Pitane (Aeolis)

Pitane (Ancient Greek: Πιτάνη), near Çandarlı, Turkey, was an ancient Greek town of the ancient region of Aeolis, in Asia Minor. It was situated near the mouth of the river Evenus on the bay of Elaea. It was one of the eleven ancient Aeolian settlements, and possessed considerable commercial advantages in having two harbours.[1][2] It was the birthplace of the academic philosopher Arcesilaus, and in the reign of Titus it suffered severely from an earthquake.[3][4][5][6] The town is still mentioned by Hierocles. Pliny the Elder mentions in its vicinity a river Canaius,[5] which is not noticed by any other writer; but it may possibly be the river Pitanes, spoken of by Ptolemy, and which seems to derive its name from the town of Pitane.[7]

Its site is near modern Çandarlı, Asiatic Turkey.[8][9]

Pitane
Πιτάνη (in Ancient Greek)
Pitane (Aeolis) is located in Turkey
Pitane (Aeolis)
Shown within Turkey
LocationÇandarlı, Izmir Province, Turkey
RegionAeolis
Coordinates38°55′41″N 26°56′14″E / 38.92806°N 26.93722°ECoordinates: 38°55′41″N 26°56′14″E / 38.92806°N 26.93722°E
TypeSettlement

History

Excavations in the necropolis of Pitane revealed ceramic finds from the Mycenaean, protogeometric, geometric, orientalizing and the Archaic Greece periods.

Pitane is believed to be the northernmost point of the Mycenaean influence in Anatolia.

A kouros from Pitane, dated to the 6th century BC, is now housed at the Bergama Archeological Museum.

Classical Period

In the fifth century BCE Pitane was a member of the Delian League and is recorded as paying a tribute of 1,000 drachmas.[10] In 335 BCE, Alexander the Great's general Parmenion laid siege to the city as part of a campaign against the Persian Empire, but the city was saved by the Persian general Memnon of Rhodes.[11]

Hellenistic Period

In c. 319 BCE its citizen Herakleitos son of Lysistratos was honoured by the people of Delphi, and in the period c. 325 - c. 275 BCE the people of Abydos honoured another citizen, Charidemos son of Antiphanes with a dedication at Delphi which included a statue by the famous Athenian sculptor Praxiteles.[12] In the reign of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter (r. 281-261 BCE), Pitane was able to expand its territory by paying the king 380 talents to purchase some territory.[13] This territory was the subject of a dispute with the city of Mytilene on nearby Lesbos in the mid-second century BCE which was arbitrated by Pergamon.[14] We also learn from this document that in the Hellenistic period Pitane was a free city not subject to the Attalid dynasty and its public document no longer used the Aeolic dialect. In 84 BCE Mithridates VI while evading the Roman general Gaius Flavius Fimbria fled to Pitane, where he was besieged by Fimbria before escaping to Mytilene by sea.[15]

Notable people

References

  1. ^ Herodotus. Histories. 1.149.
  2. ^ Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax; Strabo. Geographica. xiii. pp. 581, 607, 614. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  3. ^ Oros. 7.12; Ptolemy. The Geography. 5.2.5.
  4. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v.
  5. ^ a b Pliny. Naturalis Historia. 5.32, 35.49.
  6. ^ Ovid Met. 7.357.
  7. ^ Ptolemy. The Geography. 3.2.3.
  8. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 56, and directory notes accompanying.
  9. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.
  10. ^ IG I3 260-6, 268-73, 279, 281.
  11. ^ Diodorus Siculus 17.7.9.
  12. ^ Fouilles de Delphes III (1) 410 (Herakleitos), (4) 215 (Charidemos).
  13. ^ IG XII Supplementum 142 = OGIS 335.
  14. ^ IG XII Supplementum 142. See further I. Savalli-Lestrade, ‘Eumène (Ier) et l’expansion de Pergame: à propos de IG XII Suppl. no. 142’ Revue des Etudes Grecques 105 (1992) 221-30.
  15. ^ Plutarch, Lucullus 3, Appian, Mithridatica 52.
  16. ^ S. D. Olson and A. Sens, Matro of Pitane and the Tradition of Epic Parody in the Fourth Century BCE: Text, Translation, and Commentary (Oxford 1999).

