Pirates in popular culture

In English-speaking popular culture, the modern pirate stereotype owes its attributes mostly to the imagined tradition of the 18th century Caribbean pirate sailing off the Spanish Main and to such celebrated 20th century depictions as Captain Hook and his crew in the theatrical and film versions of Peter Pan, Robert Newton's portrayal of Long John Silver in the 1950 film of Treasure Island, and various adaptations of the Eastern pirate, Sinbad the Sailor. In these and countless other books, movies, and legends, pirates are portrayed as "swashbucklers" and "plunderers." They are shown on ships, often wearing eyepatches or peg legs, having a parrot perched on their shoulder, and saying phrases like "Arr, matey" and "Avast, me hearty." Pirates have retained their image through pirate-themed tourist attractions, traditional film and toy portrayals of pirates, and the continued performance and reading of books and plays featuring pirates.

Bbeard Sword
Engraving of the English pirate Blackbeard from the 1724 book A General History of the Pyrates
Pyle pirates treasfight
Pirates fight over treasure in a 1911 Howard Pyle illustration.
Treasure Island-Scribner's-1911
Illustrations of the 1911 edition of Treasure Island, by Pyle's student N. C. Wyeth
Rekonstruierter Schaedel
Modern reconstruction of skull alleged to have belonged to 14th century pirate Klaus Störtebeker, leader of the Victual Brothers, who roamed European seas

Origins

The archetypal characteristics of pirates in popular culture largely derive from the Golden Age of Piracy in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, with many examples of pirate fiction being set within this era. Vikings, who were also pirates, took on a distinct and separate archetype in popular culture, dating from the Viking revival. The first major literary work to popularise the subject of pirates was A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the most notorious pirates (1724) by Captain Charles Johnson,[1] It is the prime source for the biographies of many well known pirates of the Golden Age, providing an extensive account of the period.[2] In giving an almost mythical status to the more colourful characters, such as the notorious English pirates Blackbeard and Calico Jack, the book provided the standard account of the lives of many pirates in the Golden Age, and influenced pirate literature of Scottish novelists Robert Louis Stevenson and J. M. Barrie.[2] While Johnson's text recounted the lives of many famous pirates from the era, it is likely that he used considerable licence in his accounts of pirate conversations.[3]

Stevenson's Treasure Island (1883) is considered the most influential work of pirate fiction, along with its many film and television adaptations, and introduced or popularised many of the characteristics and cliches now common to the genre. Stevenson identified Johnson's General History of the pirates as one of his major influences, and even borrowed one character's name (Israel Hands) from a list of Blackbeard's crew which appeared in Johnson's book.[4]

Appearance and mannerisms of Caribbean pirates

In films, books, cartoons, and toys, pirates often have an unrefined appearance that evokes their criminal lifestyle, rogue personalities and adventurous, seafaring pursuits. They are frequently depicted as greedy, mean-spirited, and focused largely on fighting and looting from enemy pirates and locating hidden treasure. They are often shown wearing shabby 17th or 18th century clothing, with a bandana or a feathered tricorne. They sometimes have an eye patch and almost always have a cutlass and a flintlock pistol, or some other sword or gun. They sometimes have scars and battle wounds, rotten or missing teeth (suggesting the effects of scurvy), as well as a hook or wooden stump where a hand or leg has been amputated. Some depictions of pirates also include monkeys or parrots as pets, the former usually assisting them in thieving goods due to their supposed mischievous disposition. The ship's captain will force captives and traitorous shipmates to walk the plank, usually over shark-infested waters.

Stereotypical pirate accents are modeled on those of Cornwall, Devon, Somerset or the Bristol Channel area in South West England, though they can also be based on Elizabethan era English or other parts of the world. Pirates in film, television and theatre are generally depicted as speaking English in a particular accent and speech pattern that sounds like a stylized West Country accent, exemplified by Robert Newton's performance as Long John Silver in the 1950 film Treasure Island.[5][6] A native of the West Country in south west England from where many famous English pirates hailed, Newton also used the same strong West Country accent in Blackbeard the Pirate (1952).[7]

Historical pirates were often sailors or soldiers who had fallen into misfortune, forced to serve at sea or to plunder goods and ships in order to survive. Depending on the moral and social context of a piece of pirate literature, the pirate characters in that piece may be represented as having fallen, perhaps resembling a "respectable" person in some way.[8] Pirates generally quest for buried treasure, which is often stored, after being plundered, in treasure chests. Pirate's treasure is usually gold or silver, often in the form of doubloons or pieces of eight.

