Pink film

Pink film (ピンク映画 Pinku eiga or Pinkeiga) in its broadest sense includes almost any Japanese theatrical film that includes nudity (hence 'pink') or deals with sexual content.[1] This encompasses everything from dramas to action thrillers and exploitation film features.

However, some writers have reserved the term 'pink film' for Japanese sex movies produced and distributed by smaller independent studios such as OP Eiga, Shintōhō Eiga, Kokuei and Xces. In this narrower sense, Nikkatsu's Roman Porno series, Toei's Pinky Violence series and the Tokatsu films distributed by Shochiku would not be included as these studios have much larger distribution networks.[2]

Until the early 2000s, they were almost exclusively shot on 35mm film. Recently, filmmakers have increasingly used video (while retaining their emphasis on soft-core narrative). Many theaters swapped 35mm for video projectors and began relying on old videos to meet the demand of triple-feature showings. This article places the pink film in the larger context of postwar erotic cinema.

Pink films became wildly popular in the mid-1960s and dominated the Japanese domestic cinema through the mid-1980s.[3][4] In the 1960s, the pink films were largely the product of small, independent studios. Around 1970, the major studio Nikkatsu started focusing almost exclusively on erotic content, but Toei, another major film production company, started producing a line of what came to be known as Pinky Violence films. With their access to higher production values and talent, some of these films became critical and popular successes.[5] Though the appearance of the adult video led viewers to move away from pink film in the 1980s, films in this genre are still being produced.

Description

The "pink film," or "eroduction" (erotic production) as it was first called,[7] is a cinematic genre without an exact equivalent in the West.[5] Though called pornography, the terms "erotica", "soft porn" and "sexploitation" have been suggested as more appropriate, although none of these precisely matches the pink film genre.[8]

The Japanese film ethics board Eirin has long enforced a ban on the display of genitals and pubic hair. This restriction forced Japanese filmmakers to develop sometimes elaborate means of avoiding showing the "working parts", as author Donald Richie puts it.[6] To work around this censorship, most Japanese directors positioned props—lamps, candles, bottles, etc.—at strategic locations to block the banned body parts. When this was not done, the most common alternative techniques are digital scrambling, covering the prohibited area with a black box or a fuzzy white spot, known as a mosaic or "fogging."[9]

Some have claimed that it is this censorship that gives the Japanese erotic cinema its particular style. Donald Richie says, "American pornography is kept forever on its elemental level because, showing all, it need do nothing else; Japanese eroductions have to do something else since they cannot show all. The stultified impulse has created some extraordinary works of art, a few films among them. None of these, however, are found among eroductions."[10] Richie is making a distinction between the erotic films of the major studios such as Nikkatsu and Toei as against the low-budget pink films produced by independents such as OP Eiga.

Contrasting the pink film with Western pornographic films, Pia Harritz says, "What really stands out is the ability of pinku eiga to engage the spectator in more than just scenes with close-ups of genitals and finally the complexity in the representation of gender and the human mind."[11]

Richie and Harritz enumerate the fundamental elements of the pink film formula as:

  1. The film must have a required minimum quota of sex scenes[12]
  2. The film must be approximately one hour in duration[13]
  3. It must be filmed on 16 mm or 35 mm film within one week[14]
  4. The film must be made on a very limited budget[15]

History

Background

In the years since the end of World War II, eroticism had been gradually making its way into Japanese cinema. The first kiss to be seen in Japanese film—discreetly half-hidden by an umbrella—caused a national sensation in 1946.[16] Although throughout the 1940s and early 1950s nudity in Japanese movie theaters, as in most of the world, was a taboo,[17] some films from the mid-50s such as Shintoho's female pearl-diver films starring buxom Michiko Maeda, began showing more flesh than would have previously been imaginable in the Japanese cinema.[18] During the same period, the taiyozoku films on the teen-age "Sun Tribe", such as Kō Nakahira's Crazed Fruit (1956), introduced unprecedented sexual frankness into Japanese films.[19]

Foreign films of this time, such as Ingmar Bergman's Summer with Monika (1953), Louis Malle's Amants (1958), and Russ Meyer's Immoral Mr. Teas (1959) introduced female nudity into international cinema, and were imported to Japan without problem.[17] Nevertheless, until the early 1960s, graphic depictions of nudity and sex in Japanese film could only be seen in single-reel "stag films," made by film producers such as those depicted in Imamura's film The Pornographers (1966).[20]

First wave (The "Age of Competition" 1962–1971)

The first wave of the pink film in Japan was contemporary with the similar U.S. sexploitation film genres, the "nudie-cuties" and "roughies".[21] Nudity and sex officially entered Japanese cinema with Satoru Kobayashi's controversial and popular independent production Flesh Market (Nikutai no Ichiba, 1962), which is considered the first true pink film.[22] Made for 8 million yen, Kobayashi's independent feature film took in over 100 million yen. Kobayashi remained active in directing pink films until the 1990s. Tamaki Katori, the star of the film, went on to become one of the leading early pink film stars, appearing in over 600, and earning the title "Pink Princess".[23]

In 1964, maverick kabuki, theater and film director Tetsuji Takechi directed Daydream, a big-budget film distributed by the major studio Shochiku. Takechi's Black Snow (1965), resulted in the director's arrest on charges of obscenity and a high-profile trial, which became a major battle between Japan's intellectuals and the establishment. Takechi won the lawsuit, and the publicity surrounding the trial helped bring about a boom in the production of pink films.[24]

