Pitch (baseball)

In baseball, a pitch is the act of throwing a baseball toward home plate to start a play. The term comes from the Knickerbocker Rules. Originally, the ball had to be literally "pitched" underhand, as with pitching horseshoes. Overhand throwing was not allowed until 1884.

The biomechanics of pitching have been studied extensively. The phases of throwing include windup, early cocking, late cocking, early acceleration, late acceleration, deceleration, and follow-through.[1]

Pitchers throw a variety of pitches, each of which has a slightly different velocity, trajectory, movement, hand position, wrist position and/or arm angle. These variations are introduced to confuse the batter in various ways, and ultimately aid the defensive team in getting the batter or baserunners out. To obtain variety, and therefore enhance defensive baseball strategy, the pitcher manipulates the grip on the ball at the point of release. Variations in the grip cause the seams to "catch" the air differently, thereby changing the trajectory of the ball, making it harder for the batter to hit.

The selection of which pitch to use can depend on a wide variety of factors including the type of hitter who is being faced; whether there are any base runners; how many outs have been made in the inning; and the current score.

Baseball pitching motion 2004
The typical motion of a pitcher.
Demonstration of pitching techniques


The responsibility for selecting the type of pitch was traditionally made by the catcher, who would relay hand signals to the pitcher with the fingers, usually one finger for fastball or the pitcher's best pitch, with the pitcher having the option to ask for another selection by shaking his head.[2]

The current form, however, is to have the manager or a coach relay the pitch selection to the catcher, via secret hand signals, to prevent the opposing team from having the advantage of knowing what the next pitch will be. Starting pitchers typically throw more pitches than relievers.[3][4]


The fastball is the most common pitch in baseball, and most pitchers have some form of a fastball in their arsenal. Most pitchers throw four-seam fastballs. It is basically a pitch thrown very fast, generally as hard as a given pitcher can throw while maintaining control. Some variations involve movement or breaking action, some do not and are simply straight, high-speed pitches. While throwing the fastball it is very important to have proper mechanics, because this increases the chance of getting the ball to its highest velocity, making it difficult for the opposing player to hit the pitch. The cut fastball, split-finger fastball, and forkball are variations on the fastball with extra movement, and are sometimes called sinking-fastballs because of the trajectories. The most common fastball pitches are:

Rising fastball

It's a term to describe a fastball on which backspin is applied that descends slower than it would've in a vacuum. When backspin is applied to a fastball it "fights" against the downward force of gravity. So, more backspin is equivalent to more "rise", that is slower descend.

Breaking balls

A common grip of a slider

Well-thrown breaking balls have movement, usually sideways or downward. A ball "moves" due to the changes in the pressure of the air surrounding the ball as a result of the kind of pitch thrown. Therefore, the ball keeps "moving" in the path of least resistance, which constantly changes. For example, the spin from a properly thrown slider (thrown by a right-handed pitcher) results in lower air pressure on the pitcher's left side, resulting in the ball "sliding" to the left (from the pitcher's perspective). The goal is usually to make the ball difficult to hit or confusing to batters. Most breaking balls are considered off-speed pitches. The most common breaking pitches are:


The changeup is the staple off-speed pitch, usually thrown to look like a fastball but arriving much slower to the plate. Its reduced speed coupled with its deceptive delivery is meant to confuse the batter's timing. It is meant to be thrown the same as a fastball, but simply farther back in the hand, which makes it release from the hand slower but still retaining the look of a fastball. A changeup is generally thrown 8–15 miles per hour slower than a fastball. If thrown correctly, the changeup will confuse the batter because the human eye cannot discern that the ball is coming significantly slower until it is around 30 feet from the plate. For example, a batter swings at the ball as if it was a 90 mph fastball but it is coming at 75 mph which means he is swinging too early to hit the ball well, making the changeup very effective.[5] The most common changeups are:

Other pitches

Other pitches which are or have been used in baseball are:

Pitching deliveries

The most common pitching delivery is the three-quarters delivery. Other deliveries include the submarine (underhand) and the sidearm deliveries. There is also crossfire pitching technique (delivery de facto) which only works for sidearm delivery.[6][7]

A pickoff move is the motion the pitcher goes through in making pickoff.

Pitching positions

There are two legal pitching positions:

  • the windup
  • the set which is often referred to as the "stretch".