Pirate subculture

In the 1990s, International Talk Like a Pirate Day was invented as a parody holiday celebrated on September 19. This holiday allows people to "let out their inner pirate" and to dress and speak as pirates are stereotypically portrayed to have dressed and spoken. International Talk Like a Pirate Day has been gaining popularity through the Internet since its founders set up a website, which instructs visitors in "pirate speak." Venganza.org is also a major supporter of this day.

In the online community, many games, movies, and other media are built upon the premise, thought to have been generated by Real Ultimate Power, that pirates (in the Caribbean buccaneer sense) and ninjas are sworn enemies. The "Pirates versus Ninjas" meme is expressed offline too, through house parties and merchandise found at popular-culture clothing and gift stores.

Pirates also play a central role in the parody religion of Pastafarianism. Established in 2005,[9] Pastafarians (members of The Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster) claim to believe that global warming is a result of the severe decrease in pirates since the 18th century, explaining the coldness associated with winter months that follow Halloween as a direct effect of the number of pirates that make their presence known in celebration.

Alternative pirate archetypes

In addition to the traditional archetype of seafaring pirates, other pirate archetypes exist in popular culture.

  • Air pirates are science fiction and fantasy character archetypes who operate in the air, rather than sailing the sea. As traditional seafaring pirates target sailing ships, air pirates capture and plunder aircraft and other targets for cargo, money, and occasionally they steal entire aircraft.
  • Space pirates are science fiction character archetypes who operate in outer space, rather than sailing the sea. As traditional seafaring pirates target sailing ships, space pirates capture and plunder spaceships for cargo, money, and occasionally they steal entire spacecraft.

The dress and speech of these alternate archetypes may vary. It may correspond to a particular author's vision of a story's setting, rather than their traditional seafaring counterparts. On the other hand, they may be modeled after stereotypical sea pirates.

Pirates in the arts

Comics and manga

Buccaneers21
"Swashbuckling Yarns of Piracy": Buccaneers, volume 1, number 21, May 1950. Art by Reed Crandall.

Films

Poster - Treasure Island (1934) 01 colour edit
Poster - Treasure Island (1934) 01 colour edit

Literature

Fanny Campbell Pirate Queen
Fanny Campbell, protagonist of the 1844 novel "Fanny Campbell, the Female Pirate Captain" by Maturin Murray Ballou

Music

Flickr - proteusbcn - Final Eurovision 2008 (61)
The Latvian singing group Pirates of the Sea perform Wolves of the Sea at Eurovision 2008

Stage

1951 Boris Karloff Captain Hook Peter Pan
Boris Karloff as Captain Hook in a 1951 Broadway production of Peter Pan

In 1879, the comic opera The Pirates of Penzance was an instant hit in New York, and the original London production in 1880 ran for 363 performances.[15] The piece, depicting an incompetent band of "tenderhearted" British pirates, is still performed widely today, and obviously corresponds to historical knowledge about the emergence of piracy in the Caribbean.

While no pirates are ever on stage in William Shakespeare's play Hamlet, Hamlet claims that his ship to England was overtaken by pirates.

In 1904, J.M. Barrie's play Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up was first performed. In the book, Peter's enemy in Neverland is the pirate crew led by Captain Hook. Details on Barrie's conception of Captain Hook are lacking, but it seems he was inspired by at least one historical privateer, and possibly by Robert Louis Stevenson's Long John Silver as well.[8] In film adaptations released in 1924, 1953, and 2003, Hook's dress, as well as the attire of his crew, corresponds to stereotypical notions of pirate appearance.

