The calendar in use in Pisa from the Middle Ages until at least 1406 (and possibly as late as 1749) began on 25 March (the traditional date of the Virgin conception) in the year of Jesus' incarnation (which thus occurred within year one). This method of dating was followed also in Cortona and Pistoia. Dates in the Pisan calendar are said to be in the stile pisano (“Pisan style”) or by the calculus Pisanus (“Pisan calculation”). The calendar belonged to the stile dell'Annunciazione ("style of the Annunciation"), which began the year with the Feast of the Annunciation (25 March), in contrast to those of the stile della Natività, which began the year with Christmas (25 December), like the calendars in use in Arezzo, Assisi and Perugia. The Florentine calendar, as well as that of Siena, also belonged to the stile dell'Annunciazione, but year one began one year after Jesus' incarnation.
In general, it is necessary to subtract one year from a date given in the Pisan calendar to obtain one given in the standard Gregorian calendar. This does not apply to dates between 1 January and 24 March inclusive, which are given in the same year in both calendars but consist in the final days of the Pisan calendar and the first of the Gregorian.
The Florentine calendar was used in the Republic of Florence, in Italy during the Middle Ages.
In this system, the day began at sunset and ended at the following sunset. Reference to an event at "two hours into the day" meant 2 hours after sunset. Therefore, a date on the Florentine calendar is dated in the present dating system either the same date or the following date, e. g. 10 August on the present calendar is 10 August on the Florentine calendar until sunset, after which 10 August on the present calendar is 11 August on the Florentine calendar until midnight (0:00), after which the dates synchronize to 11 August on both calendars.
The year also began 25 March, the Solemnity of the Annunciation, and not on 1 January. Therefore, the Florentine calendar, along with those of Pisa and the Republic of Siena, belonged to the "stile dell'Annunciazione" ("style of the Annunciation"), in contrast to the calendars of the "stile della Natività" ("style of the Nativity"), which began the year on the Solemnity of the Nativity of the Lord (Christmas) on 25 December, e. g. the calendars of Arezzo, Assisi, and Perugia, in present Italy.
This is the reason that some dates have an apparent discrepancy of one year. For example, a birth date of 10 March 1552 in Florentine reckoning translates to 10 March 1553 in present reckoning, setting aside the aforementioned discrepancy in the beginning of the day. Beginning the year on a date other than 1 January was common during the mediaeval period: the English year also began on 25 March, until 1752; the Venetian year began on 1 March, until 1522; and the French year on Easter day, until 1564 (see beginning of the year).
Italy was one of the few regions to immediately convert from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian: 4 October 1582 was followed by 15 October 1582, the latter being the first day of the new Gregorian calendar.List of calendars
This is a list of calendars. Included are historical calendars as well as proposed ones. Historical calendars are often grouped into larger categories by cultural sphere or historical period; thus O'Neil (1976) distinguishes the groupings Egyptian calendars (Ancient Egypt), Babylonian calendars (Ancient Mesopotamia), Indian calendars (Hindu and Buddhist traditions of the Indian subcontinent), Chinese calendars and Mesoamerican calendars.
These are not specific calendars but series of historical calendars undergoing reforms or regional diversification.
In Classical Antiquity, the Hellenic calendars inspired the Roman calendar, including the solar Julian calendar introduced in 45 BC. Many modern calendar proposals, including the Gregorian calendar itself, are in turn modifications of the Julian calendar.Pietro Moriconi
Pietro Moriconi (died 1119) was the Archbishop of Pisa from 1105, succeeding Dagobert. According to tradition he belonged to the noble lineage of Moriconi of Vico. He first appears as archbishop in a document of 19 March 1106, and is credited with strengthening the Pisan church. On 13 April 1113, he preached a crusade against the Balearic Islands to free captive Christians there. He went to Rome to receive Pope Paschal II's blessing for the expedition, which he also helped lead in person. He interfered to quash peace negotiations that ran counter to Pisa's interests. He died in 1119 (Pisan calendar), and was buried on 10 September in the Pisan Duomo.Pisa Baptistery
The Pisa Baptistery of St. John (Italian: Battistero di San Giovanni) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical building in Pisa, Italy. Construction started in 1152 to replace an older baptistery, and when it was completed in 1363, it became the second building, in chronological order, in the Piazza dei Miracoli, near the Duomo di Pisa and the cathedral's free-standing campanile, the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa. The baptistery was designed by Diotisalvi, whose signature can be read on two pillars inside the building, with the date 1153.Pisa Cathedral
Pisa Cathedral (Italian: Cattedrale Metropolitana Primaziale di Santa Maria Assunta; Duomo di Pisa) is a medieval Roman Catholic cathedral dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, in the Piazza dei Miracoli in Pisa, Italy. It is a notable example of Romanesque architecture, in particular the style known as Pisan Romanesque. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Pisa.Pisan–Genoese expeditions to Sardinia
In 1015 and again in 1016 forces from the taifa of Denia, in the east of Muslim Spain (al-Andalus), attacked Sardinia and attempted to establish control over it. In both these years joint expeditions from the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa repelled the invaders. These Pisan–Genoese expeditions to Sardinia were approved and supported by the Papacy, and modern historians often see them as proto-Crusades. After their victory, the Italian cities turned on each other, and the Pisans obtained hegemony over the island at the expense of their erstwhile ally. For this reason, the Christian sources for the expedition are primarily from Pisa, which celebrated its double victory over the Muslims and the Genoese with an inscription on the walls of its Duomo.Solar calendar
A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the apparent position of the Sun relative to the stars. The Gregorian calendar, widely accepted as standard in the world, is an example of a solar calendar.
The main other type of calendar is a lunar calendar, whose months correspond to cycles of Moon phases. The months of the Gregorian calendar do not correspond to cycles of Moon phase.Stories of Moses and the Evangelists
The Stories of Moses and the Evangelists are a series of oil on panel paintings by Domenico Beccafumi, dating to circa 1538-1539 and hanging in Pisa Cathedral. They form part of a decorative scheme of 27 panels, only completed at the end of the 17th century, also including works by Andrea del Sarto and Il Sodoma.
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