Piotr Michałowski

Piotr Michałowski (July 2, 1800 – June 9, 1855) was a Polish painter of the Romantic period, especially known for his many portraits, and oil studies of horses. Broadly educated, he was also a social activist, legal advocate, city administrator and President of the Kraków Agricultural Society (since 1853).[1] The Sukiennice Museum, a division of the National Museum in Kraków, contains a room named after him and devoted to Michałowski's work.

Michalowski Glowa konia
Glowa Konia, study of horse's head, Piotr Michałowski, 1846
Piotr Michałowski
Michałowski Self-portrait
Self-portrait, Piotr Michałowski, 1850
BornJuly 2, 1800
DiedJune 9, 1855
Krzysztoforzyce, Kraków
Spouse(s)Julia Olimpia Michałowska


Michałowski was born at an estate in Krzysztoforzyce outside Kraków, the son of landowner Józef Michałowski, senator in the Free City of Kraków. His artistic talent developed at an early age of 13 under the watchful eye of several artists including Michał Stachowicz, Józef Brodowski (1817) and Franciszek Lampi. He formally studied a broad range of subjects at the Jagiellonian University including classical philosophy, agriculture and mathematics.[1]

During the November Uprising against the Russian rulership, Michałowski helped run a Polish munition factory. To avoid capture, he escaped to Paris, France with his new wife Julia Ostrowska and her father. While in Paris, he continued his studies of painting and anatomy with Nicolas Toussaint Charlet (1832–1835), greatly influenced by the art of Théodore Géricault, Rembrandt and Velázquez. His watercolour studies of horses became very popular in France, sold by local art dealers since 1833 to English, German and American collectors.[1]

Michałowski returned to Kraków in 1835 and in 1837 settled into his family estate in Krzysztoforzyce. In the 1840s and 1850s he produced numerous equestrian paintings and dramatic landscapes including his famous Romantic "Battle of Somosierra" (1844–1855, several versions), "Parade before Napoleon" and other battle sites.[1] When Pablo Picasso visited Poland in 1948, he saw Michałowski's work at the Warsaw National Museum and shouted, "Here, painter!"

Battle by Piotr Michałowski

Napoleonic battle

Polish Krakusi

Contingent from Kraków

Napoleonic parade

Napoleonic parade

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d Irena Kossowska (April 2004). "Piotr Michałowski". Culture.pl. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
  • Maciej Masłowski: Piotr Michałowski, Warsaw 1957, ed. „Sztuka”;
  • Maciej Masłowski: Piotr Michałowski, Warsaw 1974, ed. „Arkady” (in series „W kręgu sztuki” - "In the Circle of Art", also German version: Berlin 1974, ed. Henschel Verlag und Gess.);
  • Jerzy Sienkiewicz: Piotr Michałowski, Warsaw 1959, ed. "Auriga - Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe" (Art and Film Publisher).
  • Selection of works including bio at Artyzm.com
  • Piotr Michalowski at Cracow Life.com (in English)
  • Somosierra - Piotr Michałowski at Culture.pl
1800 in art

The year 1800 in art is often estimated to be the beginning of the change from the Neoclassicism movement, that was based on Roman art, to the Romantic movement, which encouraged emotional art and ended around 1850.

1855 in art

Events from the year 1855 in art.

Antoni Jan Ostrowski

Count Antoni Jan Ostrowski (1782–1845) was a Polish noble (szlachcic), landowner, political and economic activist, general and publicist.

He became senator-castellan and member of the Sejm in the Kingdom of Poland (1815–1830). Founder of the city of Tomaszów Mazowiecki. During the November Uprising in 1830–1831, he was appointed general and commander of the National Guards (Gwardia Narodowa) in Warsaw. After the collapse of the Uprising he emigrated to France.

Franciszek Ksawery Lampi

Franciszek Ksawery Lampi, also known as Franz Xaver Lampi (22 January 1782 – 22 July 1852), was a Polish Romantic painter born in Austria of ethnic Italian background. He was associated with the aristocratic circle of the late Stanisław II Augustus, the last Polish king before the foreign partitions of Poland. Lampi settled in Warsaw around 1815 at the age of 33, and established himself as the leading landscape and portrait artist in Congress Poland soon after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.

Great Emigration

The Great Emigration (Polish: Wielka Emigracja) involved the emigration of thousands of Poles, particularly from the political and cultural élites, from 1831 to 1870, after the failure of the November Uprising of 1830-1831 and of other uprisings (for example: Kraków uprising of 1846, January Uprising of 1863-1864). The term "Great Emigration" is somewhat misleading, as the number of political exiles did not exceed more than 6,000 during this time.

