Pixar

Pixar Animation Studios, commonly referred to as Pixar (/ˈpɪksɑːr/), is an American computer animation film studio based in Emeryville, California, that is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, owned by the Walt Disney Company. Pixar began in 1979 as the Graphics Group, part of the Lucasfilm computer division, before its spin-out as a corporation in 1986, with funding by Apple Inc. co-founder Steve Jobs, who became the majority shareholder.[2] Disney purchased Pixar in 2006 at a valuation of $7.4 billion by converting each share of Pixar stock to 2.3 shares of Disney stock,[4][5] a transaction that resulted in Jobs becoming Disney's largest single shareholder at the time. Pixar is best known for CGI-animated feature films created with RenderMan, Pixar's own implementation of the industry-standard RenderMan image-rendering application programming interface, used to generate high-quality images.

Pixar has produced 20 feature films, beginning with Toy Story (1995), which was the first-ever computer-animated feature film; its most recent film was Incredibles 2 (2018). All of the studio's films have debuted with CinemaScore ratings of at least an "A−," indicating positive receptions with audiences.[6] The studio has also produced dozens of short films. As of August 2018, its feature films have earned approximately $13 billion at the worldwide box office,[7] with an average worldwide gross of $659.7 million per film.[8] Finding Nemo (2003), along with its sequel Finding Dory (2016), as well as Toy Story 3 (2010) and Incredibles 2 (2018) are among the 50 highest-grossing films of all time, with the latter being the second-highest-grossing animated film of all time with a gross of $1.2 billion. Fifteen of Pixar's films are also among the 50 highest-grossing animated films of all time.

The studio has earned 19 Academy Awards, 8 Golden Globe Awards, and 11 Grammy Awards, among many other awards and acknowledgments. Many of Pixar's films have been nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature since its inauguration in 2001, with nine winning; this includes Finding Nemo (2003) and Toy Story 3 (2010), along with The Incredibles (2004), Ratatouille (2007), WALL-E (2008), Up (2009), Brave (2012), Inside Out (2015), and Coco (2017). Monsters, Inc. (2001) and Cars (2006) are the only two films that were nominated for the award without winning it, while Cars 2 (2011), Monsters University (2013), The Good Dinosaur (2015), Finding Dory (2016), and Cars 3 (2017), were not nominated. Up and Toy Story 3 were also the respective second and third animated films to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, the first being Walt Disney Animation Studios' Beauty and the Beast (1991). Luxo Jr., a character from the studio's 1986 short film of the same name, is the studio's mascot.

On September 6, 2009, Pixar executives John Lasseter, Brad Bird, Pete Docter, Andrew Stanton, and Lee Unkrich were presented with the Golden Lion award for Lifetime Achievement by the Venice Film Festival. The award was given to Lucasfilm's founder George Lucas.

Pixar Animation Studios
Subsidiary
IndustryComputer animation, motion pictures
PredecessorsThe Graphics Group of Lucasfilm Computer Division
FoundedFebruary 3, 1986 in Richmond, California, U.S.[1]
Founders
Headquarters1200 Park Avenue, ,
U.S.
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Products
ParentWalt Disney Studios
Websitepixar.com

History

Early history

Pixar Computer - computer history museum 2013-04-11 23-46
A Pixar Computer at the Computer History Museum with the 1986–95 logo on it.

Pixar got its start in 1974 when New York Institute of Technology's (NYIT) founder Alexander Schure, who was also the owner of a traditional animation studio, established the Computer Graphics Lab (CGL), recruited computer scientists who shared his ambitions about creating the world's first computer-animated film. Edwin Catmull and Malcolm Blanchard were the first to be hired and were soon joined by Alvy Ray Smith and David DiFrancesco some months later, which were the four original members of the Computer Graphics Lab.[9] Schure kept pouring money into the computer graphics lab, an estimated $15 million, giving the group everything they desired and driving NYIT into serious financial troubles.[10] Eventually, the group realized they needed to work in a real film studio in order to reach their goal. Francis Ford Coppola then invited Smith to his house for a three-day media conference, where Coppola and George Lucas shared their visions for the future of digital moviemaking.[11] And when Lucas approached them and offered them a job at his studio, six employees decided to move over to Lucasfilm. During the following months, they gradually resigned from CGL, found temporary jobs for about a year to avoid making Schure suspicious, before they joined The Graphics Group at Lucasfilm.[12][13]

The Graphics Group, which was one-third of the Computer Division of Lucasfilm, was launched in 1979 with the hiring of Catmull from NYIT,[14] where he was in charge of the Computer Graphics Lab. He was then reunited with Smith, who also made the journey from NYIT to Lucasfilm, and was made director of The Graphics Group. At NYIT, the researchers pioneered many of the CG foundation techniques—in particular the invention of the alpha channel (by Catmull and Smith).[15] Years later, the CGL produced a few frames of an experimental film called The Works. After moving to Lucasfilm, the team worked on creating the precursor to RenderMan, called REYES (for "renders everything you ever saw") and developed a number of critical technologies for CG—including "particle effects" and various animation tools.

In 1982, the team began working on special effects film sequences with Industrial Light & Magic. After years of research, and key milestones such as the Genesis Effect in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan and the Stained Glass Knight in Young Sherlock Holmes,[14] the group, which then numbered 40 individuals, was spun out as a corporation in February 1986 by Catmull and Smith. Among the 38 remaining employees, there were also Malcolm Blanchard, David DiFrancesco, Ralph Guggenheim, and Bill Reeves, who had been part of the team since the days of NYIT. Tom Duff, also an NYIT member, would later join Pixar after its formation.[2] With Lucas' 1983 divorce, which coincided with the sudden dropoff in revenues from Star Wars licenses following the release of Return of the Jedi, they knew he would most likely sell the whole Graphics Group. Worried that the employees would be lost to them if that happened, which would prevent the creation of the first computer animated movie, they concluded that the best way to keep the team together was to turn the group into an independent company. But Moore's Law also said that the first film was still some years away, and they needed to focus on a proper product while waiting for computers to become powerful enough. Eventually, they decided they should be a hardware company in the meantime, with their Pixar Image Computer as the core product, a system primarily sold to government agencies and the scientific and medical community.[2][10][16]

In 1983, Nolan Bushnell founded a new computer-guided animation studio called Kadabrascope as a subsidiary of his Chuck E. Cheese's Pizza Time Theatres company (PTT), which was founded in 1977. Only one major project was made out of the new studio, an animated Christmas movie for NBC starring Chuck E. Cheese and other PTT mascots. The animation movement would be made using tweening instead of traditional cel animation. After the North American Video Game Crash of 1983, Bushnell started selling some subsidiaries of PTT to keep the business afloat. Sente Technologies (another division, was founded to have games distributed in PTT stores) was sold to Bally Games and Kadabrascope was sold to Lucasfilm. The Kadabrascope assets were combined with the Computer Division of Lucasfilm.[17] Coincidentally, one of Steve Jobs' first jobs was under Bushnell in 1973 as a technician at his other company Atari, which Bushnell sold to Warner Communications in 1976 to focus on PTT.[18] PTT would later go bankrupt in 1985 and be acquired by ShowBiz Pizza Place.