Television

Montreal Comiccon 2015 - Jack Sparrow and Jake of the Neverland Pirates (18857758023)
A child dressed as the Disney television character Jake of the Neverland Pirates poses with movie pirate Captain Jack Sparrow at Montreal Comicon 2015

Video games

Monkey island Materials
The Curse of Monkey Island featured a pirate theme
  • Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag features a heavy pirate setting.
  • Claw is a platform game by Monolith Productions that is a cartoon parody of pirate films.
  • Donkey Kong Country 2: Diddy's Kong Quest features pirate-themed enemies and locations, including the recurring villain King K. Rool now named Kaptain K. Rool and dressed as a pirate captain.
  • Doodle Pirate is an Android Game developed by Impudia Games, featuring a comedic side of treasure hunting.
  • Final Fantasy XII has many characters, including Balthier are sky pirates. Also, Faris in Final Fantasy V and Leila in Final Fantasy II are pirates.
  • Pirates feature as a character class in several Fire Emblem games.
  • The Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker features pirates such as Tetra and her crew.
  • Lego Racers first boss is Captain Redbeard. When he is beaten, you can build cars using "pirated-themed" lego pieces.
  • Loot, a card game made by Gamewright.
  • Maple Story has added a Pirate job class.
  • Medal of Honor: Warfighter, a first-person shooter made by Danger Close Games
  • Megaman Battle Network 6 has a WWW member named Captain Blackbeard, an operator of Diveman.EXE who dressed as a sailor.
  • Metroid is a videogame in which the main antagonists are space pirates.
  • The pirate-themed Monkey Island series of video games is inspired by Tim Powers' book 'On Stranger Tides' and Disneyland's Pirates of the Caribbean ride. It is set in the 18th century Caribbean and stars the hero pirate Guybrush Threepwood and the evil pirate LeChuck.
  • Pirates of the Burning Sea is a swashbuckling MMORPG set in the early 18th century Caribbean.
  • Pirates: The Legend of Black Kat by Westwood studios is a mix of third-person adventure and sea battles.
  • Pirates, Vikings and Knights II is a multiplayer video game in which players can play as a team of highly stereotypical pirates.
  • Ratchet & Clank Future: Tools of Destruction and Ratchet & Clank Future: Quest for Booty contain pirates as enemies throughout the levels.
  • Rogue Galaxy is a role-playing video game in which the main character, Jaster Rogue joins a crew of space pirates to help defeat an oppressive empire.
  • Sea of Thieves is an open world video game with a pirate-themed setting.
  • Sid Meier's Pirates! is a well-known video game featuring pirates.
  • Skies of Arcadia is a video game for the Sega Dreamcast (later remade as Skies of Arcadia Legends for the Nintendo Gamecube) about a group of air pirates that struggle against an oppressive power threatening to take over and destroy the world.
  • Sly 3: Honor Among Thieves features a level in which the Cooper Gang steals a pirate ship, and upgrades it to defeat rival pirate crews
  • Sonic Rush Adventure takes place in a pirate-themed world. This includes a robot pirate named Captain Whisker.
  • In the Soul series, Cervantes, a long-standing character in the franchise, is a pirate. In Soul Calibur III specifically, there is a 'Pirate' class option for custom characters.
  • Star Wars Empire At War contains a non-playable faction called the Black Sun Pirates, a large gang of mercenaries.
  • In Suikoden IV there are a great deal of pirates to encounter and recruit.
  • In Tales of Berseria the protagonist reluctantly teams up with a group of pirates. The first mate, Eizen, becomes part of the main cast while the rest of the crew makes frequent appearances throughout the game. The player has the choice of sending the crew on expeditions to retrieve items and explore uncharted waters.
  • Uncharted Waters is a series of role-playing video games by Koei set in the Age of Exploration where the player takes the role of a naval fleet captain. All the games feature pirates as regular threats and it is possible to play with pirate characters in some of the iterations.
  • World of Warcraft features pirates as NPCs and quest givers. In addition, Pirate's Day is celebrated in-game on September 19 each year in honour of International Talk Like a Pirate Day.
  • Yohoho! Puzzle Pirates is a massively multiplayer online game in which the player takes the role of a pirate, having adventures on the high seas and pillaging money from roaming enemy ships.
  • Zack & Wiki: Quest for Barbaros' Treasure is an adventure video puzzle game for the Nintendo Wii.
  • The first hub in Pac-Man World contains four pirate-themed levels named Buccaneer Beach, Corsair's Cove, Crazy Cannonade, and HMS Windbag.
  • Uncharted 4: A Thief's End is an adventure game where you are trying to find Henry Every's treasure

