Pipistrellus

For the light aircraft manufacturer, see Pipistrel.
Pipistrellus
A Pipistrellus pipistrellus (i.e., the common pipistrelle) sits on the hand of a researcher.
Common Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Vespertilionidae
Subfamily: Vespertilioninae
Tribe: Pipistrellini
Genus: Pipistrellus
Kaup, 1829

Pipistrellus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae and subfamily Vespertilioninae.[1] The name of the genus is derived from the Italian word pipistrello, meaning "bat" (from Latin vespertilio "bird of evening, bat").

The size of the genus has been considerably reduced as a result of work during the 1990s and 2000s, with genera such as Arielulus, Hypsugo, Falsistrellus, Neoromicia, Parastrellus, Perimyotis, Scotozous, and Vespadelus being split off. Still, molecular evidence suggests the genus is not monophyletic. Several other genera in the subfamily Vespertilioninae have also been merged with Pipistrellus in previous classifications. Species in the genus may be referred to as "pipistrelles" or "pipistrelle bats", though these terms are also used for species now placed in other genera, such as the western pipistrelle (Parastrellus hesperus) and eastern pipistrelle (Perimyotis subflavus) of North America. Species of the southern hemisphere separated to genus Falsistrellus are sometimes referred to as 'false pipistrelle' or 'falsistrelle'.[2]

They are somewhat distinguished from their much larger relatives, the noctule bats Nyctalus by their weak, fluttery flight reminiscent of a butterfly, though a few species are more direct in their flight.

Species

References

  1. ^ Simmons, N.B. (2005). "Order Chiroptera". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 472–479. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ Richards, G.C.; Hall, L.S.; Parish, S. (photography) (2012). A natural history of Australian bats : working the night shift. CSIRO Pub. p. 159. ISBN 9780643103740.
Aellen's pipistrelle

Aellen's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus inexspectatus) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in possibly Benin, Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. It is found in dry and moist savanna.

Anchieta's pipistrelle

Anchieta's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus anchietae) is a species of vesper bat.

It is found in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Madagascar.

The species inhabits dry savanna and moist savanna habitats.

Common pipistrelle

The common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) is a small pipistrelle microbat whose very large range extends across most of Europe, North Africa, southwestern Asia, and may extend into Korea. It is one of the most common bat species in the British Isles.

In 1999, the common pipistrelle was split into two species on the basis of different-frequency echolocation calls. The common pipistrelle uses a call of 45 kHz, while the soprano pipistrelle echolocates at 55 kHz. Since the two species were distinguished, a number of other differences, in appearance, habitat and food, have also been discovered.

Desert pipistrelle

The desert pipistrelle (Hypsugo ariel) is a species of vesper bat in the genus Hypsugo. It is found in Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen. Some of the Arabian populations were previously regarded as a separate species, Hypsugo bodenheimeri, but the proposed differences between the two do not hold. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, rocky areas, and hot deserts.

Endo's pipistrelle

Endo's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus endoi) is a species of vesper bat that is endemic to Japan. It is found in temperate forests.

Forest pipistrelle

The forest pipistrelle (Pipistrellus adamsi), is a species of vesper bat found in Australia, in the northern most parts of Queensland and the Northern Territory.

Java pipistrelle

The Java pipistrelle (Pipistrellus javanicus) is a species of pipistrelle bat found in South and Southeast Asia, including Afghanistan; Bangladesh; Brunei; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia; Laos; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand and Vietnam. It favors human habitations.

Kuhl's pipistrelle

Kuhl's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii) is a species of vesper bat that lives over large areas of North Africa, southern Europe and Western Asia. It can be found in temperate forests, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, Mediterranean-type shrubby vegetation, temperate grassland, rural gardens, and urban areas.

Lesser Papuan pipistrelle

The lesser Papuan pipistrelle (Pipistrellus papuanus) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

Madeira pipistrelle

The Madeira pipistrelle (Pipistrellus maderensis) is a species of vesper bat. It is endemic to Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands.

Mount Popa pipistrelle

The Mount Popa pipistrelle (Pipistrellus paterculus) is a species of vesper bat.