Independent company

The newly independent Pixar (1986) was headed by Edwin Catmull as President and Alvy Ray Smith as Executive Vice President. While looking for investors, Steve Jobs showed interest, but initially Lucas found his offer too low. Yet he eventually accepted after it turned out to be impossible to find other investors. At that point Smith and Catmull had been turned down 45 times; thirty-five venture capitalists and 10 large corporations had declined.[19] Jobs, who had recently been fired from Apple,[2] and was now founder and CEO of the new computer company NeXT, paid $5 million of his own money to George Lucas for technology rights and invested $5 million cash as capital into the company, joining the board of directors as chairman.[2]

In 1985, while still at Lucasfilm, they had made a deal with the Japanese publisher Shogakukan to make a computer animated movie called Monkey, based on the Monkey King. The project continued some time after they became a separate company in 1986, but in the end it became clear that the technology was simply not there yet. The computers were not powerful enough and the budget would be too high. So it was decided to focus on the computer hardware business some more years while waiting till Moore's law made a computer animated feature possible.[20][21]

At the time Walt Disney Studios was interested and eventually bought and used the Pixar Image Computer and custom software written by Pixar as part of their Computer Animation Production System (CAPS) project, to migrate the laborious ink and paint part of the 2D animation process to a more automated method.

In a bid to drive sales of the system and increase the company's capital, Jobs suggested to make the system available to mainstream users and released the product to the market. Pixar employee John Lasseter, who had long been working on not-for-profit short demonstration animations, such as Luxo Jr. (1986) to show off the device's capabilities, premiered his creations at SIGGRAPH, the computer graphics industry's largest convention, to great fanfare.[22]

However, the Image Computer never sold well.[22] Inadequate sales threatened to put the company out of business as financial losses grew. Jobs invested more and more money in exchange for an increased stake in the company, reducing the proportion of management and employee ownership until eventually, his total investment of $50 million gave him control of the entire company. In 1989, Lasseter's growing animation department, originally composed of just four people (Lasseter, Bill Reeves, Eben Ostby, and Sam Leffler), was turned into a division that produced computer-animated commercials for outside companies.[1][23][24] In April 1990, Pixar sold its hardware division, including all proprietary hardware technology and imaging software, to Vicom Systems, and transferred 18 of Pixar's approximately 100 employees. That same year, Pixar moved from San Rafael to Richmond, California.[25] Pixar released some of its software tools on the open market for Macintosh and Windows systems. RenderMan was one of the leading 3D packages of the early 1990s, and Typestry was a special-purpose 3D text renderer that competed with RayDream addDepth.

During this period Pixar continued its successful relationship with Walt Disney Feature Animation, a studio whose corporate parent would ultimately become its most important partner. As 1991 began, however, the layoff of 30 employees in the company's computer hardware department—including the company's president, Chuck Kolstad,[26] reduced the total number of employees to just 42, essentially its original number.[27] Yet Pixar made a historic $26 million deal with Disney to produce three computer-animated feature films, the first of which was Toy Story. By then the software programmers, who were doing RenderMan and IceMan, and Lasseter's animation department, which made television commercials (and four Luxo Jr. shorts for Sesame Street the same year), were all that remained of Pixar.[28]

Despite the total income from these projects the company continued to lose money and Jobs, as chairman of the board and now the full owner, often considered selling it. Even as late as 1994 Jobs contemplated selling Pixar to other companies such as Hallmark Cards, Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, and Oracle CEO and co-founder Larry Ellison.[29] Only after learning from New York critics that Toy Story would probably be a hit—and confirming that Disney would distribute it for the 1995 Christmas season—did he decide to give Pixar another chance.[30][31] For the first time, he also took an active leadership role in the company and made himself CEO. Toy Story went on to gross more than $373 million worldwide[32] and, when Pixar held its initial public offering on November 29, 1995, it exceeded Netscape's as the biggest IPO of the year. In only its first half-hour of trading Pixar stock shot from $22 to $45, delaying trading because of un-matched buy orders. Shares climbed to $49 before closing the day at $39.[33]

During the 1990s and 2000s, Pixar gradually developed the "Pixar Braintrust," the studio's primary creative development process, in which all directors, writers, and lead storyboard artists at the studio look at each other's projects on a regular basis and give each other very candid "notes" (the industry term for constructive criticism).[34] The Braintrust operates under a philosophy of a "filmmaker-driven studio," in which creatives help each other move their films forward through a process somewhat like peer review, as opposed to the traditional Hollywood approach of an "executive-driven studio" in which directors are micromanaged through "mandatory notes" from development executives ranking above the producers.[35][36] According to Catmull, it evolved out of the working relationship between Lasseter, Stanton, Docter, Unkrich, and Joe Ranft on Toy Story.[34]

As a result of the success of Toy Story, Pixar built a new studio at the Emeryville campus which was designed by PWP Landscape Architecture and opened in November 2000.

Collaboration with Disney

Pixar and Disney had disagreements over the production of Toy Story 2. Originally intended as a straight-to-video release (and thus not part of Pixar's three-picture deal), the film was eventually upgraded to a theatrical release during production. Pixar demanded that the film then be counted toward the three-picture agreement, but Disney refused.[37] Though profitable for both, Pixar later complained that the arrangement was not equitable. Pixar was responsible for creation and production, while Disney handled marketing and distribution. Profits and production costs were split 50-50, but Disney exclusively owned all story, character and sequel rights and also collected a 10- to 15-percent distribution fee. The lack of story, character and sequel rights was perhaps the most onerous aspect to Pixar and set the stage for a contentious relationship.[38]

The two companies attempted to reach a new agreement for ten months before it fell through in January 2004. The new deal would be only for distribution, as Pixar intended to control production and own the resulting story, character and sequel rights themselves while Disney would own the right of first refusal to distribute any sequels. Pixar also wanted to finance their films on their own and collect 100 percent of the profits, paying Disney only the 10- to 15-percent distribution fee.[39] More importantly, as part of any distribution agreement with Disney, Pixar demanded control over films already in production under their old agreement, including The Incredibles (2004) and Cars (2006). Disney considered these conditions unacceptable, but Pixar would not concede.[39]

Disagreements between Steve Jobs and then-Disney chairman and CEO Michael Eisner made the negotiations more difficult than they otherwise might have been. They broke down completely in mid-2004, with Disney forming Circle 7 Animation and Jobs declaring that Pixar was actively seeking partners other than Disney.[40] Despite this announcement, Pixar did not enter negotiations with other distributors,[41] although a Warner Bros. spokesperson told CNN, "We would love to be in business with Pixar. They are a great company."[39] After a lengthy hiatus, negotiations between the two companies resumed following the departure of Eisner from Disney in September 2005. In preparation for potential fallout between Pixar and Disney, Jobs announced in late 2004 that Pixar would no longer release movies at the Disney-dictated November time frame, but during the more lucrative early summer months. This would also allow Pixar to release DVDs for their major releases during the Christmas shopping season. An added benefit of delaying Cars from November 4, 2005, to June 9, 2006, was to extend the time frame remaining on the Pixar-Disney contract, to see how things would play out between the two companies.[41]

Pending the Disney acquisition of Pixar, the two companies created a distribution deal for the intended 2007 release of Ratatouille, if the acquisition fell through, to ensure that this one film would still be released through Disney's distribution channels. In contrast to the earlier Pixar deal, Ratatouille was to remain a Pixar property and Disney would have received only a distribution fee. The completion of Disney's Pixar acquisition, however, nullified this distribution arrangement.[42]

Acquisition by Disney

In 2006, Disney ultimately agreed to buy Pixar for approximately $7.4 billion in an all-stock deal.[43] Following Pixar shareholder approval, the acquisition was completed May 5, 2006. The transaction catapulted Jobs, who owned 49.65% of total share interest in Pixar, to Disney's largest individual shareholder with 7%, valued at $3.9 billion, and a new seat on its board of directors.[5][44] Jobs' new Disney holdings exceeded holdings belonging to ex-CEO Michael Eisner, the previous top shareholder, who still held 1.7%; and Disney Director Emeritus Roy E. Disney, who held almost 1% of the corporation's shares. Pixar shareholders received 2.3 shares of Disney common stock for each share of Pixar common stock redeemed.