Pirates in sports

Because pirate ships connote fearsomeness, loyalty and teamwork, many professional and amateur sports teams are named "Pirates".

1909 Pittsburgh Pirates on a boat FINAL
1909 drawing of the Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team on a boat

Teams:

Pro wrestler Paul Burchill from WWE Friday Night SmackDown dressed like a pirate and claimed that Blackbeard is his great-great-great-great-great-grandfather. Previously, Carl Ouellet wrestled as Jean-Pierre Lafitte (supposedly a descendant of pirate Jean Lafitte).

See also

References

  1. ^ A general history of the robberies & murders of the most notorious pirates. By Charles Johnson Introduction and commentary by David Cordingly. Conway Maritime Press (2002).
  2. ^ a b A general history of the robberies & murders of the most notorious pirates. Page viii
  3. ^ A general history of the robberies & murders of the most notorious pirates. Intro – Page ix
  4. ^ Jason Porterfield, Treasure Island and the Pirates of the 18th Century, Rosen, 2004, p. 12.
  5. ^ Bonanos, Christopher (5 June 2007). "Did Pirates Really Say "Arrrr"? The origin of Hollywood's high-seas slang". Slate. Washington Post Newsweek Interactive Co. Retrieved 16 September 2007.
  6. ^ Dan Parry (2006). "Blackbeard: The Real Pirate of the Caribbean". p. 174. National Maritime Museum
  7. ^ Angus Konstam (2008) Piracy: The Complete History Osprey Publishing, Retrieved 11 October 2011
  8. ^ a b http://www.literarytraveler.com/authors/captain_hook.aspx The Real Life and Fictional Characters Who Inspired J.M. Barrie's Captain Hook
  9. ^ Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster
  10. ^ https://www.lambiek.net/artists/s/sleen.htm
  11. ^ https://www.lambiek.net/artists/c/charlier.htm
  12. ^ https://www.lambiek.net/artists/h/hubinon.htm
  13. ^ https://www.lambiek.net/artists/u/uderzo_albert.htm
  14. ^ Charles Johnson (1724), A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates, pp. 411–12.
  15. ^ Bradley, Ian (1982). The Annotated Gilbert and Sullivan. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. pp. 86–87. ISBN 0-14-070848-0.
Attack on Veracruz

The attack on Veracruz was a 1683 raid against the port of Veracruz, in the Viceroyalty of New Spain (colonial Mexico). It was led by pirates Laurens de Graaf, Nicholas van Hoorn and Michel de Grammont.

Captain Stingaree

Captain Stingaree is a fictional supervillain in the DC Comics universe, and a minor foe of the Batman. He first appeared in Detective Comics #460 (June 1976), and was created by Bob Rozakis, Michael Uslan and Ernie Chan.

Diabolito

Diabolito or Little Devil (died July 1823) was a 19th-century Cuban pirate. One of the more violent of the era, he engaged the United States Navy and was one of the main fugitives pursued during later American naval expeditions in the Caribbean during the 1820s.

Eli Boggs

Eli Boggs (fl. mid 19th century) was an American pirate, one of the last active ocean-going pirates operating off the coast of China during the 1850s. Based near Hong Kong, Boggs constantly raided outgoing clipper ships carrying highly valuable cargo of opium throughout the decade. He is most particularly known for his cruelty, as in one recorded incident he had the body of a captured Chinese merchant cut into small pieces and had them delivered to shore in small buckets as a warning against interference in his criminal activities. In 1857, after a violent and bloody siege, Boggs was forced to swim ashore after his junk was destroyed by rival pirates. However, after holding his captors at bay with a knife, Boggs was finally apprehended and imprisoned in a Hong Kong jail for three years, eventually being tried for murder before his deportation to the United States.

