chimera was an omen for disaster.

Chinese guardian lions

Chinese or Imperial guardian lions, also known as lion dogs or foo dogs in English, are a traditional Chinese architectural ornament. Typically made of stone, they are also known as stone lions or shishi. The concept, which originated and became popular in Chinese Buddhism, features a pair of highly stylized lions—often one male with a ball and one female with a cub—which were thought to protect the building from harmful spiritual influences. Used in imperial Chinese palaces and tombs, the lions subsequently spread to other parts of Asia including Japan (see komainu), Korea, Tibet, Thailand, Burma, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Laos, and Singapore.

Emperor Wen of Chen

Emperor Wen of Chen (陳文帝) (522–566), personal name Chen Qian (陳蒨), courtesy name Zihua (子華), was an emperor of the Chinese Chen Dynasty. He was the nephew of the founding emperor, Emperor Wu (Chen Baxian), and after Emperor Wu's death in 559, the officials supported him to be emperor since Emperor Wu's only surviving son, Chen Chang, was detained by rival Northern Zhou. At the time he took the throne, Chen had been devastated by war during the preceding Liang Dynasty, and many provinces nominally loyal to him were under control of relatively independent warlords. During his reign, he consolidated the state against warlords, and he also seized territory belonging to claimants to the Liang throne, Xiao Zhuang and Emperor Xuan of Western Liang, greatly expanding Chen's territory and strength.

Giant panda

The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, literally "black and white cat-foot"; Chinese: 大熊猫; pinyin: dà xióng māo, literally "big bear cat"), also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China. It is easily recognized by the large, distinctive black patches around its eyes, over the ears, and across its round body. The name "giant panda" is sometimes used to distinguish it from the unrelated red panda. Though it belongs to the order Carnivora, the giant panda's diet is over 99% bamboo. Giant pandas in the wild will occasionally eat other grasses, wild tubers, or even meat in the form of birds, rodents, or carrion. In captivity, they may receive honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves, oranges, or bananas along with specially prepared food.The giant panda lives in a few mountain ranges in central China, mainly in Sichuan, but also in neighbouring Shaanxi and Gansu. As a result of farming, deforestation, and other development, the giant panda has been driven out of the lowland areas where it once lived.

The giant panda is a conservation-reliant vulnerable species. A 2007 report showed 239 pandas living in captivity inside China and another 27 outside the country. As of December 2014, 49 giant pandas lived in captivity outside China, living in 18 zoos in 13 different countries. Wild population estimates vary; one estimate shows that there are about 1,590 individuals living in the wild, while a 2006 study via DNA analysis estimated that this figure could be as high as 2,000 to 3,000. Some reports also show that the number of giant pandas in the wild is on the rise. In March 2015, Mongabay stated that the wild giant panda population had increased by 268, or 16.8%, to 1,864. In 2016, the IUCN reclassified the species from "endangered" to "vulnerable".While the dragon has often served as China's national symbol, internationally the giant panda appears at least as commonly. As such, it is becoming widely used within China in international contexts, for example since 1982 issuing gold panda bullion coins or as one of the five Fuwa mascots of the Beijing Olympics.

Griffin

The griffin, griffon, or gryphon (Greek: γρύφων, grýphōn, or γρύπων, grýpōn, early form γρύψ, grýps; Latin: gryphus) is a legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion; the head and wings of an eagle; and sometimes an eagle's talons as its front feet. Because the lion was traditionally considered the king of the beasts and the eagle the king of birds by the Middle Ages the griffin was thought to be an especially powerful and majestic creature. Since classical antiquity, Griffins were known for guarding treasure and priceless possessions.In Greek and Roman texts, griffins and Arimaspians were associated with gold deposits of Central Asia. Indeed, as Pliny the Elder wrote, "griffins were said to lay eggs in burrows on the ground and these nests contained gold nuggets."In medieval heraldry, the Griffin became a Christian symbol of divine power and a guardian of the divine.

Heroes for Hire

Heroes for Hire is a fictional superhero team appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The team first appeared in Power Man and Iron Fist #54 (December 1978), and was created by Ed Hannigan and Lee Elias.

Jiankang

Jiankang (Chinese: 建康; pinyin: Jiànkāng), or Jianye (建業; Jiànyè), as it was originally called, was the capital city of the Eastern Wu (229–265 and 266–280 CE), the Jin dynasty (317–420 CE) and the Southern Dynasties (420–552 and 557–589 CE). Its walls are extant ruins in the modern municipal region of Nanjing.

Jonathan Northcroft

Jonathan Northcroft is a Scottish sports journalist and author. He is currently the Chief Football Writer for The Sunday Times.