As part of the deal, John Lasseter, by then Executive Vice President, became Chief Creative Officer (reporting directly to President and CEO Robert Iger and consulting with Disney Director Roy E. Disney) of both Pixar and Walt Disney Animation Studios (including its division Disneytoon Studios), as well as the Principal Creative Adviser at Walt Disney Imagineering, which designs and builds the company's theme parks.[44] Catmull retained his position as President of Pixar, while also becoming President of Walt Disney Animation Studios, reporting to Iger and Dick Cook, chairman of The Walt Disney Studios. Jobs' position as Pixar's chairman and chief executive officer was abolished, and instead, he took a place on the Disney board of directors.[45]

After the deal closed in May 2006, Lasseter revealed that Iger had realized Disney needed to buy Pixar while watching a parade at the opening of Hong Kong Disneyland in September 2005.[46] Iger noticed that of all the Disney characters in the parade, not one was a character that Disney had created within the last ten years since all the newer ones had been created by Pixar.[46] Upon returning to Burbank, Iger commissioned a financial analysis that confirmed that Disney had actually lost money on animation for the past decade, then presented that information to the board of directors at his first board meeting after being promoted from COO to CEO, and the board, in turn, authorized him to explore the possibility of a deal with Pixar.[47] Lasseter and Catmull were wary when the topic of Disney buying Pixar first came up, but Jobs asked them to give Iger a chance (based on his own experience negotiating with Iger in summer 2005 for the rights to ABC shows for the fifth-generation iPod Classic),[48] and in turn, Iger convinced them of the sincerity of his epiphany that Disney really needed to re-focus on animation.[46]

John Lasseter-Up-66th Mostra
John Lasseter appears with characters from Up at the 2009 Venice Film Festival.

Lasseter and Catmull's oversight of both the Disney Animation and Pixar studios did not mean that the two studios were merging, however. In fact, additional conditions were laid out as part of the deal to ensure that Pixar remained a separate entity, a concern that analysts had expressed about the Disney deal.[49] Some of those conditions were that Pixar HR policies would remain intact, including the lack of employment contracts. Also, the Pixar name was guaranteed to continue, and the studio would remain in its current Emeryville, California, location with the "Pixar" sign. Finally, branding of films made post-merger would be "Disney•Pixar" (beginning with Cars).[50]

Jim Morris, producer of WALL-E (2008), became general manager of Pixar. In this new position, Morris took charge of the day-to-day running of the studio facilities and products.[51]

After a few years, Lasseter and Catmull were able to successfully transfer the basic principles of the Pixar Braintrust to Disney Animation, although meetings of the Disney Story Trust are reportedly "more polite" than those of the Pixar Braintrust.[52] Catmull later explained that after the merger, to maintain the studios' separate identities and cultures (notwithstanding the fact of common ownership and common senior management), he and Lasseter "drew a hard line" that each studio was solely responsible for its own projects and would not be allowed to borrow personnel from or lend tasks out to the other.[53][54] That rule ensures that each studio maintains "local ownership" of projects and can be proud of its own work.[53][54] Thus, for example, when Pixar had issues with Ratatouille and Disney Animation had issues with Bolt (2008), "nobody bailed them out" and each studio was required "to solve the problem on its own" even when they knew there were personnel at the other studio who theoretically could have helped.[53][54]

In November 2014, Morris was promoted to president of Pixar, while his counterpart at Disney Animation, general manager Andrew Millstein, was also promoted to president of that studio.[55] Both continue to report to Catmull, who retains the title of president of both Disney Animation and Pixar.[55]

On November 21, 2017, Lasseter announced that he was taking a six-month leave of absence after acknowledging "missteps" in his behavior with employees in a memo to staff. According to The Hollywood Reporter and The Washington Post, Lasseter had a history of alleged sexual misconduct towards employees.[56][57][58] On June 8, 2018, it was announced that Lasseter would leave Disney Animation and Pixar at the end of the year, but would take on a consulting role until then.[59] Pete Docter was announced as Lasseter's replacement as chief creative officer of Pixar on June 19, 2018.[60]

On October 23, 2018, it was announced that Ed Catmull would be retiring, and will stay in an adviser role until July 2019.[61]

Expansion

On April 20, 2010, Pixar opened Pixar Canada in the downtown area of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.[62] The roughly 2,000 square meters studio produced seven short films based on Toy Story and Cars characters. In October 2013, the studio was closed down to refocus Pixar's efforts at its main headquarters.[63]

Headquarters (campus)

Steve Jobs building at Pixar.gk
The Steve Jobs Building at Pixar's campus in Emeryville
Pixar, Awards, Emeryville, 2010
The atrium of the Pixar campus

When Steve Jobs, chief executive officer of Apple Inc. and Pixar, and John Lasseter, then-executive vice president of Pixar, decided to move their studios from a leased space in Point Richmond, California, to larger quarters of their own, they chose a 20-acre site in Emeryville, California,[64] formerly occupied by Del Monte Foods, Inc. The first of several buildings, a high-tech structure designed by Bohlin Cywinski Jackson,[65] has special foundations and generators to ensure continued film production, even through major earthquakes. The character of the building is intended to abstractly recall Emeryville's industrial past. The two-story steel-and-masonry building is a collaborative space with many pathways.

The digital revolution in filmmaking was driven by applied mathematics, including computational physics and geometry.[66] In 2008, this led Pixar senior scientist Tony DeRose to offer to host the second Julia Robinson Mathematics Festival at the Emeryville headquarters.[67]

Feature films and shorts

Traditions

While some of Pixar's first animators were former cel animators including John Lasseter, they also came from computer animation or were fresh college graduates.[14] A large number of animators that make up the animation department at Pixar were hired around the time the studio released A Bug's Life (1998), Monsters, Inc. (2001) and Finding Nemo (2003). Although Toy Story was a successful film, it was Pixar's first feature film at the time, becoming the first major computer-animation studio to successfully produce theatrical feature films. The majority of the animation industry was (and still is) located in Los Angeles while Pixar is located 350 miles (560 km) north in the San Francisco Bay Area. Also, traditional hand-drawn animation was still the dominant medium for feature animated films.

With the scarcity of Los Angeles-based animators willing to move their families so far north to give up traditional animation and try computer animation, Pixar's new hires at this time either came directly from college or had worked outside feature animation. For those who had traditional animation skills, the Pixar animation software Marionette was designed so that traditional animators would require a minimum amount of training before becoming productive.[14]

In an interview with PBS talk show host Tavis Smiley,[68] Lasseter said that Pixar's films follow the same theme of self-improvement as the company itself has: with the help of friends or family, a character ventures out into the real world and learns to appreciate his friends and family. At the core, Lasseter said, "it's gotta be about the growth of the main character and how he changes."[68]

As of 2018, every Pixar feature film has included a character voiced by John Ratzenberger, who had famously starred in the TV show Cheers. Pixar paid tribute to their "good luck charm" in the end credits of Cars (2006) by parodying scenes from three of their earlier films, replacing all of the characters with motor vehicles. After the third scene, Mack (his character in Cars) realizes that the same actor has been voicing characters in every film.

Due to the traditions that have occurred within the film such as anthropomorphic animals and easter egg crossovers between films that have been spotted by Pixar fans, a blog post entitled The Pixar Theory was published in 2013 by Jon Negroni proposing that all of the characters within the Pixar universe were related.[69][70][71]

Sequels and prequels

Toy Story 2 was originally commissioned by Disney as a 60-minute direct-to-video film. Expressing doubts about the strength of the material, John Lasseter convinced the Pixar team to start from scratch and make the sequel their third full-length feature film.