Emanuel Wynn

Emanuel Wynn (1650 in France – 1750 in the Caribbean) was a French pirate of the 17th century, and is often considered the first pirate to fly the Jolly Roger.

Fancy (ship)

Fancy was Henry Every's ship, and was commanded by him between May 1694 to late 1695, when he retired from piracy and the fate of Fancy becomes unknown.

George Lowther (pirate)

George Lowther (died 1723) was an 18th-century English pirate who, although little is known of his life, was active in the Caribbean and Atlantic. One of his lieutenants was Edward Low.

Hendrick Lucifer

Hendrick Jacobszoon Lucifer (1583–1627) was a Dutch-born pirate.Hendrick's last name, Lucifer, referred to a lighting stick, not to the fallen angel Lucifer, and was most likely used as a nickname due to his use of fire and smoke to surprise enemies.

Liang Daoming

Liang Daoming (Chinese: 梁道明; pinyin: Liáng Dàomíng; Cantonese Yale: Lèuhng Douh-mìng) was an abscondee of the Chinese Ming Dynasty who became king of Palembang in Srivijaya. He hailed from Guangdong province and was of Cantonese descent. According to the Ming records, he had thousands of followers and a sizable military contingent in Palembang. Liang Daoming's rule over Palembang was acknowledged by the Ming emperor and protected by Zheng He's armada (1403-1424).

List of privateers

A privateer was a private person or private warship authorized by a country's government by letters of marque to attack foreign shipping. Privateers were an accepted part of naval warfare from the 16th to the 19th centuries, authorised by all significant naval powers.

Notable privateers included:

Victual Brothers or Vitalians or Likedeelers 1360–1401

Gödeke Michels (leader of the Likedeelers) 1360–1401

Klaus Störtebeker, Wismar, (leader of the Likedeelers), 1360–1401

Didrik Pining, German, c. 1428–1491

Paul Beneke, German, born in Hanseatic City of Danzig, Pomerelia c. 1440s–1490s

Kemal Reis, Turkish, c. 1451–1511

Oruç Reis (Barbarossa), Turkish, c. 1474–1518

Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, Turkish, 1478–1546

Turgut Reis (Dragut), Turkish, c. 1485–1565

Timoji, Hindu, 1496–1513

Murat Reis the Older, Turkish, c. 1506–1609

Sir Francis Drake, English, c. 1540–1596

Sir George Somers, English 1554–1610

Captain Christopher Newport, English, c. 1561–1617

Magnus Heinason, Faroese, c. 1568–1578 privateer in Dutch service under the Dutch revolt and 1580s, and privateer and merchant in Danish service on the Faroe Islands c. 1578–1589

Piet Hein, Dutch, 1577–1629

Alonso de Contreras, Spanish, 1582–1641, privateer against the Turks under the banner of the Order of Malta and later commanded Spanish ships

James Erisey, English, 1585–1590s

Peter Easton, England/Newfoundland, c. 1611–1614

Sir Henry Morgan, Welsh, 1635–1688

Jean Bart, French, 1651–1702

William Dampier, English, 1652–1715

Nicolas Baeteman, Dunkirker 1659–1720

Alexander Dalzeel, Scotland, c. 1662–1715

René Duguay-Trouin, French, 1673–1736

Kanhoji Angre, Maratha, 1698–1729

Lars Gathenhielm, Swedish, 1710–1718

Ingela Gathenhielm, Swedish, 1710/18–1721

Fortunatus Wright, English of Liverpool, 1712–1757

David Hawley, colonial United States, 1741–1807

Jonathan Haraden, colonial United States, 1744–1803

William Death, English, 1756

Alexander Godfrey, colonial Nova Scotia, 1756–1803

Jose Campuzano-Polanco, colonial Santo Domingo, 1689-1760

Etienne Pellot, aka "the Basque Fox", French, 1765–1856

Noah Stoddard, United States, 1755-1850

Robert Surcouf, French, 1773–1827

David McCullough, colonial United States, 1777-1778

Jean Gaspard Vence, French, –1783

Joseph Barss, Colonial Nova Scotia, 1776–1824

Jean Lafitte 1776–1854, French Louisiana hero in the Gulf of Mexico

John Ordronaux (privateer), United States, 1778–1841

Ephraim Sturdivant, United States, 1782–1868

Hipólito Bouchard, Argentina, 1783–1843

Louisa, ship, of Philadelphia United States, 1800s during Quasi-War with the French