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Pitane". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Amazons

In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ancient Greek: Ἀμαζόνες Amazónes, singular Ἀμαζών Amazōn) were a tribe of warrior women related to the Scythians and Sarmatians, both of whom are considered Iranian peoples. Apollonius Rhodius, in his Argonautica, mentions that the Amazons were the daughters of Ares and Harmonia (a nymph of the Akmonian Wood), that they were brutal and aggressive, and their main concern in life was war. Lysias, Isocrates, Philostratus the Elder also say that their father was Ares.Herodotus and Strabo place them on the banks of the Thermodon River. According to Diodorus, giving the account of Dionysius of Mitylene (who in turn drew on Thymoetas), the Amazons inhabited Ancient Libya long before they settled along the Thermodon. Migrating from Libya, these Amazons passed through Egypt and Syria, and stopped at the Caïcus in Aeolis, near which they founded several cities. Later, Diodorus maintains, they established Mytilene a little way beyond the Caïcus. Aeschylus, in Prometheus Bound, places the original home of the Amazons in the country about Lake Maeotis, and from which they moved to Themiscyra on the Thermodon. Homer tells that the Amazons were sought and found somewhere near Lycia.Notable queens of the Amazons are Penthesilea, who participated in the Trojan War, and her sister Hippolyta, whose magical girdle, given to her by her father Ares, was the object of one of the labours of Heracles. Diodorus mentions that the Amazons traveled from Libya under Queen Myrina. Amazon warriors were often depicted in battle with Greek warriors in amazonomachies in classical art.

Archaeological discoveries of burial sites with female warriors on the Eurasian Steppes suggest that the Scythian women may have inspired the Amazon myth. From the early modern period, their name has become a term for female warriors in general. Amazons were said to have founded the cities and temples of Smyrna, Sinope, Cyme, Gryne, Ephesus, Pitania, Magnesia, Clete, Pygela, Latoreria and Amastris; according to legend, the Amazons also invented the cavalry.Palaephatus, who was trying to rationalize the Greek myths in his On Unbelievable Tales (Ancient Greek: Περὶ ἀπίστων ἱστοριῶν), wrote that the Amazons were probably men who were mistaken for women by their enemies because they wore clothing which reached their feet, tied up their hair in headbands and shaved their beards, and in addition, because they did not exist during his time, most probably they did nοt exist in the past either.

Arcesilaus

Arcesilaus (; Greek: Ἀρκεσίλαος; 316/5–241/0 BC) was a Greek philosopher and founder of the Second or Middle Academy—the phase of Academic scepticism. Arcesilaus succeeded Crates as the sixth head (scholarch) of the Academy c. 264 BC. He did not preserve his thoughts in writing, so his opinions can only be gleaned second-hand from what is preserved by later writers. He was the first Academic to adopt a position of philosophical scepticism, that is, he doubted the ability of the senses to discover truth about the world, although he may have continued to believe in the existence of truth itself. This brought in the sceptical phase of the Academy. His chief opponents were the Stoics and their dogma of katalepsis (i.e., that reality could be comprehended with certainty).

List of Greek mythological creatures

A host of legendary creatures, animals and mythic humanoids occur in ancient Greek mythology.

List of ancient Greek theatres

This is a list of ancient Greek theatres by location.

List of archaeological sites by country

This is a list of notable archaeological sites sorted by country and territories.

For one sorted by continent and time period, see the list of archaeological sites by continent and age.

Pitane

Pitane may refer to:

Pitane (Aeolis), an ancient coastal city of Aeolis, currently the site of Çandarlı, İzmir Province, Turkey

Pitane (Amazon), mythological eponym of Pitane (Aeolis)

Pitane (Laconia), an ancient settlement near Sparta

Pitane (moth), a moth genus

Pitane, a nymph

Pitane fervens

Pitane napravniki

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

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