Following the release of Toy Story 2 in 1999, Pixar and Disney had a gentlemen's agreement that Disney would not make any sequels without Pixar's involvement despite their own right to do so. After the two companies were unable to agree on a new deal, Disney announced in 2004 they would plan to move forward on sequels with/without Pixar and put Toy Story 3 into pre-production at Disney's then-new CGI division Circle 7 Animation. However, when Lasseter was placed in charge of all Disney and Pixar animation following Disney's acquisition of Pixar in 2006, he put all sequels on hold and Toy Story 3 was cancelled. In May 2006, it was announced that Toy Story 3 was back in pre-production with a new plot and under Pixar's control. The film was released on June 18, 2010 as Pixar's eleventh feature film.

Shortly after announcing the resurrection of Toy Story 3, Lasseter fueled speculation on further sequels by saying, "If we have a great story, we'll do a sequel."[72] Cars 2, Pixar's first non-Toy Story sequel, was officially announced in April 2008 and released on June 24, 2011 as their twelfth. Monsters University, a prequel to Monsters, Inc. (2001), was announced in April 2010 and initially set for release in November 2012;[73] the release date was pushed to June 21, 2013 due to Pixar's past success with summer releases according to a Disney executive.[74]

In June 2011, Tom Hanks, who voiced Woody in the Toy Story series, implied that Toy Story 4 was "in the works," although it had not yet been confirmed by the studio.[75][76] In April 2013, Finding Dory, a sequel to Finding Nemo, was announced for a June 17, 2016 release.[77] In March 2014, Incredibles 2 and Cars 3 were announced as films in development.[78] In November 2014, Toy Story 4 was confirmed to be in development with Lasseter serving as director.[79] In an interview, Lasseter stated that "[a] lot of people in the industry view us doing sequels as being for the business of it, but for us, it's pure passion...One of the things that was very important for me as an artist is to continue directing. When I direct, I get to work with the individual artists, with the animators."[80] In August 2015, at the D23 Expo, Lasseter said that the film would focus on the romance between Woody and Bo Peep.[81] Its story will be built on the fact that Bo Peep was absent in Toy Story 3, with Woody and Buzz Lightyear trying to find her and bring her back.[82]

Adaptation to television

Toy Story was the first Pixar film to be adapted for television as Buzz Lightyear of Star Command film and TV series. Cars became the second with the help of Cars Toons, a series of 3-to-5-minute short films running between regular Disney Channel shows and featuring Mater (a tow truck voiced by comedian Larry the Cable Guy).[83] Between 2013 and 2014, Pixar released its first two television specials, Toy Story of Terror![84] and Toy Story That Time Forgot. A television series spin-off of Monsters, Inc. was confirmed in a Disney press release in November 2017.[85]

Animation and live-action

All Pixar films to date have been computer-animated features, but WALL-E so far has been the only Pixar film to not be completely animated as it featured a small amount of live-action footage. 1906, the live-action film by Brad Bird based on a screenplay and novel by James Dalessandro about the 1906 earthquake, was in development but has since been abandoned by Bird and Pixar. Bird has stated that he was "interested in moving into the live-action realm with some projects" while "staying at Pixar [because] it's a very comfortable environment for me to work in". In June 2018, Bird mentioned the possibility of adapting the novel as a TV series, with the earthquake sequence as a live-action feature film.[86]

The Toy Story Toons short Hawaiian Vacation also includes the fish and shark as live-action.

Jim Morris, president of Pixar, produced Disney's John Carter (2012) which Andrew Stanton co-wrote and directed.[87]

Pixar's creative heads were consulted to fine tune the script for the 2011 live-action film The Muppets.[88] Similarly, Pixar assisted in the story development of Disney's The Jungle Book (2016) as well as providing suggestions for the film's end credits sequence.[89] Both Pixar and Mark Andrews were given an "Special Thanks" credit in the film's credits.[90] Additionally, many Pixar animators, both former and current, were recruited for a traditional hand-drawn animated sequence for the 2018 film Mary Poppins Returns.[91]

Pixar representatives have also assisted in the English localization of several Studio Ghibli films, mainly those from Hayao Miyazaki.[92]

Upcoming projects

It was announced in November 2014 that John Lasseter would direct Toy Story 4,[79] scheduled for release on June 21, 2019.[93] However, in July 2017, it was announced that Lasseter had stepped down as director, with Josh Cooley serving as sole director.[94]

On July 1, 2016 two upcoming untitled Pixar films were announced to be scheduled for release on March 6 and June 19, 2020, which are said to be original projects. One of these has now been revealed to be Onward. [95][96]

In July 2017, it was announced that Dan Scanlon will direct an original film about a "suburban fantasy world" in which two teenaged brothers search for their missing father.[97] On December 12, 2018, it was announced that the film will be titled Onward and is slated for a March 6, 2020 release.[98] The film will star Chris Pratt, Tom Holland, Julia Louis-Dreyfus, and Octavia Spencer.[99]

On April 25, 2017, two untitled upcoming films are scheduled for June 19, 2020 and June 18, 2021.[100] On March 1, 2018, two more untitled Pixar films were announced and scheduled for March 18 and June 17, 2022.[101]

Franchises

Title Movies Release date
Toy Story 4 November 22, 1995
Monsters, Inc. 2 November 2, 2001
Finding Nemo 2 May 30, 2003
The Incredibles 2 November 5, 2004
Cars 3 June 9, 2006

Co-op Program

The Pixar Co-op Program, a part of the Pixar University professional development program, allows their animators to use Pixar resources to produce independent films.[102][103] The first CGI project accepted to the program was Borrowed Time (2016); all previously accepted films were live-action.[104]

Exhibitions

Since December 2005, Pixar has held exhibitions celebrating the art and artists of themselves over their first twenty years in animation.[105]

Pixar: 20 Years of Animation

Pixar celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2006 with the release of its seventh feature film Cars, and held two exhibitions from April to June 2010 at Science Centre Singapore in Jurong East, Singapore and the London Science Museum in London.[106] It was their first time holding an exhibition in Singapore.

The exhibition highlights consist of work-in-progress sketches from various Pixar productions, clay sculptures of their characters and an autostereoscopic short showcasing a 3D version of the exhibition pieces which is projected through four projectors. Another highlight is the Zoetrope, where visitors of the exhibition are shown figurines of Toy Story characters "animated" in real-life through the zoetrope.[106]

Pixar: 25 Years of Animation

Pixar celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2011 with the release of its twelfth feature film Cars 2, and held an exhibition at the Oakland Museum of California from July 2010 until January 2011.[107] The exhibition tour debuted in Hong Kong and was held at the Hong Kong Heritage Museum in Sha Tin from March 27 to July 11, 2011.[108][109] In 2013, the exhibition was held in the EXPO in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. For 6 months from July 6, 2012 until January 6, 2013 the city of Bonn (Germany) hosted the public showing,[110] On November 16, 2013, the exhibition moved to the Art Ludique museum in Paris, France with a scheduled run until March 2, 2014.[111] The exhibition moved to three Spanish cities later in 2014 and 2015: Madrid (held in CaixaForum from March 21 until June 22),[112] Barcelona (held also in Caixaforum from February until May) and Zaragoza.[113]

Pixar: 25 Years of Animation includes all of the artwork from Pixar: 20 Years of Animation, plus art from Ratatouille, WALL-E, Up and Toy Story 3.

The Science Behind Pixar

The Science Behind Pixar is a travelling exhibition that first opened on June 28, 2015, at the Museum of Science in Boston, Massachusetts. It was developed by the Museum of Science in collaboration with Pixar. The exhibit features forty interactive elements that explain the production pipeline at Pixar. They are divided into eight sections, each demonstrating a step in the filmmaking process: Modeling, Rigging, Surfaces, Sets & Cameras, Animation, Simulation, Lighting, and Rendering. Before visitors enter the exhibit, they watch a short video at an introductory theater showing Mr. Ray from Finding Nemo and Roz from Monsters, Inc..