The exiles included soldiers and officers of the uprising, members of the Sejm of Congress Poland of 1830–31, and several prisoners-of-war who escaped from captivity.

Hanna Mortkowicz-Olczakowa

Hanna Mortkowicz-Olczakowa (15 October 1905 – 5 January 1968) was a Polish poet and writer, author of many novels for children and young people.

Juliusz Kossak

Juliusz Fortunat Kossak (Nowy Wiśnicz, 15 December 1824 – 3 February 1899, Kraków) was a Polish historical painter and master illustrator who specialized in battle scenes, military portraits and horses. He was the progenitor of an artistic family that spanned four generations, father of painter Wojciech Kossak and grandfather of painter Jerzy Kossak.

List of Polish artists

The following is a list of some important Polish artists and groups of artists.

List of Polish painters

This is an alphabetical listing of Polish painters. This list is incomplete. If a notable Polish painter is missing and without article, please add the name here.

List of painters by name beginning with "M"

Please add names of notable painters in alphabetical order.

Ma Lin (ca. 1180–after 1256)

Ma Shi

Ma Wan

Ma Quan (18th century)

Ma Yuan (1160–1225)

Ma Yuanyu (1669–1722)

Jan Mabuse (ca.1478–1532)

M. D. Parashar (born 1961)

Dugald Sutherland MacColl (1859–1948)

Frances Macdonald (1914–2002), English painter

Stanton Macdonald-Wright (1890–1973)

Joe Machine (born 1973)

August Macke (1887–1914)

Daniel Maclise (1806–1870)

Chica Macnab (1889–1981), Scottish painter and engraver

Nicolette Macnamara (1911–1987), English painter and author

Conroy Maddox (1912–2005)

Carlo Maderna (1556–1629)

Maeda Masao (1904–1974)

Maeda Seison (1885–1977)

Nicolaes Maes (1634–1693)

John Maggs (1819–1896)

René Magritte (1898–1967)

Charles Mahoney (1903–1968), English mural painter and teacher

Aristide Maillol (1861–1944)

Theodore Major (1908–1999)

Hans Makart (1840–1884)

Americo Makk (1927–2015)

Maki Haku (1924–2000)

Konstantin Makovsky (1839–1915)

Vladimir Makovsky (1846–1920)

Tadeusz Makowski (1882–1932)

Kees Maks (1876–1967)

Jacek Malczewski (1858–1929)

Estuardo Maldonado (born 1930)

Władysław Malecki (1836–1900)

Kazimir Malevich (1878–1935)

Anita Malfatti (1889–1964)

Maruja Mallo (1902–1995)

Jean Malouel (1365–1415)

Teobaldo Nina Mamani (born 1968)

Cornelis de Man (1621–1706)

Jack C. Mancino (born 1968)

Edna Mann (1926–1985)

Man Ray (1890–1976)

Manabu Mabe (1924–1997)

Johan Edvard Mandelberg (1736–1786)

Karel van Mander (1548–1606)

Josef Mánes (1820–1871)

Alfred Manessier (1911–1993)

Édouard Manet (1832–1883)

Miltos Manetas (born 1964)

Jim Manley (born 1934)

Alexander Mann (1853–1908)

Joe Mangrum (born 1969)

Andrea Mantegna (ca.1431–1506)

Totte Mannes (born 1933)

James Bolivar Manson (1879–1945)

Niklaus Manuel (1484–1530)

Adam Manyoki (1673–1756), Magyar painter

Julius Edvard Marak (1832–1899)

Franz Marc (1880–1916)

Conrad Marca-Relli (1913–2000)

Louis Marcoussis (1883–1941)

Adam Marczyński (1908–1985)

Brice Marden (born 1938)

De Hirsh Margules (1899–1965)

Carlos Francisco Chang Marín (born 1922)

John Marin (1870–1953)

Jacob Maris (1837–1899)

Matthijs Maris (1839–1917)

Willem Maris (1844–1910)

Yoshio Markino (1869–1956)

Terry Marks (born 1960)

Csaba Markus (born 1953)

Simon Marmion (1425–1489)

Jacques Maroger (1884–1962)

Luděk Marold (1865–1898)

Albert Marquet (1875–1947)

Jacob Marrel (1614–1681)

Luis Marsans (born 1930)

Nicholas Marsicano (1908–1991), American Abstract Expressionist artist

Wilhelm Marstrand (1810–1873)

Agnes Martin (1912–2004)

Eugene J. Martin (1938–2005)

Fletcher Martin (1904–1979)

John Martin (1789–1854)

Knox Martin (born 1923)