Typically, pitchers from the set use a high leg kick, but may instead release the ball more quickly by using the slide step.

See also


  1. ^ Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 15(1):37–40, January 2005. Benjamin, Holly J. MD *; Briner, William W. Jr. MD +
  2. ^ Andriesen, David (November 2003). Catchers Are Baseball's Least Appreciated Players. Baseball Digest. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  3. ^ "Yankees Pitches". yolasite.com. Archived from the original on 2015-11-25. Retrieved 2015-10-14.
  4. ^ "Catcher Signals". Baseball-Catcher.com. Archived from the original on 2011-10-11.
  5. ^ Walsh, John (2007-09-19). "Pitch Identification Tutorial". The Hardball Times. Archived from the original on 2007-10-17. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
  6. ^ "Earl Moore - Society for American Baseball Research". sabr.org. Archived from the original on 28 September 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  7. ^ "Crossfire?". Let's Talk Pitching - Baseball Discussion Forum. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.

External links


The 1920s (pronounced "nineteen-twenties") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1920, and ended on December 31, 1929. In North America, it is frequently referred to as the "Roaring Twenties" or the "Jazz Age", while in Europe the period is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Age Twenties" because of the economic boom following World War I. French speakers refer to the period as the "Années folles" ("Crazy Years"), emphasizing the era's social, artistic, and cultural dynamism.

The economic prosperity experienced by many countries during the 1920s (especially the United States) was similar in nature to that experienced in the 1950s and 1990s. Each period of prosperity was the result of a paradigm shift in global affairs. These shifts in the 1920s, 1950s, and 1990s, occurred in part as the result of the conclusion of World War I and Spanish flu, World War II, and the Cold War, respectively.

The 1920s saw foreign oil companies begin operations throughout South America. Venezuela became the world's second largest oil producing nation.In some countries the 1920s saw the rise of radical political movements, especially in regions that were once part of empires. Communism spread as a consequence of the October Revolution and the Bolsheviks' victory in the Russian Civil War. Fear of the spread of Communism led to the emergence of far right political movements and fascism in Europe. Economic problems contributed to the emergence of dictators in Eastern Europe and the Balkans, to include Józef Piłsudski in the Second Polish Republic, and Peter and Alexander Karađorđević in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

The devastating Wall Street Crash in October 1929 is generally viewed as a harbinger of the end of 1920s prosperity in North America and Europe.

A. J. Burnett

Allan James Burnett (born January 3, 1977), is an American former professional baseball starting pitcher, who played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Florida Marlins, Toronto Blue Jays, New York Yankees, Pittsburgh Pirates, and Philadelphia Phillies for 17 seasons.

The New York Mets drafted Burnett in the eighth round of the 1995 MLB draft, out of Central Arkansas Christian School in North Little Rock, Arkansas, where he helped lead the team to back-to-back state championships. The Mets traded him to the Marlins, and Burnett made his MLB debut in 1999. He signed with the Blue Jays as a free agent, before the 2006 season, and with the Yankees before the 2009 season. The Yankees traded Burnett to the Pirates before the 2012 season. After two years in Pittsburgh, he signed with the Phillies, where he played one season, before rejoining the Pirates for his final season.Burnett recorded a no-hitter in a complete game shutout in 2001, despite walking 9 batters. He led the National League (NL) in shutouts in 2002, and the American League (AL) in strikeouts in 2008. Burnett was a member of the 2009 World Series champion Yankees. He was selected for the NL roster for the 2015 MLB All-Star Game.

Brandon Guyer

Brandon Eric Guyer (born January 28, 1986) is an American professional baseball outfielder in the Chicago White Sox organization. He has played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Tampa Bay Rays and Cleveland Indians. His knack for getting hit by pitches has earned the nickname, "La Piñata."

Brent Strom

Brent Terry Strom (born October 14, 1948) is a former Major League Baseball pitcher who played from 1972 to 1973 and 1975 to 1977 for the New York Mets, Cleveland Indians and San Diego Padres. He is the pitching coach for the Houston Astros. According to an interview with Tommy John, Strom was the second pitcher to receive Tommy John surgery.