The exhibition closed on January 10, 2016 and was moved to the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where it ran from March 12 to September 5. Afterwards, it moved to the California Science Center in Los Angeles, California and was open from October 15, 2016 to April 9, 2017. It made another stop at the Science Museum of Minnesota in St. Paul, Minnesota from May 27 through September 4, 2017.[114]

The exhibition opened in Canada on July 1, 2017 at the TELUS World of Science - Edmonton (TWOSE).

Pixar: The Design of Story

Pixar: The Design of Story was an exhibition held at the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum in New York City from October 8, 2015 to September 11, 2016.[115][116] The museum also hosted a presentation and conversation with John Lasseter on November 12, 2015 entitled "Design By Hand: Pixar's John Lasseter".[115]

Pixar: 30 Years of Animation

Pixar celebrated its 30th anniversary in 2016 with the release of its seventeenth feature film Finding Dory, and put together another milestone exhibition. The exhibition first opened at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Tokyo, Japan from March 5, 2016 to May 29, 2016. It subsequently moved to the Nagasaki Prefectural Art Museum National Museum of History, Dongdaemun Design Plaza where it ended on March 5, 2018 at the Hong Kong Heritage Museum.[117]

See also

References

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External links

Coordinates: 37°49′58″N 122°17′02″W / 37.8327°N 122.2838°W

A Bug's Life

A Bug's Life is a 1998 American computer-animated comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures. Directed by John Lasseter and co-directed and written by Andrew Stanton, the film involves a misfit ant, Flik, who is looking for "tough warriors" to save his colony from greedy grasshoppers, only to recruit a group of bugs that turn out to be an inept circus troupe. The film stars the voices of Dave Foley, Kevin Spacey, and Julia Louis-Dreyfus, and also featured Roddy McDowall's final film appearance before his death.

The film is inspired by Aesop's fable The Ant and the Grasshopper. Production began shortly after the release of Toy Story in 1995. The screenplay was penned by Stanton and comedy writers Donald McEnery and Bob Shaw. The ants in the film were redesigned to be more appealing, and Pixar's animation unit employed technical innovations in computer animation. During production, the filmmakers became embroiled in a public feud with DreamWorks Animation due to the production of their similar film Antz, which was released the same year. Randy Newman composed the music for the film.

The film was released on November 25, 1998, and was a box office success, surpassing competition and grossing $363 million in receipts. It received positive reviews from film critics, who commended the storyline, witty dialogue and animation, while others unfavorably compared it to Antz. It was the first film to be digitally transferred frame-by-frame and released to DVD, and has been released multiple times on home video.

Brave (2012 film)

Brave is a 2012 American computer-animated fantasy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. It was directed by Mark Andrews and Brenda Chapman and co-directed by Steve Purcell. The story is by Chapman, with the screenplay by Andrews, Purcell, Chapman and Irene Mecchi. The film was produced by Katherine Sarafian, with John Lasseter, Andrew Stanton, and Pete Docter as executive producers. The film's voice cast features Kelly Macdonald, Billy Connolly, Emma Thompson, Julie Walters, Robbie Coltrane, Kevin McKidd, and Craig Ferguson. Set in the Scottish Highlands, the film tells the story of a princess named Merida who defies an age-old custom, causing chaos in the kingdom by expressing the desire not to be betrothed.

Chapman drew inspiration for the film's story from her relationship with her own daughter. Co-directing with Mark Andrews, Chapman became Pixar's first female director of a feature-length film. To create the most complex visuals possible, Pixar completely rewrote their animation system for the first time in 25 years. Brave is the first film to use the Dolby Atmos sound format.

Brave premiered on June 10, 2012, at the Seattle International Film Festival, and was released in North America on June 22, 2012, to both positive reviews and box office success. The film won the Academy Award, the Golden Globe, and the BAFTA Award for Best Animated Feature Film. Preceding the feature theatrically was a short film entitled La Luna, directed by Enrico Casarosa.

Cars (film)

Cars is a 2006 American computer-animated comedy-adventure film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. Directed and co-written by John Lasseter from a screenplay by Dan Fogelman, it is Pixar's final independently-produced film before its purchase by Disney in May 2006. Set in a world populated entirely by anthropomorphic cars and other vehicles, the film stars the voices of Owen Wilson, Paul Newman (in his final acting role), Bonnie Hunt, Larry the Cable Guy, Tony Shalhoub, Cheech Marin, Michael Wallis, George Carlin, Paul Dooley, Jenifer Lewis, Guido Quaroni, Michael Keaton, Katherine Helmond, John Ratzenberger and Richard Petty. Race car drivers Dale Earnhardt, Jr., Mario Andretti, Michael Schumacher and car enthusiast Jay Leno (as "Jay Limo") voice themselves.

Cars premiered on May 26, 2006 at Lowe's Motor Speedway in Concord, North Carolina and was theatrically released in the United States on June 9, 2006 to critical and commercial success, grossing $462.2 million worldwide against a budget of $120 million. It was nominated for two Academy Awards including Best Animated Feature and won the Golden Globe Award for Best Animated Feature Film. The film was released on DVD on November 7, 2006 and on Blu-ray in 2007. The film was accompanied by the short One Man Band for its theatrical and home media releases. Merchandise based on the film (including scale models of several of the cars) broke records for retail sales of merchandise based on a Disney/Pixar film, bringing an estimated $10 billion for 5 years after the film's release. The film was dedicated to Joe Ranft, the film's co-director and co-writer, who died in a car accident during the film's production.

A sequel titled Cars 2 was released on June 24, 2011 and a spin-off film titled Planes produced by Disneytoon Studios was released on August 9, 2013, which was followed by its own sequel, Planes: Fire & Rescue, released on July 18, 2014. A series of short animated films titled Cars Toons debuted in 2008 on Disney Channel and Disney XD. A second sequel, Cars 3, was released on June 16, 2017.

Cars (franchise)

Cars is a CGI-animated film series and Disney media franchise set in a world populated by anthropomorphic automobiles created by John Lasseter. The franchise began with the 2006 film of the same name, produced by Pixar and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The film was followed by a sequel in 2011. A third film was released in 2017. The now defunct Disneytoon Studios produced the spin-off films Planes (2013) and Planes: Fire & Rescue (2014).

The first two Cars films were directed by John Lasseter, then-chief creative officer of Pixar, Walt Disney Animation Studios, and Disneytoon Studios, while Cars 3 was directed by Brian Fee, a storyboard artist on the previous installments. Lasseter served as executive producer of Cars 3 and the Planes films. Together, the first two Cars films have accrued over $1 billion in box office revenue worldwide while the franchise has amassed over $10 billion in merchandising sales within the last 10 years.

Cars 3

Cars 3 is a 2017 American 3D computer-animated comedy-adventure film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. Directed by Brian Fee in his directorial debut and written by Kiel Murray, Bob Peterson and Mike Rich, it is the third installment of the Cars franchise and a stand-alone sequel to Cars 2 (2011). It was executive-produced by then-chief creative officer of Walt Disney Animation Studios and Pixar, John Lasseter, who directed the first two Cars films. The returning voices of Owen Wilson, Bonnie Hunt and Larry the Cable Guy are joined by Cristela Alonzo, Chris Cooper, Armie Hammer, Nathan Fillion, Kerry Washington and Lea DeLaria, in addition to a dozen NASCAR personalities. In the film, Lightning McQueen sets out to prove to a new generation of high tech race cars that he is still the best race car in the world.