Carlo Martini (1908–1958)

Ndoc Martini (1880–1916)

Santiago Martinez Delgado (1906–1954)

Raúl Martínez (1927–1995)

Johannes Martini (1866–1935)

Simone Martini (ca.1284–1344)

Andrey Martynov (1768–1826)

Maruyama Ōkyo (1733–1795)

Tommaso Masaccio (1401–1428)

Frans Masereel (1889–1971)

Vicente Juan Masip (1507–1579)

Stanisław Masłowski (1853–1926)

Masolino (ca.1383–1447)

Alice Mason (1904–1971)

Emily Mason (born 1932)

Frank Mason (1921–2009)

Master of Affligem (14??–15??)

Master of Saint Giles

Master of the Bambino Vispo (early 15th century)

Master of the Embroidered Foliage (active 1480–1510)

Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy (fl. 1480–1510)

Jan Matejko (1838–1893)

Henri Matisse (1869–1954)

Matsui Fuyoko (born 1974)

Matsumura Goshun (1752–1811)

Matsuno Chikanobu

Quentin Matsys (ca.1466–1530)

Roberto Matta (1911–2002)

Louisa Matthíasdóttir (1917–2000)

Jaakko Mattila (born 1976)

Karl Matzek (1890–1983)

Anton Mauve (1838–1888)

Paul Mavrides (born 1945)

Peter Max (born 1937)

Vassily Maximov (1844–1911)

Richard Mayhew (born 1934)

Peter McArdle (born 1965)

Charles McAuley (1910–1999)

Bruce McLean (born 1944)

Colin McCahon (1919–1987)

Daphne McClure (born 1930), English painter

Mary McCrossan (1865–1934), English painter

Frederick McCubbin (1855–1917)

Mary McEvoy (1870–1941), English painter

Frank McKelvey (1895–1974)

John McLaughlin (1898–1976)

Sheila McClean

William McTaggart (1835–1910)

Lewis Henry Meakin (1850–1917)

Dimitre Manassiev Mehandjiysky (1915–1999)

Robert Medley (1905–1994)

Józef Mehoffer (1869–1946)

Howard Mehring (1931–1978)

Bernardino Mei (1612/15–1676)

Mei Qing (1623–1697)

Victor Meirelles (1832–1903)

Ernest Meissonier (1815–1891)

Cor Melchers (1954–2015)

Vadym Meller (1884–1962)

Antoine Ignace Melling (Anton Ignaz Melling) (1763–1831)

Arthur Melville (1858–1904)

Hans Memling (ca.1435–1494)

Milton Menasco (1890–1974)

Menez (Maria Inês Ribeiro da Fonseca) (1926–1995)

Barthélemy Menn (1815–1893)

Carlo Mense (1886–1965)

Adolph Menzel (1815–1905)

Alexey Merinov (born 1959)

Betty Merken

Luc-Olivier Merson (1846–1920)

Arnold Mesches (born 1923)

Hendrik Willem Mesdag (1831–1915)

Jean Messagier (1920–1999)

Youri Messen-Jaschin (born 1941)

Antonello da Messina (ca.1430–1479)

Ludwig Mestler (1891–1959)

Willard Metcalf (1858–1925)

Gabriel Metsu (1629–1667)

Jean Metzinger (1883–1956)

Johann Heinrich Meyer (1760–1832)

Otto\ Meyer–Amden (1885–1933)

Mi Fu (also known as Mi Fei) (1051–1107)

Miao Fu

Peter Michael (born 1972)

Piotr Michałowski (1800–1855)

Henri Michaux (1899–1984)

Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564)

Leo Michelson (1887–1978)

Colin Middleton (1910–1983)

Eugeen Van Mieghem (1875–1930)

Jan Miel (1599–1663)

Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt (1567–1641)

Frans van Mieris the Elder (1635–1681)

Frans van Mieris the Younger (1689–1763)

Jan van Mieris (1660–1690)

Willem van Mieris (1662–1747)

Abraham Mignon (1640–1679)

Daniël Mijtens (1590–1647)

Jay Milder (born 1934)

Ksenia Milicevic (born 1942)

John Everett Millais (1829–1896), English painter and illustrator and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Manolo Millares (born 1926)

Francis Davis Millet (1846–1912)

Jean-François Millet (1814–1875)

Lisa Milroy (born 1959)

Min Zhen (1730–1788)

Luis Miranda (born 1932)

Joan Miró (1893–1983)

Augustyn Mirys (1700–1790)

Fred Mitchell (born 1923)

Stanley Matthew Mitruk (1922–2006)

Miyagawa Chōshun (1683–1753)