Lion dance

Lion dance (simplified Chinese: 舞狮; traditional Chinese: 舞獅; pinyin: wǔshī) is a form of traditional dance in Chinese culture and other Asian countries in which performers mimic a lion's movements in a lion costume to bring good luck and fortune. The lion dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year and other Chinese traditional, cultural and religious festivals. It may also be performed at important occasions such as business opening events, special celebrations or wedding ceremonies, or may be used to honour special guests by the Chinese communities.

The Chinese lion dance is sometimes mistakenly referred to as dragon dance by most first timers. An easy way to tell the difference is that a lion is normally operated by just two dancers and has a tail, while a dragon is longer and is held on poles by many people. Chinese lion dance fundamental movements can be found in Chinese martial arts.

There are two main forms of the Chinese lion dance, the Northern Lion and the Southern Lion. Both forms are commonly found in China, but around the world especially in South East Asia, the Southern Lion predominates as it was spread by the Chinese diaspora communities who are historically mostly of Southern Chinese origin. The Southern Lion consists of three styles, Hok San, Fut San and Fut Hok. Versions of the lion dance are also found in Japan, Korea, Tibet and Vietnam. Another form of lion dance exists in Indonesian culture, but it may be of a different tradition and may be referred to as Singa Barong.

List of legendary creatures (P)

Paasselkä devils (Finnish) - Spectral fire

Pamola (Abenaki) - Weather spirit

Panes (Greek) - Human-goat hybrids descended from the god Pan

Pandi (Medieval Bestiary) - White-haired humanoid with giant ears and eight fingers and toes

Panis (Hindu) - Demons with herds of stolen cows

Panlong (Chinese) - Water dragon

Panotti (Medieval Bestiaries) - Humanoid with gigantic ears

Panther (Medieval Bestiaries) - Feline with sweet breath

Parandrus (Medieval Bestiaries) - Shapeshifting animal whose natural form was a large ruminant

Pard (Medieval Bestiaries) - Fast, spotted feline believed to mate with lions to produce leopards

Pardalokampoi (Etruscan) - Fish-tailed leopard

Patagon (Medieval folklore) - Giant race reputed to live in the area of Patagonia

Patasola (Latin America) - Anthropophagous, one-legged humanoid

Patupairehe (Māori) - White-skinned nature spirits

Pech (Scottish) - Strong little people

Pegaeae (Greek) - Spring nymph

Pegasus (Greek) - Winged horse

Pegacorn - Pegasus-unicorn hybrid

Pelesit (Malay) - Servant spirit

Peluda (French) - Dragon

Penanggalan (Malay) - Vampires that sever their heads from their bodies to fly around, usually with their intestines or other internal organs trailing behind

Peng (Chinese) - Giant bird

Penghou (Chinese) - Tree spirit

Peri (Persian) - Winged humanoid

Peryton (Allegedly Medieval folklore) - Deer-bird hybrid

Pesanta (Catalan) - Nightmare demon in the form of a cat or dog

Peuchen (Chilota and Mapuche) - Vampiric, flying, shapeshifting serpent

Phi Tai Hong (Thai) - Ghost of a person who has died suddenly of a violent or cruel death

Phoenix (Phoenician) - Regenerative bird reborn from its own ashes

Piasa (Native American mythology) - Winged, antlered feline-like dragon

Piatek (Armenian) - Large land animal

Pictish Beast (Pictish stones) - Stylistic animal, possibly a dragon

Pillan (Mapuche) - Nature spirit

Pim-skwa-wagen-owad (Abenaki) - Water spirit

Piru (Finnish) - Minor demon

Pishacha (Hindu) - Carrion-eating demon

Pita-skog (Abenaki) - Serpentine rain spirit

Pixie (Cornish) - Little people and nature spirits

Pixiu (Chinese) - Winged lion

Pi yao (Chinese) - Horned, dragon-lion hybrid

Plakavac (Slavic) - Vampire created when a mother strangles her child

Pok-wejee-men (Abenaki) - Tree spirit

Polevik (Polish) - Little people and field spirits

Pollo Maligno (Colombian) - Man-eating chicken spirit

Polong (Malay) - Invisible servant spirit

Poltergeist (German) - Ghost that moves objects

Pombero (Guaraní) - Wild man and nature spirit

Ponaturi (Māori) - Grotesque, malevolent humanoid

Pontianak (Malay) - Undead, vampiric women who died in childbirth

Poukai (Māori) - Giant bird

Preta (Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain) - Ghosts of especially greedy people