Don Baylor

Don Edward Baylor (June 28, 1949 – August 7, 2017) was an American professional baseball player and manager. During his 19 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB), Baylor was a power hitter known for crowding the plate and was a first baseman, left fielder, and designated hitter. He played for six different American League (AL) teams, primarily the Baltimore Orioles and California Angels, but he also played for the Oakland Athletics, New York Yankees, Minnesota Twins, and Boston Red Sox. In 1979, Baylor was an All-Star and won the AL Most Valuable Player Award. He won three Silver Slugger Awards, the Roberto Clemente Award, and was a member of the 1987 World Series champion Minnesota Twins.

After his playing career, Baylor managed the expansion Colorado Rockies for six years and the Chicago Cubs for three seasons. He was named NL Manager of the Year in 1995 and was inducted into the Angels Hall of Fame.

Fever Pitch (2005 film)

Fever Pitch (released as The Perfect Catch outside the United States and Canada) is a 2005 romantic comedy film. It is directed by the Farrelly brothers, and stars Drew Barrymore and Jimmy Fallon. It is a remake of the 1997 film. Nick Hornby, who had written the original book and the 1997 screenplay adaptation, acted as an executive producer for the American remake.While both the book and the original 1997 film are about association football, the 2005 adaptation, aimed at the U.S. market, is about baseball. Both Fever Pitch films feature real-life dramatic or unexpected sporting victories, the original focusing on Arsenal's last minute League title win in 1989, and the remake on the Boston Red Sox's 2004 World Series Championship.

Fort Lauderdale Strikers (1988–1994)

The Fort Lauderdale Strikers were an American soccer team established in 1988 as part of the third American Soccer League. In 1990, it moved to the American Professional Soccer League where it spent five seasons before folding in 1994. The Strikers won the 1989 ASL championship, as well as the 1989 National Pro Soccer Championship.

Jackson Park (Windsor, Ontario)

Jackson Park is a park south of Downtown Windsor, Ontario, Canada. It contains many war memorials including a World War II, and a Korean War memorial. Jackson Park contains more than 10,000 plants, many of which are located in its Sunken Gardens. The park was named after former Windsor mayor Cecil E. Jackson. New features are being added to the park. The original World War II monument was Avro Lancaster bomber aircraft FM212; it was removed in 2005 due to the effect that over four decades of exposure to the elements was having on it, and replaced by more weather-resistant fiberglass models of a Hawker Hurricane and a Supermarine Spitfire fighter. Beneath the two aircraft is a garden in the shape of the Lancaster bomber.

Jackson Park is also a well equipped, popular sports park. Besides being the permanent home of the Windsor Lawn Bowling Club and Windsor Stadium, the park also provides a wide assortment of creative play units, a basketball court, five ball diamonds, rugby and soccer fields. Other improvements have included a complete refurbishment of the stadium grandstands, building and fields in 1990. In 1991, both the lighted tennis courts and the lawn bowling greens were upgraded and repairs made to the cedar pergola structure.

Jackson Park is one of the most intricate parks in Windsor. The park features formal gardens, fountains, monuments, and a network of walking areas. There are monuments in memory of the Boer War, Korean War and World War II, as well as those commemorating important people, such as the sundial which bears the name of Polish astronomer Nicolas Copernicus.

Many of the walkways are in well-lit and open areas, but there are a few that lead to shade, or to quiet spots tucked away between bushes and tall plants. It is a well maintained park and worth an afternoon of exploration.

Amenities include:

cricket pitch,

baseball diamonds,

baseball stadium,

Windsor Football/Soccer Stadium,

picnic area,



privately owned Parkside Tennis Club,

Copernicus sundial,

South African War Memorial,

Land, Sea, Air Memorial,

Robert Burns memorial,



List of St. Louis Cardinals team records

The St. Louis Cardinals, a professional baseball franchise based in St. Louis, Missouri, compete in the National League (NL) of Major League Baseball (MLB). in 1892. Before joining the NL, they were also a charter member of the American Association (AA) from 1882 to 1891. Although St. Louis has been the Cardinals' home city for the franchise's entire existence, they were also known as the Brown Stockings, Browns, and Perfectos.

In 134 seasons, the franchise has won more than 10,000 regular season games and appeared in 27 postseasons while claiming 12 interleague championships, tying one other, and 23 league pennants. 11 of the interleague championships are World Series titles won under the modern format since 1903; the other championship and tie occurred in 1885–1886. 19 of the league pennants are NL pennants, and the other four are AA pennants. Their 11 World Series titles represent the most in the NL and are second in MLB only to the New York Yankees' 27.