Otway Burns, North Carolina, United States 1775–1850

Long John Silver (comics)

Long John Silver is a French comics series written by Xavier Dorison, illustrated by Mathieu Laufray and published by Dargaud in French and Cinebook in English.

No purchase, no pay

"No purchase, no pay" (or "no prey, no pay") was a phrase used by pirates and privateers, of the 17th century in particular, to describe the conditions under which participants were expected to join expeditions or raids. The phrase describes a remuneration arrangement similar to a commission.

Sack of Campeche (1663)

The Sack of Campeche was a 1663 raid by pirates led by Christopher Myngs and Edward Mansvelt which became a model for later coastal pirate raids of the buccaneering era.

Silver (Andrew Motion novel)

Silver: Return to Treasure Island, is a novel by former British Poet Laureate Andrew Motion, published by Jonathan Cape on 15 March 2012. The book follows Jim Hawkins, son of the character of the same name in Robert Louis Stevenson's 1883 novel Treasure Island, as he and Nat, daughter of Long John Silver, also a character in Treasure Island, return to the island visited by their fathers to claim abandoned bar silver.

Space pirate

Space pirates are a type of stock character from science fiction.

The Angel's Command

The Angel's Command is a 2003 novel by Brian Jacques, author of the popular children's series Redwall, and the sequel to Castaways of the Flying Dutchman. It follows the adventures of an immortal boy and his dog as they face pirates and other dangers from the high seas to the mountains.

Timber pirate

In the United States, a timber pirate is a pirate engaged in the illegal logging industry.

Timeline of piracy

This is a timeline of the history of piracy.