Released worldwide on June 16, 2017, the film grossed $383 million worldwide and received positive reviews from critics, with many praising it as an improvement over its predecessor as well as its emotional story and animation.

Coco (2017 film)

Coco is a 2017 American 3D computer-animated fantasy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. Based on an original idea by Lee Unkrich, it is directed by him and co-directed by Adrian Molina. The film's voice cast stars Anthony Gonzalez, Gael García Bernal, Benjamin Bratt, Alanna Ubach, Renée Victor, Ana Ofelia Murguía, and Edward James Olmos. The story follows a 12-year-old boy named Miguel who is accidentally transported to the Land of the Dead, where he seeks the help of his deceased musician great-great-grandfather to return him to his family among the living.

The concept for Coco is inspired by the Mexican Day of the Dead holiday. The film was scripted by Molina and Matthew Aldrich from a story by Unkrich, Jason Katz, Aldrich and Molina. Pixar began developing the animation in 2016; Unkrich and some of the film's crew visited Mexico for research. Composer Michael Giacchino, who had worked on prior Pixar animated features, composed the score. Coco is the first film with a nine-figure budget to feature an all-Latino principal cast, with a cost of $175 million.

Coco premiered on October 20, 2017 during the Morelia International Film Festival in Morelia, Mexico. It was theatrically released in Mexico the following week, the weekend before Día de los Muertos, and in the United States on November 22, 2017. The film was praised for its animation, voice acting, music, emotional story, and respect for Mexican culture. It grossed over $807 million worldwide, becoming the 15th highest-grossing animated film ever and was the 11th highest-grossing film of 2017. Recipient of several accolades, Coco was chosen by the National Board of Review as the Best Animated Film of 2017. The film won two Academy Awards for Best Animated Feature and Best Original Song ("Remember Me"). Additionally, it also won the Best Animated Film at the BAFTA Awards, Golden Globe Awards, Critic's Choice Movie Awards, and Annie Awards.

Finding Nemo

Finding Nemo is a 2003 American computer-animated adventure film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. Written and directed by Andrew Stanton with co-direction by Lee Unkrich, the film stars the voices of Albert Brooks, Ellen DeGeneres, Alexander Gould, and Willem Dafoe. It tells the story of the overprotective ocellaris clownfish named Marlin who, along with a regal blue tang named Dory, searches for his abducted son Nemo all the way to Sydney Harbour. Along the way, Marlin learns to take risks and comes to terms with Nemo taking care of himself.

Finding Nemo was released on May 30, 2003; the film won the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, and was nominated in three more categories, including Best Original Screenplay. Finding Nemo became the highest-grossing animated film at the time and was the second-highest-grossing film of 2003, earning a total of $871 million worldwide by the end of its initial theatrical run.The film is the best-selling DVD title of all time, with over 40 million copies sold as of 2006, and was the highest-grossing G-rated film of all time before Pixar's own Toy Story 3 overtook it. The film was re-released in 3D in 2012. In 2008, the American Film Institute named it the 10th greatest animated film ever made as part of their 10 Top 10 lists. In a 2016 poll of international critics conducted by BBC, Finding Nemo was voted one of the 100 greatest motion pictures since 2000. A sequel, Finding Dory, was released on June 17, 2016 in the United States.

Inside Out (2015 film)

Inside Out is a 2015 American 3D computer-animated comedy-drama film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The film was directed by Pete Docter and co-directed by Ronnie del Carmen, with a screenplay written by Docter, Meg LeFauve and Josh Cooley, adapted from a story by Docter and del Carmen. The film is set in the mind of a young girl named Riley Andersen (Kaitlyn Dias), where five personified emotions—Joy (Amy Poehler), Sadness (Phyllis Smith), Anger (Lewis Black), Fear (Bill Hader) and Disgust (Mindy Kaling)—try to lead her through life as she and her parents (Diane Lane and Kyle MacLachlan) adjust to their new surroundings after moving from Minnesota to San Francisco.

Docter first began developing Inside Out in 2010, after noticing changes in his daughter's personality as she grew older. The film's producers consulted numerous psychologists including Dacher Keltner from the University of California, Berkeley, who helped revise the story by emphasizing the neuropsychological findings that human emotions affect interpersonal relationships and can be significantly moderated by them.After premiering at the 68th Cannes Film Festival on May 18, 2015, Inside Out was released in North America on June 19, 2015, accompanied by the short film Lava. The film was praised for its concept, screenplay, subject matter, Michael Giacchino's musical score, and the vocal performances (particularly those of Poehler, Smith, Black, and Richard Kind). The film grossed $90.4 million in its first weekend, making it the highest opening for an original title at the time, accumulating over $857 million in worldwide box office revenue in 2015, making it the seventh highest-grossing film of 2015. The film received several awards, including a BAFTA Award, Golden Globe Award, Critics' Choice Award, Annie Award, Satellite Award, and Academy Award for Best Animated Feature.

John Lasseter

John Alan Lasseter (; born January 12, 1957) is an American animator, filmmaker and former chief creative officer of Walt Disney Animation Studios, Pixar and the defunct Disneytoon Studios. He was also the Principal Creative Advisor for Walt Disney Imagineering.Lasseter began his career as an animator with The Walt Disney Company. After being fired from Disney for promoting computer animation, he joined Lucasfilm, where he worked on the then-groundbreaking use of CGI animation. The Graphics Group of the Computer Division of Lucasfilm was sold to Steve Jobs and became Pixar in 1986. Lasseter oversaw all of Pixar's films and associated projects as executive producer. In addition, he directed Toy Story (1995), A Bug's Life (1998), Toy Story 2 (1999), Cars (2006), and Cars 2 (2011). From 2006 to 2018, Lasseter also oversaw all of Walt Disney Animation Studios' (and its division Disneytoon Studios') films and associated projects as executive producer.

The films he has made have grossed more than $19 billion (USD), making him one of the most successful filmmakers of all time. Of the seven animated films that have grossed more than $1 billion, five of them are films executive produced by Lasseter. The films include Toy Story 3 (2010), the first animated film to pass $1 billion, Frozen (2013), the current highest grossing animated film of all time, as well as Zootopia (2016), Finding Dory (2016) and Incredibles 2 (2018).

He has won two Academy Awards, for Best Animated Short Film (for Tin Toy), as well as a Special Achievement Award (for Toy Story).In November 2017, Lasseter took a six-month sabbatical from Pixar and Disney Animation after acknowledging "missteps" in his behavior with employees. According to various news outlets, Lasseter had a history of alleged sexual misconduct towards employees. In June 2018, Disney announced that he would be leaving the company at the end of the year, but took on a consulting role until then. On January 9, 2019, Lasseter was hired to head Skydance Animation.

List of Disney theatrical animated features

This list of theatrical animated feature films consists of animated films produced or released by The Walt Disney Studios, the film division of The Walt Disney Company.

The Walt Disney Studios releases films from Disney-owned and non-Disney owned animation studios. Most films listed below are from Walt Disney Animation Studios which began as the feature animation department of Walt Disney Productions, producing its first feature-length animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937 and as of 2018 has produced a total of 57 feature films. Beginning with Toy Story in 1995, The Walt Disney Studios also released animated films by Pixar Animation Studios, which became a wholly owned subsidiary in 2006.Other studio units have also released films theatrically, namely Walt Disney Television Animation's Disney MovieToons/Video Premiere unit (now DisneyToon Studios) and the studio's distribution unit, which acquires film rights from outside animation studios to release films under the Walt Disney Pictures, Touchstone Pictures, or previously owned Miramax film labels. In 1996, The Walt Disney Studios signed a deal with Tokuma Shoten for distribution rights to the theatrical works of Studio Ghibli worldwide (excluding Asia except for Japan and Taiwan and excluding Grave of the Fireflies which was not published by Tokuma), including what then was the most recent film, Princess Mononoke. The deal later grew to include DVD rights and newer Ghibli movies; the English language Disney release of Spirited Away won the 2002 Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Studio Ghibli remains wholly independent of Disney and maintains strict creative control over the handling of the foreign language localization Disney produces. All of the theatrical Ghibli back catalog originally included in the deal have since been released to DVD in North America and several other countries. Other studios globally have released films through Walt Disney Pictures which maintains distribution rights in certain territories.