Notable players have defined, in part, the Cardinals' success and history. Stan Musial owns the most career batting records with 22. Rogers Hornsby owns the most single-season records with 11. Bob Gibson owns the most career pitching records with 18. Silver King owns the most single-season pitching records with nine.

McCleary, Washington

McCleary () is a city in Grays Harbor County, Washington, United States. The population was 1,653 at the 2010 census.

Nantucket (band)

Nantucket is a Southern rock band formed in Jacksonville, North Carolina in 1969. Originally known as a Beach music band named Stax of Gold, and later Nantucket Sleighride (after the song and album by Mountain), the six-member group—Tommy Redd, Larry Uzzell, Mike Uzzell, Eddie Blair, Kenny Soule, and Mark Downing—first became successful in their home state of North Carolina as a cover band.

Pompano Beach Municipal Stadium

Pompano Beach Municipal Stadium was a stadium in Pompano Beach, Florida. Primarily used for baseball, it was home to the Pompano Beach Mets and Pompano Beach Cubs and served as the spring training home of the Washington Senators from 1961 to 1971 and the Texas Rangers from 1972 to 1986. The 1989 Gold Coast Suns split their home games between Bobby Maduro-Miami Stadium and Municipal Stadium. The ballpark was dedicated on March 22, 1957. It held 4,500 people. In 1980 new night lighting, seat and fences were installed at a cost of $227,000. Improvements in 1984 included a new practice infield, public address system, re-carpeting of the clubhouse and rewiring of the concession stands. It was also used as the Pompano Beach High School baseball team (Tornadoes) home field. The Fort Lauderdale Strikers of the APSL used it as their home soccer ground for one season in 1990 after the Broward School District via the school board, denied them access to Lockhart Stadium. The stadium also hosted the Florida State League's Miami Miracle in 1990 and 1991.This stadium was demolished in 2008 and re-built as several baseball fields, although without grandstands. The baseball complex, no longer a stadium, is managed by the City of Pompano Beach and hosts Federal League Semi-Pro Baseball and high school baseball games.

Ron Hunt

Ronald Kenneth Hunt (born February 23, 1941) is a former professional baseball second baseman. He played 12 seasons in Major League Baseball from 1963 to 1974 for the New York Mets, Los Angeles Dodgers, San Francisco Giants, Montreal Expos and the St. Louis Cardinals. He batted and threw right-handed.

In 1971 Hunt set a single-season record for being hit by more pitches (50) than any player since 1900.

Shin-Soo Choo

Shin-Soo Choo (Hangul: 추신수; Hanja: 秋信守; Korean pronunciation: [tɕʰu.ɕin.su]; born July 13, 1982) is a South Korean professional baseball right fielder for the Texas Rangers of Major League Baseball (MLB). He has also played for the Seattle Mariners, Cleveland Indians, and Cincinnati Reds.

Choo was selected as the Most Valuable Player (MVP) and Best Pitcher of the WBSC U-18 Baseball World Cup as South Korea won the event. Choo signed a $1.35 million contract with the Mariners after the championship and converted to the outfield.

In 2018, Choo earned a selection to his first career Major League Baseball All-Star Game. During that season, he safely reached base in 52 consecutive games, the longest such single-season streak in Texas Rangers history. As of 2018, he led all active major league ballplayers in career hit by pitch, with 132.

Split-finger fastball

A split-finger fastball or splitter is a pitch in baseball derived from the forkball. It is named after the technique of putting the index and middle finger on different sides of the ball, or "splitting" them. When thrown hard, it appears to be a fastball to the batter, but as the pitch nears homeplate it then appears to the batter and observers to suddenly "drop off the table" towards home plate—that is, it suddenly moves downwards, towards the dirt. Despite the use of the word fastball, it is used as an off-speed pitch.

Sports in Markham, Ontario

Most sports in Markham, Ontario are amateur or recreational:


Markham Bears Ringette - Provincial & Regional Ringette teams

Markham Junior Hockey Club

Markham Mariners - Markham District Rep. Baseball

Markham Raiders - Markham Minor Football Association

Markham Stouffville Stars - Girls Hockey Association (L.L.F.H.L.)