1600s: 1600 - 1601 - 1602 - 1603 - 1604 - 1605 - 1606 - 1607 - 1608 - 1609

1610s: 1610 - 1611 - 1612 - 1613 - 1614 - 1615 - 1616 - 1617 - 1618 - 1619

1620s: 1620 - 1621 - 1622 - 1623 - 1624 - 1625 - 1626 - 1627 - 1628 - 1629

1630s: 1630 - 1631 - 1632 - 1633 - 1634 - 1635 - 1636 - 1637 - 1638 - 1639

1640s: 1640 - 1641 - 1642 - 1643 - 1644 - 1645 - 1646 - 1647 - 1648 - 1649

1650s: 1650 - 1651 - 1652 - 1653 - 1654 - 1655 - 1656 - 1657 - 1658 - 1659

1660s: 1660 - 1661 - 1662 - 1663 - 1664 - 1665 - 1666 - 1667 - 1668 - 1669

1670s: 1670 - 1671 - 1672 - 1673 - 1674 - 1675 - 1676 - 1677 - 1678 - 1679

1680s: 1680 - 1681 - 1682 - 1683 - 1684 - 1685 - 1686 - 1687 - 1688 - 1689

1690s: 1690 - 1691 - 1692 - 1693 - 1694 - 1695 - 1696 - 1697 - 1698 - 1699

1700s: 1700 - 1701 - 1702 - 1703 - 1704 - 1705 - 1706 - 1707 - 1708 - 1709

1710s: 1710 - 1711 - 1712 - 1713 - 1714 - 1715 - 1716 - 1717 - 1718 - 1719

1720s: 1720 - 1721 - 1722 - 1723 - 1724 - 1725 - 1726 - 1727 - 1728 - 1729

1730s: 1730 - 1731 - 1732 - 1733 - 1734 - 1735 - 1736 - 1737 - 1738 - 1739

1740s: 1740 - 1741 - 1742 - 1743 - 1744 - 1745 - 1746 - 1747 - 1748 - 1749

1750s: 1750 - 1751 - 1752 - 1753 - 1754 - 1755 - 1756 - 1757 - 1758 - 1759

1760s: 1760 - 1761 - 1762 - 1763 - 1764 - 1765 - 1766 - 1767 - 1768 - 1769

1770s: 1770 - 1771 - 1772 - 1773 - 1774 - 1775 - 1776 - 1777 - 1778 - 1779

1780s: 1780 - 1781 - 1782 - 1783 - 1784 - 1785 - 1786 - 1787 - 1788 - 1789

1790s: 1790 - 1791 - 1792 - 1793 - 1794 - 1795 - 1796 - 1797 - 1798 - 1799

1800s: 1800 - 1801 - 1802 - 1803 - 1804 - 1805 - 1806 - 1807 - 1808 - 1809

1810s: 1810 - 1811 - 1812 - 1813 - 1814 - 1815 - 1816 - 1817 - 1818 - 1819

1820s: 1820 - 1821 - 1822 - 1823 - 1824 - 1825 - 1826 - 1827 - 1828 - 1829

1830s: 1830 - 1831 - 1832 - 1833 - 1834 - 1835 - 1836 - 1837 - 1838 - 1839

1840s: 1840 - 1841 - 1842 - 1843 - 1844 - 1845 - 1846 - 1847 - 1848 - 1849

1850s: 1850 - 1851 - 1852 - 1853 - 1854 - 1855 - 1856 - 1857 - 1858 - 1859

1860s: 1860 - 1861 - 1862 - 1863 - 1864 - 1865 - 1866 - 1867 - 1868 - 1869

1870s: 1870 - 1871 - 1872 - 1873 - 1874 - 1875 - 1876 - 1877 - 1878 - 1879

1880s: 1880 - 1881 - 1882 - 1883 - 1884 - 1885 - 1886 - 1887 - 1888 - 1889

1890s: 1890 - 1891 - 1892 - 1893 - 1894 - 1895 - 1896 - 1897 - 1898 - 1899

1900s: 1900 - 1901 - 1902 - 1903 - 1904 - 1905 - 1906 - 1907 - 1908 - 1909

1910s: 1910 - 1911 - 1912 - 1913 - 1914 - 1915 - 1916 - 1917 - 1918 - 1919

1920s: 1920 - 1921 - 1922 - 1923 - 1924 - 1925 - 1926 - 1927 - 1928 - 1929

1930s: 1930 - 1931 - 1932 - 1933 - 1934 - 1935 - 1936 - 1937 - 1938 - 1939

1940s: 1940 - 1941 - 1942 - 1943 - 1944 - 1945 - 1946 - 1947 - 1948 - 1949

1950s: 1950 - 1951 - 1952 - 1953 - 1954 - 1955 - 1956 - 1957 - 1958 - 1959

1960s: 1960 - 1961 - 1962 - 1963 - 1964 - 1965 - 1966 - 1967 - 1968 - 1969

1970s: 1970 - 1971 - 1972 - 1973 - 1974 - 1975 - 1976 - 1977 - 1978 - 1979

1980s: 1980 - 1981 - 1982 - 1983 - 1984 - 1985 - 1986 - 1987 - 1988 - 1989

1990s: 1990 - 1991 - 1992 - 1993 - 1994 - 1995 - 1996 - 1997 - 1998 - 1999

2000s: 2000 - 2001 - 2002 - 2003 - 2004 - 2005 - 2006 - 2007 - 2008 - 2009

2010s: 2010 - 2011 - 2012 - 2013 - 2014 - 2015 - 2016 - 2017

Walking the plank

Walking the plank was a method of execution practiced on special occasion by pirates, mutineers, and other rogue seafarers. For the amusement of the perpetrators (and the psychological torture of the victims), captives were bound so they could not swim or tread water and forced to walk off a wooden plank or beam extended over the side of a ship.

Although forcing captives to walk the plank is a motif of pirates in popular culture in the 19th through 21st centuries, few instances are documented, so the frequency of the practice is uncertain.

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