Pricolici (Romanian - Roman) - Undead wolf

Psoglav (Serbia) - Dog-headed monster

Psotnik (Slavic) - Mischievous spirit

Psychai (Greek) - Butterfly-winged nymphs, daughters of Psyche

Psychopomp (Greek) - Creatures, spirits, angels, or deities in many religions who escort newly deceased souls from Earth to the afterlife

Pterippus (Greek) - Winged horse

Púca (Welsh) - Shapeshifting animal spirit

Púki (Icelandic) - Malevolent little person

Puck (English) - House spirit

Putz (German) - House spirit

Pugot (Philippine) - Headless humanoid

Puk (Frisian) - House spirit

Pūķis (Latvian) - Malevolent house spirit

Puckwudgie (Native American mythology) - Troll-like gray-skinned being

Pygmy (Greek) - Little people

Pyrausta (Greek) - Insect-dragon hybrid

Python (Greek) - Serpentine dragon

Qilin

The qilin ([tɕʰǐ.lǐn]; Chinese: 麒麟), or kirin in Japanese, is a mythical hooved chimerical creature known in Chinese and other East Asian cultures, said to appear with the imminent arrival or passing of a sage or illustrious ruler. Qilin is a specific type of the lin mythological family of one-horned beasts.

Simurgh

Simurgh (; Persian: سيمرغ‎), also spelled simorgh, simorg, simurg, simoorg, simorq or simourv, is a benevolent, mythical bird in Iranian mythology and literature. It is sometimes equated with other mythological birds such as a "phoenix" (Persian: ققنوس‎ quqnūs, plural: Persian: ققنوس‌ها‎ qaqnus-hâ or , Persian: ققنوسان‎ qaqnusān). Persian humā (Persian: هما‎). The figure can be found in all periods of Iranian art and literature and is also evident in the iconography of Georgia, medieval Armenia, the Byzantine Empire, and other regions that were within the realm of Persian cultural influence.

Sphinx

A sphinx (Ancient Greek: Σφίγξ [spʰíŋks], Boeotian: Φίξ [pʰíːks], plural sphinxes or sphinges) is a mythical creature with the head of a human and the body of a lion.

In Greek tradition, it has the head of a human, the haunches of a lion, and sometimes the wings of a bird. It is mythicised as treacherous and merciless. Those who cannot answer its riddle suffer a fate typical in such mythological stories, as they are killed and eaten by this ravenous monster. This deadly version of a sphinx appears in the myth and drama of Oedipus. Unlike the Greek sphinx, which was a woman, the Egyptian sphinx is typically shown as a man (an androsphinx (Ancient Greek: Ανδρόσφιγξ)). In addition, the Egyptian sphinx was viewed as benevolent, but having a ferocious strength similar to the malevolent Greek version and both were thought of as guardians often flanking the entrances to temples.In European decorative art, the sphinx enjoyed a major revival during the Renaissance. Later, the sphinx image, something very similar to the original Ancient Egyptian concept, was exported into many other cultures, albeit often interpreted quite differently, due to translations of descriptions of the originals and the evolution of the concept in relation to other cultural traditions.

Sphinxes depictions are generally associated with architectural structures such as royal tombs or religious temples. The oldest known sphinx was found near Gobekli Tepe at another site, Nevali Çori, or possibly 195 kilometres (120 mi) to the east at Kortik Tepe, Turkey, and was dated to 9,500 B.C.

Tea pet

A tea pet, also known as a tea lover's pet, is a small clay figure which is kept by some tea drinkers for good luck. The history of tea pets can be traced back to the Yuan dynasty (1206–1368).They are usually made of "zisha" or Yixing clay, from the region near Yixing in Jiangsu province, China. Just like Yixing teapots made of the same clay, tea pets are unglazed, so that they are mostly monochromatic with a rough surface. Tea lovers in China raise a tea pet by placing it on the tea tray during tea time and pouring out the tea over it. The most popular figure of the tea pet is the "pee-pee boy", which is used to judge whether the water is hot enough to make tea. Tea pets are also molded into zodiac animals or Chinese mythical creatures such as dragons, Pixiu, Qilin, etc., to symbolize good luck, fortune and happiness, as well as historical or mythical characters such as Guanyin, Maitreya and Zhu Geliang.

Xixin Chan Temple

Xixin Chan Temple or Soul Refreshing Chan Temple (simplified Chinese: 洗心禅寺; traditional Chinese: 洗心禪寺; pinyin: Xǐxīn Chán Sì) is a Buddhist temple located at the foot of Mount Gaoding (高顶山), Wangcheng District, which is 8-square-kilometre (3.1 sq mi) north of Changsha.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.