Markham Mariners - Markham Men's Baseball

Markham Thunder - Markham Minor Lacrosse

Markham Thunder - Canadian Women's Hockey League

Markham Ironheads-Ontario Junior B Lacrosse Team

Markham Waxers - Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League (folded 2012)

Markham Royals - Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League

MUMBA - Markham-Unionville Minor Basketball Association Rep. Program

Markham Majors - Markham Men's Fastball

Markham Islanders- Markham Minor Hockey (G.T.H.L. "AA" and "A")

Markham Majors- Markham Minor Hockey (G.T.H.L. "AAA")

Toronto Canada Moose, Based out of the community of Thornhill (Markham/Vaughan) - Greater Metro Junior 'A' Hockey League

Unionville Spartans - Unionville Minor Softball Association Select Program

Unionville Jets - Unionville Minor Hockey Association Select Program (York Simcoe Minor Hockey League or GTHL depending on age)

York Region Raiders- Ontario Varsity Football LeagueLeagues

FCCM Basketball Division

Markham District Baseball Association

Markham Men's Recreational Hockey

Markham Regional Ringette Association (MRRA)

Markham Women's Ringette Association

Markham Men's Slo-Pitch League

Markham Woman's Slo-Pitch League

Markham Unionville Minor Basketball Association (MUMBA)

Unionville Minor Hockey Association

Unionville Minor Softball Association

Unionville Men's Slo-Pitch League

Unionville Mixed Slo-Pitch League

Unionville Ladies Slo-Pitch Baseball

Thornhill Community Hockey League (TCHL)

Thornhill Baseball Club

Thornhill Slo-Pitch LeagueClubs

Armadale Tennis Club

Bluewater Basketball Program

Markham Aquatic Club

Markham Cricket Club

Markham Lawn Bowling Club

Markham Rugby Club

Markham Lightning Soccer Club

Markham Tennis Club

Thornhill Thunder Soccer Club

Unionville Curling Club

Unionville-Milliken Strikers Soccer Club

Unionville Tennis ClubDue to the large areas of undeveloped land, Markham has several golf facilities:

Angus Glen Golf Club- opened 1995

Bayview Country Club (private) 1960

Cedar Brae Golf & Country Club (private) - opened 1969 just south of Markham in Toronto and relocated in 1954 from original 1922 course in south Scarborough and again in 1962 from land just west of the current course

Remington Parkview Golf Club 1997 - southern section of the former IBM Golf Course (c. 1950 as Box Grove Golf and IBM 1967)

Buttonville Fairways

Cresthaven Golf Club 1964

Markham Golf Dome

Mandarin Golf and Country Club - Windmill Golf Club before 1991 and to be re-developed after 2017

Markham Green Golf Club 1997 - northern section of the former IBM Golf Course (c. 1950 as Box Grove Golf and IBM 1967) with rest developed as residential

Uplands Golf & Country Club 1922 - reduced size in 1989 due to development

York Downs Golf & Country Club (Private) - opened 1922 and will undergo re-development after 2020

St. Elizabeth Catholic High School

St. Elizabeth Catholic High School is a high school in Thornhill, Ontario, Canada. St. Elizabeth CHS was founded by the York Catholic District School Board in 1987, celebrating its 20th anniversary in 2007. St. Elizabeth is the home of Regional Arts Program for drama, dance, visual arts, and music students in York Region. The enrollment averages between 1300 and 1500 students per school year.

In the beginning, the school consisted of (and was only open to) grade nine students. However, the school added the tenth grade for the 1988-1989 school year and the eleventh grade for the remainder of 1989. Due to the overpopulation of school enrollment, a change of location was announced and the current location began construction in 1988. Once completed in January 1990, it was officially opened to students and staff in February 1990. The high school's original location (located at 21 Mullen Drive in Thornhill) was changed to Holy Family Catholic School, and officially opened in September 1990.

Vicente Padilla

Vicente de la Cruz Padilla (born September 27, 1977) is a Nicaraguan former professional baseball pitcher. Padilla played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Arizona Diamondbacks, Philadelphia Phillies, Texas Rangers, Los Angeles Dodgers and Boston Red Sox and in Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB) for the Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks.

Baseball pitches
Off-speed pitches
Purpose pitches
Illegal pitches
Baseball concepts
Game process
Base running


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.