It is found in China, India, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Northern pipistrelle

The northern pipistrelle, species Pipistrellus westralis, also known as Koopman's or the mangrove pipistrelle, is a species of vesper bat found only in Australia. It is one of Australia's smallest bat species. On average, it weighs 3 g (0.11 oz).

Pipistrellus raceyi

Pipistrellus raceyi, also known as Racey's pipistrelle, is a bat from Madagascar, in the genus Pipistrellus. Although unidentified species of Pipistrellus had been previously reported from Madagascar since the 1990s, P. raceyi was not formally named until 2006. It is apparently most closely related to the Asian species P. endoi, P. paterculus, and P. abramus, and its ancestors probably reached Madagascar from Asia. P. raceyi has been recorded at four sites, two in the eastern and two in the western lowlands. In the east, it is found in open areas and has been found roosting in a building; in the west it occurs in dry forest. Because of uncertainties about its ecology, it is listed as "Data Deficient" on the IUCN Red List.

With a forearm length of 28.0 to 31.2 mm (1.10 to 1.23 in), Pipistrellus raceyi is small to medium-sized for a species of Pipistrellus. The body is reddish above and yellow-brown below. The wings are dark and the feet are small. Males have a long penis and baculum (penis bone), which is somewhat similar to those of P. endoi, P. abramus and P. paterculus. In the skull, the rostrum (front part) is less flat than in related species and the supraorbital ridges (above the eyes) are prominent. The fourth upper premolar does not touch the upper canine and the second lower premolar is well-developed.

Rusty pipistrelle

The rusty pipistrelle (Pipistrellus rusticus) is a species of vesper bat. It is found in Angola, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Its natural habitats are dry and moist savanna. It is of note as perhaps Africa's smallest bat, at average weight of 3.5 g (0.12 oz).

Rüppell's pipistrelle

Rüppell's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus rueppellii) is a species of vesper bat found in Africa and Asian republics such as Iraq and Israel. It is found in dry and moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and hot deserts.

Soprano pipistrelle

The soprano pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus) is a small bat that in taxonomy was only formally separated from the common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) in 1999. It is possible that these two groups diverged from one another in the Mediterranean and that is why the Pipistrellus pygmaeus has the ability to thermal regulate at such high temperatures as 40 degrees C.

The two species were first distinguished on the basis of their different-frequency echolocation calls. The common pipistrelle uses a call of 45 kHz, while the soprano pipistrelle echolocates at 55 kHz. The two species are sometimes called the 45 kHz pipistrelle and the 55 kHz pipistrelle, or the bandit pipistrelle (common) and the brown pipistrelle (soprano). Since the two species were split, a number of other differences, in appearance, habitat and food, have also been discovered.

Sturdee's pipistrelle

Sturdee's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus sturdeei) is a bat that was thought to have lived in Japan before officially becoming extinct in 2000. In 2006 the IUCN changed its official status to "Data Deficient", as new data throws doubt on the taxonomic status of the species.

Tiny pipistrelle

The tiny pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nanulus) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Uganda. It is found in subtropical or tropical dry forest, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, and moist savanna.

Watts's pipistrelle

Watt's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus wattsi) is a species of vesper bat. It is found only in Papua New Guinea.

Species of subfamily Vespertilioninae
Aeorestes
Antrozous
Arielulus
Barbastella
Bauerus
Chalinolobus
Corynorhinus
Dasypterus
Eptesicus
Euderma
Eudiscopus
Falsistrellus
Glauconycteris
Glischropus
Hesperoptenus
Histiotus
Hypsugo
Ia
Idionycteris
Laephotis
Lasionycteris
Lasiurus
Mimetillus
Neoromicia
Niumbaha
Nyctalus
Nycticeinops
Nycticeius
Nyctophilus
Otonycteris
Parastrellus
Perimyotis
Pharotis
Philetor
Pipistrellus
Plecotus
Rhogeessa
Scoteanax
Scotoecus
Scotomanes
Scotophilus
Scotorepens
Scotozous
Tylonycteris
Vespadelus
Vespertilio

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