List of Pixar films

This is a list of films from Pixar Animation Studios, an American CGI film production company based in Emeryville, California, United States. As of 2018, Pixar Animation Studios has released 20 feature films, which were all released under the Walt Disney Pictures banner. The company produced its first feature-length film, Toy Story, in 1995. Their second production, A Bug's Life, was released in 1998, followed by their first sequel, Toy Story 2, in 1999. Pixar Animation Studios had two releases in a single year twice: Inside Out and The Good Dinosaur in 2015 and Cars 3 and Coco in 2017.

Their upcoming slate of films include Toy Story 4 (2019), Onward (2020), an untitled film set to be released in 2020, another untitled film set to be released in 2021, and two more untitled films set to be released in 2022.

Monsters, Inc.

Monsters, Inc. is a 2001 American computer-animated buddy comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Pictures. Featuring the voices of John Goodman, Billy Crystal, Steve Buscemi, James Coburn, and Jennifer Tilly, the film was directed by Pete Docter in his directorial debut, and executive produced by John Lasseter and Andrew Stanton. The film centers on two monsters – James P. "Sulley" Sullivan and his one-eyed partner and best friend Mike Wazowski – employed at the titular energy-producing factory Monsters, Inc, which generates power by scaring human children. The monster world believes that children are toxic, and when a small child enters the factory, Sulley and Mike must return her home before it is too late.

Docter began developing the film in 1996, and wrote the story with Jill Culton, Jeff Pidgeon and Ralph Eggleston. Stanton wrote the screenplay with screenwriter Daniel Gerson. The characters went through many incarnations over the film's five-year production process. The technical team and animators found new ways to render fur and cloth realistically for the film. Randy Newman, who composed the music for Pixar's three prior films, returned to compose its fourth.

Monsters, Inc. was praised by critics and proved to be a major box office success from its release on November 2, 2001, generating over $577 million worldwide and becoming the third highest-grossing film of 2001. Monsters, Inc. saw a 3D re-release in theaters on December 19, 2012. A prequel titled Monsters University, which was directed by Dan Scanlon, was released on June 21, 2013.

Monsters University

Monsters University is a 2013 American 3D computer-animated comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures. It was directed by Dan Scanlon and produced by Kori Rae, with John Lasseter, Pete Docter, Andrew Stanton and Lee Unkrich as executive producers. The music for the film was composed by Randy Newman, marking his seventh collaboration with Pixar. It is a prequel to Monsters, Inc. (2001), marking the first time Pixar has made a prequel film. Monsters University tells the story of two monsters, Mike and Sulley, and their time studying at college, where they start off as rivals, but slowly become best friends. John Goodman, Billy Crystal, Steve Buscemi, Bob Peterson, and John Ratzenberger reprise their roles as James P. Sullivan, Mike Wazowski, Randall Boggs, Roz, and the Abominable Snowman, respectively. Bonnie Hunt, who played Ms. Flint in the first film, voices Mike's grade school teacher Ms. Karen Graves.

Disney, as the rights holder, had plans for a sequel to Monsters, Inc. since 2005. Following disagreements with Pixar, Disney tasked its Circle 7 Animation unit to make the film. An early draft of the film was developed; however, Disney's purchase of Pixar in early 2006 led to the cancellation of Circle 7's version of the film. A Pixar-made sequel was confirmed in 2010, and in 2011, it was confirmed that the film would instead be a prequel titled Monsters University.Monsters University premiered on June 5, 2013 at the BFI Southbank in London, England, and was theatrically released on June 21, 2013, in the United States. It was accompanied in theaters by a short film, The Blue Umbrella, directed by Saschka Unseld. The film grossed $744 million against its estimated budget of $200 million, making it the seventh highest-grossing film of 2013. An animated short film titled Party Central, which takes place shortly after the events of Monsters University, premiered in fall 2013 before being released theatrically with Muppets Most Wanted in 2014.

Ratatouille (film)

Ratatouille ( RAT-ə-TOO-ee, French: [ʁatatuj]) is a 2007 American computer-animated comedy film produced by Pixar and released by Walt Disney Pictures. It is the eighth film produced by Pixar and was co-written and directed by Brad Bird, who took over from Jan Pinkava in 2005. The title refers to a French dish, "Ratatouille", which is served at the end of the film and is also a play on words about the species of the main character. The film stars the voices of Patton Oswalt as Remy, an anthropomorphic Rat who is interested in cooking; Lou Romano as Linguini, a young garbage boy who befriends Remy; Ian Holm as Skinner, the head chef of Auguste Gusteau's restaurant; Janeane Garofalo as Colette, a rôtisseur at Gusteau's restaurant; Peter O'Toole as Anton Ego, a restaurant critic; Brian Dennehy as Django, Remy's father and leader of his clan; Peter Sohn as Emile, Remy's older brother; and Brad Garrett as Auguste Gusteau, a recently deceased chef. The plot follows a mouse named Remy, who dreams of becoming a chef and tries to achieve his goal by forming an alliance with a Parisian restaurant's garbage boy.

Development of Ratatouille began in 2000 when Pinkava wrote the original concepts of the film. In 2005, Bird was approached to direct the film and revise the story. Bird and some of the film's crew members also visited Paris for inspiration. To create the food animation used in the film, the crew consulted chefs from both France and the United States. Bird also interned at Thomas Keller's The French Laundry restaurant, where Keller developed the confit byaldi, a dish used in the film.

Ratatouille premiered on June 22, 2007, at the Kodak Theatre in Los Angeles, California, with its general release June 29, 2007, in the United States. The film grossed $620.7 million at the box office and received critical acclaim. The film won the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, and was later voted one of the 100 greatest motion pictures of the 21st century by a 2016 poll of international critics conducted by BBC.

Toy Story

Toy Story is a 1995 American computer-animated buddy adventure comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The feature-film directorial debut of John Lasseter, it was the first feature-length film to be entirely computer-animated, as well as the first feature film from Pixar. The screenplay was written by Joss Whedon, Andrew Stanton, Joel Cohen, and Alec Sokolow from a story by Lasseter, Pete Docter, Stanton, and Joe Ranft. The film features music by Randy Newman, and was executive-produced by Steve Jobs and Edwin Catmull. The film features the voices of Tom Hanks, Tim Allen, Don Rickles, Wallace Shawn, John Ratzenberger, Jim Varney, Annie Potts, R. Lee Ermey, John Morris, Laurie Metcalf and Erik von Detten. Taking place in a world where anthropomorphic toys come to life when humans are not present, its plot focuses on the relationship between an old-fashioned pullstring cowboy doll named Woody and an astronaut action figure Buzz Lightyear as they evolve from rivals competing for the affections of their owner Andy to friends who work together to be reunited with him after being separated from him.

Pixar, which had produced short animated films to promote their computers, was approached by Disney to produce a computer-animated feature film after the success of their short film Tin Toy (1988), which is told from a small toy's perspective. Lasseter, Stanton, and Docter wrote early story treatments which were rejected by Disney, who wanted the film's tone to be "edgier". After several disastrous story reels, production was halted and the script was re-written, better reflecting the tone and theme Pixar desired: that "toys deeply want children to play with them, and that this desire drives their hopes, fears, and actions". The studio, then consisting of a relatively small number of employees, produced the film under minor financial constraints.