Miyagawa Isshō

Miyagawa Shunsui

Miyamoto Musashi (1584–1645)

Amedeo Modigliani (1884–1920)

Claes Corneliszoon Moeyaert (1592–1655)

László Moholy-Nagy (1895–1946)

Jan Miense Molenaer (1610–1668)

Luis Molinari (born 1929)

Anton Moller (1563–1611)

Sylvia Molloy (1914–2008)

Joos de Momper (1564–1635)

Piet Mondrian (1872–1944)

Blanche Hoschedé Monet (1865–1947)

Claude Monet (1840–1926)

Paul Monnier (1907–1982)

Eugene Montgomery (1905–2001)

Albert Joseph Moore (1841–1893)

Frank Montague Moore (1877–1967)

Mona Moore (1917–2000), English painter and illustrator

Otto Morach (1887–1973)

Thomas Moran (1837–1926)

Rodolfo Morales (1925–2001)

Giorgio Morandi (1890–1964)

Gustave Moreau (1826–1898)

Paulus Moreelse (1571–1638)

Harry Morley (1881–1943), English painter and engraver

Camilo Mori (1896–1973)

Mori Sosen (1747–1821)

Mori Yoshitoshi (1898–1992)

Berthe Morisot (1841–1895)

Malcolm Morley (born 1931)

Carl Morris (1911–1993)

James Morris (1908–1989), British World War II artist

George Morrison (1919–2000)

Samuel F. B. Morse (1791–1872)

Richard Mortensen (1910–1993)

Mary Moser (1744–1819)

Colin Moss (1914–2005), British painter

Robert Motherwell (1915–1991)

Frederik de Moucheron (1633–1686)

Didier Mouron (born 1958)

Charles Mozley (1914–1991), English painter and illustrator

Ivan Mrkvička (1856–1938)

Mu Qi (1201–1269)

Alfons Mucha (1860–1939)

Georg Muche (1895–1987)

Olive Mudie-Cooke (1890–1925), English painter

Muggur (1891–1924)

Pieter Mulier the Elder (1610–1670)

Pieter Mulier II (1637–1701)

Sheila Mullen (born 1942)

Jan Müller (1922–1958)

Maler Müller (1749–1825)

Adolfo Müller-Ury (1862–1947)

Munakata Shikō (1903–1975)

Edvard Munch (1863–1944)

Gustaf Munch-Petersen (1912–1938)

Loren Munk (born 1951)

Sir Alfred Munnings (1875–1959)

Glòria Muñoz (born 1949)

Gabriele Münter (1877–1962)

Muqi Fachang (1210?–1269?)

Murakami Kagaku (1888–1939)

Murakami Takashi (born 1963)

John Murdoch (born 1971)

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617–1682)

Gerald "Dr. Atl" Murillo (1875–1964)

Elizabeth Murray (1940–2007)

Edo Murtić (1921–2005)

Italo Mus (1892–1967)

Mushanokōji Saneatsu (1885–1976)

Zoran Mušič (1909–2005)

Michiel van Musscher (1645–1705)

Girolamo Muziano (1532–1592)

Grigoriy Myasoyedov (1834–1911)

Johannes Mytens (1614–1670)

Caroline Mytinger (1897–1980)

Maciej Masłowski

Maciej Masłowski (January 24, 1901 – August 17, 1976) was a Polish art historian.


Michałowski (feminine: Michałowska, plural: Michałowscy) is a Polish surname. It may refer to:

Aleksander Michałowski (born 1851), Polish pianist, pedagogue and composer

Kazimierz Michałowski (1901–1981), Polish archaeologist and Egyptologist, founder of Nubiology

Mark Michalowski (born 1963), the editor of Shout

Piotr Michałowski (1800–1855), Polish painter of the Romantic period, known for portraits

Wiktor Michałowski (died 1973), Polish Army officer who worked at the interbellum Polish Cipher Bureau's German section, B.S.-4

Palace of the Ministry of Revenues and Treasury

The Palace of the Ministry of Revenues and Treasury (Polish: Pałac Komisji Rządowej Przychodów i Skarbu) is located at 3/5 Bank Square in Warsaw. It is sometimes simply referred to as the Commission Palace. Currently it is not the home to the named ministry, but serves as Warsaw's official city hall, the seat of the President of Warsaw and the provincial office of the Mazovia province.

Rakowicki Cemetery

Rakowicki Cemetery (Polish: Cmentarz Rakowicki) is a cemetery in Poland, located in the centre of Kraków. It lies within the Administrative District No. 1 Stare Miasto meaning "Old Town" – distinct from with the historic Kraków Old Town further west. Founded at the beginning of the 19th century when the region was part of Austria-Hungary, the cemetery was expanded several times, and at present covers an area of about 42 hectares. Many notable Cracovians, among them the parents of Pope John Paul II, are buried here.


Reiter or Schwarze Reiter ("black riders", anglicized swart reiters) were a type of cavalry in 16th to 17th century Central Europe including Holy Roman Empire, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Tsardom of Russia, and others.Contemporary to the Cuirassier and Lancer cavalry, they used smaller horses, for which reason they were also known as Ringerpferde (corresponding to the French Argoulets).

They were originally recruited in the North German Plain west of the Oder at the time of the Schmalkaldic War of 1546/7.

The Reiter raised firearms to the status of primary weapons for cavalry, as opposed to earlier Western European heavy cavalry which primarily relied upon mêlée weapons.

A Reiter's main weapons were two or more pistols and a sword; most Reiters wore helmets and cuirasses and often additional armor for the arms and legs; sometimes they also carried a long cavalry firearm known as an arquebus or a carbine (although this type of horsemen soon became regarded as a separate class of cavalry—the arquebusier or in Britain harquebusier).

In general, commanders expected Reiters to be able to engage their opponents both with firearms and with swords. In the 16th century and up to about 1620, Reiters often formed up in deep blocks and used their firearms in a caracole attack in the hopes of disordering enemy infantry before charging home and engaging in hand-to-hand combat. However, enterprising commanders such as Henry IV (died 1610) and Gustavus Adolphus (died 1632) preferred to employ their Reiters and other heavy cavalry in a more aggressive manner, ordering them to press the charge and fire their pistols at point-blank range (especially against well-armored enemies) or to use their swords instead. Using either or both of these tactics, Reiters could be incredibly effective when properly employed. A particular case in point is the Battle of Turnhout in 1597, where a force of Dutch Reiters under Maurice of Nassau defeated the opposing Spanish cavalry and then successfully engaged the Spanish infantry with a combination of pistol volleys and sword-in-hand charges.The Reiters mostly consisted of Germans and served in the armies of the German states, in Sweden as "raitars", in Poland as Polish: "rajtaria", and elsewhere. Reiter regiments (Russian: рейтары, romanized: reitary) also operated in Russian armies between the 1630s and the early 18th century (see Regiments of the new order).

In the later 17th century the Reiters gradually merged into generic cavalry regiments and were no longer seen as a distinct class of horseman.

Romanticism in Poland

Romanticism in Poland, a literary, artistic and intellectual period in the evolution of Polish culture, began around 1820, coinciding with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz's first poems in 1822. It ended with the suppression of the Polish-Lithuanian January 1863 Uprising against the Russian Empire in 1864. The latter event ushered in a new era in Polish culture known as Positivism.Polish Romanticism, unlike Romanticism in some other parts of Europe, was not limited to literary and artistic concerns. Due to specific Polish historical circumstances, notably the partitions of Poland, it was also an ideological, philosophical and political movement that expressed the ideals and way of life of a large portion of Polish society subjected to foreign rule as well as to ethnic and religious discrimination.

Silesian Museum

Silesian Museum (Polish: Muzeum Śląskie) is a museum in the city of Katowice, Poland.

Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski

Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski (1634–1702) was a Polish nobleman, magnate, Grand Guardian of the Crown since 1660, the Grand Camp Leader of the Crown since 1661, voivode of the Ruthenian Voivodship since 1664, Field Crown Hetman since 1676, Great Crown Hetman since 1683 and castellan of Kraków since 1692. Jabłonowski was a candidate for the Polish Throne following the death of King John III Sobieski.A talented and skillful political and military leader, Jabłonowski participated in the War with Sweden during The Deluge, then with the Cossacks and Muscovy. He took part in the Chocim campaign of 1673 and participated in the Vienna expedition of 1683. He led the right wing of Polish cavalry forces at the Battle of Vienna. He also stopped the Tatars at Lwów in 1695. In 1692 Jabłonowski built the stronghold and the neighbouring town of Okopy Świętej Trójcy. During the Royal election of 1697, he supported Augustus II, later in opposition to the King.

His daughter Anna Jabłonowska, who married Rafał Leszczyński, was the mother of King Stanisław I.

Wielopolski Palace

The Wielopolski Palace in Kraków, Poland, is the location of the Kraków City Council and the office of the President of Kraków. The palace and the courtyard buildings are located between the All Saints 3–4 Square (Plac Wszystkich Świętych) and the Deputies 8–12 Street (ul. Poselska), which is the official address of the City Hall.

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