Toy Story was released in theaters on November 22, 1995, and was the highest-grossing film on its opening weekend, eventually earning over $373 million at the worldwide box office. It was positively reviewed by critics and audiences, who praised the animation's technical innovation, the wit and thematic sophistication of the screenplay, and the performances of Hanks and Allen; it is considered by many to be one of the best animated films ever made. The film received three Academy Award nominations, including Best Original Screenplay, Best Original Score, and Best Original Song for "You've Got a Friend in Me", as well as winning a Special Achievement Academy Award. In 2005, it was inducted into the National Film Registry as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" in its first year of eligibility. In addition to home media and theatrical re-releases, Toy Story-inspired material includes toys, video games, theme park attractions, spin-offs, merchandise, and two sequels — Toy Story 2 (1999) and Toy Story 3 (2010) — both of which also garnered massive commercial success and critical acclaim, with a fourth film titled Toy Story 4 scheduled for release in 2019.

Toy Story 2

Toy Story 2 is a 1999 American computer-animated comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures. Directed by John Lasseter and co-directed by Lee Unkrich and Ash Brannon, it is the sequel to 1995's Toy Story and the second film in the Toy Story franchise. In the film, Woody is stolen by a toy collector, prompting Buzz Lightyear and his friends to vow to rescue him, but Woody is then tempted by the idea of immortality in a museum. Tom Hanks, Tim Allen, Don Rickles, Wallace Shawn, John Ratzenberger, Jim Varney, Annie Potts, R. Lee Ermey, John Morris and Laurie Metcalf all reprise their character roles from the original film. They are joined by Joan Cusack, Jodi Benson, Kelsey Grammer, Estelle Harris and Wayne Knight who voice some of the new characters introduced.

Disney initially envisioned Toy Story 2 as a direct-to-video sequel. The film began production in a building separated from Pixar, on a small scale, as most of the main Pixar staff were busy working on A Bug's Life (1998). When story reels proved promising, Disney upgraded the film to theatrical release, but Pixar was unhappy with the film's quality. Lasseter and the story team redeveloped the entire plot in one weekend. Although most Pixar features take years to develop, the established release date could not be moved and the production schedule for Toy Story 2 was compressed into nine months.Despite production struggles, Toy Story 2 opened on November 24, 1999 to wildly successful box office numbers, eventually grossing over $497 million and received critical acclaim, with a 100% rating on the website Rotten Tomatoes. Toy Story 2 has been considered by critics to be one of few sequel films to outshine the original, and it continues to be featured frequently on lists of the greatest animated films ever made. The film has seen multiple home media releases and a theatrical 3-D re-release in 2009, 10 years after its initial release. Toy Story 3 was released in 2010, which was also critically and commercially successful.

Toy Story 3

Toy Story 3 is a 2010 American 3D computer-animated comedy-drama film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures. It is the third installment in Pixar's Toy Story series, and the sequel to 1999's Toy Story 2. It was directed by Lee Unkrich, the editor of the first two films and the co-director of Toy Story 2, written by Michael Arndt, while Unkrich wrote the story along with John Lasseter and Andrew Stanton, respectively director and co-writer of the first two films.

The plot focuses on the toys Woody, Buzz Lightyear, and their friends accidentally being donated to a day care center as their owner, Andy, prepares to leave for college, and racing to get home before Andy leaves. In the film's ensemble voice cast, Tom Hanks, Tim Allen, Don Rickles, John Ratzenberger, Wallace Shawn, R. Lee Ermey, John Morris and Laurie Metcalf reprise their roles from the first two films with Joan Cusack, Estelle Harris and Jodi Benson who reprise their roles of Jessie, Mrs. Potato Head and Barbie, from Toy Story 2. Jim Varney, who voiced Slinky Dog in the first two films, died 10 years before the release of the third film, so the role of Slinky was passed down to Blake Clark. They are joined by Ned Beatty, Michael Keaton, Whoopi Goldberg, Timothy Dalton, Kristen Schaal, Bonnie Hunt, and Jeff Garlin who voice the new characters introduced in this film.

The film was released in theaters June 18, 2010, and played worldwide from June through October in the Disney Digital 3-D, RealD, and IMAX 3D formats. Toy Story 3 was the first film to be released theatrically with Dolby Surround 7.1 sound. Like its predecessors, Toy Story 3 received critical acclaim upon release, with critics praising the vocal performances, screenplay, emotional depth, animation, and Randy Newman's musical score.It became the second Pixar film (after Up) and third animated film overall (after Beauty and the Beast and Up) to receive an Academy Award nomination for Best Picture. The film received four more Academy Award nominations for Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Sound Editing, Best Animated Feature and Best Original Song, winning the latter two. Toy Story 3 grossed over $1 billion worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing film of 2010—both in North America and worldwide—and the fourth-highest-grossing film at the time of its release, as well as the fourth-highest-grossing animated film of all time, the first animated film to generate over $1 billion in ticket sales, and Pixar's second-highest-grossing film to date, behind Incredibles 2. A sequel, Toy Story 4, directed by Josh Cooley, is scheduled to be released on June 21, 2019.

Toy Story 4

Toy Story 4 is an upcoming American 3D computer-animated comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures. It is the fourth installment in Pixar's Toy Story series, and the sequel to Toy Story 3 (2010). It is directed by Josh Cooley and written by Stephany Folsom, with previous films' writers John Lasseter, Pete Docter, Andrew Stanton, and Lee Unkrich conceiving the film's story.The film continues from Toy Story 3, where Sheriff Woody (Tom Hanks) and Buzz Lightyear (Tim Allen), among their other toy friends, have found new appreciation after being given by Andy Davis to Bonnie Anderson. They are introduced to Forky (Tony Hale), a spork that has been made into a toy, and they soon embark on a road trip adventure alongside old and new friends. In addition to Hanks and Allen, the film will feature returning cast members, including Annie Potts and Joan Cusack reprising their respective roles from previous films as Bo Peep and Jessie. New additions include Tony Hale, Keegan-Michael Key, Jordan Peele, and Keanu Reeves.

The film is set to be released in theaters on June 21, 2019, in RealD 3D, Dolby Cinema, and IMAX 3D.

Up (2009 film)

Up is a 2009 American 3D computer-animated comedy-drama buddy adventure film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The film centers on an elderly widower named Carl Fredricksen (Ed Asner) and an earnest boy named Russell (Jordan Nagai). By tying thousands of balloons to his house, Carl sets out to fulfill his dream to see the wilds of South America and complete a promise made to his late wife, Ellie. The film was directed by Pete Docter and co-directed by Bob Peterson, who also wrote the film's screenplay, as well as the story with Tom McCarthy, with music composed by Michael Giacchino.

Docter began working on the story in 2004, which was based on fantasies of escaping from life when it becomes too irritating. He and eleven other Pixar artists spent three days in Venezuela gathering research and inspiration. The designs of the characters were caricatured and stylized considerably, and animators were challenged with creating realistic cloth.

Up was Pixar's first film to be presented in Disney Digital 3-D.Up was released on May 29, 2009, and opened the 2009 Cannes Film Festival, becoming the first animated and 3D film to do so. The film grossed over $735 million, and received positive reviews, with critics commending the humor and heart of the film. Asner's vocal performance was praised, as was the montage of Carl and his wife Ellie aging together. The film received five Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture, making it the second animated film in history to receive such a nomination, following Beauty and the Beast (1991).

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