In her introduction to the Weisser's Japanese Cinema Encyclopedia: The Sex Films, actress Naomi Tani calls this period in pink film production "The Age of Competition".[25] Though Japan's major studios, such as Nikkatsu and Shochiku made occasional forays into erotica in the 1960s, such as director Seijun Suzuki's Gate of Flesh (1964)—the first mainstream Japanese film to contain nudity,[22] the majority of erotic films were made by the independents. Independent studios such as Nihon Cinema and World Eiga made dozens of cheap, profitable "eroductions". Among the most influential independent studios producing pink films in this era were Shintōhō Eiga (the second studio to use this name), Million Film, Kantō, and Ōkura.[8] Typically shown on a three-film program, these films were made by these companies to show at their own chain of specialty theaters.[26]

Another major pink film studio, Wakamatsu Studios, was formed by director Kōji Wakamatsu in 1965, after quitting Nikkatsu. Known as "The Pink Godfather",[27] and called "the most important director to emerge in the pink film genre",[28] Wakamatsu's independent productions are critically respected works usually concerned with sex and extreme violence mixed with political messages.[29] His most controversial early films dealing with misogyny and sadism are The Embryo Hunts In Secret (1966), Violated Angels (1967), and Go, Go Second Time Virgin (1969).

Three other important pink film directors of this time, Kan Mukai, Kin'ya Ogawa and Shin'ya Yamamoto (director) are known as "The Heroes of the First Wave".[30] In 1965, the same year as Wakamatsu became independent, directors Kan Mukai and Giichi Nishihara established their own production companies—Mukai Productions and Aoi Eiga.[31]

The "first queen of Japanese sex movies" was Noriko Tatsumi,[32] who made films at World Eiga and Nihon Cinema with director Kōji Seki.[33] Other major Sex Queens of the first wave of pink film included Setsuko Ogawa,[34] Mari Iwai,[35] Keiko Kayama,[36] and Miki Hayashi.[37] Other pink film stars of the era include Tamaki Katori, who appeared in many films for Giichi Nishihara and Kōji Wakamatsu; Kemi Ichiboshi, whose specialty was playing the role of a violated innocent;[38] and Mari Nagisa.[39] Younger starlets like Naomi Tani, and Kazuko Shirakawa were starting their careers and already making names for themselves in the pink film industry, but are best remembered today for their work with Nikkatsu during the 1970s.

Toei Pinky Violence

Until the late 1960s, the "pink film" market was almost entirely the domain of low-budget independent companies. At the beginning of the 1970s, now losing their audiences to television and imported American films, Japan's major film studios were struggling for survival. In 1972, Richie reported, "In Japan, the eroduction is the only type of picture that retains an assured patronage."[40] To tap into this lucrative audience, major studio Toei entered the sexploitation market in 1971. In films like his ero-guro series and Joys of Torture series of the late 1960s director Teruo Ishii provided a model for Toei's sexploitation ventures by "establishing a queasy mix of comedy and torture."[41] Producer Kanji Amao designed a group of series—shigeki rosen (Sensational Line), ijoseiai rosen (Abnormal Line), and harenchi rosen (Shameless Line), today collectively referred to as Toei's "Pinky Violence".[5][42] Most of Toei's films in this style used eroticism in conjunction with violent and action-filled stories. Several of these films have the theme of strong women exacting violent revenge for past injustices. The series was launched with the Delinquent Girl Boss (Zubeko Bancho) films starring Reiko Oshida.[43] Other series in the Pinky Violence genre included Norifumi Suzuki's Girl Boss (Sukeban) films, and the Terrifying Girls' High School films, both starring Reiko Ike and Miki Sugimoto.[44][45]

Other examples of Toei's films in this genre include Shunya Ito's Sasori (Scorpion) series of women in prison films based on Toru Shinohara's manga. Starting with Female Convict #701: Scorpion (1972), the Scorpion series starred Meiko Kaji, who had left Nikkatsu Studios to distance herself from their Roman Porno series. Toei also set the standard for Japanese nunsploitation films (a subgenre imported from Italy) with the critically acclaimed School of the Holy Beast (1974) directed by Norifumi Suzuki. Toei also produced a whole series of erotic samurai pictures such as Bohachi Bushido: Clan of the Forgotten Eight (Bōhachi Bushidō: Poruno Jidaigeki) (1973).

Nikkatsu Roman Porno

In 1971 Takashi Itamochi, president of Nikkatsu, Japan's oldest major film studio, decided to stop his own company's involvement with action films and start making sexploitation films.[46] Like Toei, Nikkatsu had made some previous films in the sexploitation market, such as Story of Heresy in Meiji Era (1968) and Tokyo Bathhouse (1968), which featured over 30 sex-film stars in cameo appearances.[47] Nikkatsu launched its Roman Porno series in November 1971 with Apartment Wife: Affair In the Afternoon, starring Kazuko Shirakawa.[48] The film became a huge hit, inspired 20 sequels within seven years, established Shirakawa as Nikkatsu's first "Queen", and successfully launched the high-profile Roman porno series. Director Masaru Konuma says that the process of making Roman Porno was the same as that of making a pink film except for the higher budget.[49] Nikkatsu made these higher-quality pink films almost exclusively, at an average rate of three per month,[50] for the next 17 years.

Nikkatsu gave its Roman porno directors a great deal of artistic freedom in creating their films, as long as they met the official minimum quota of four nude or sex scenes per hour.[51] The result was a series that was popular both with audiences and with critics.[52] One or two Roman Pornos appeared on the top-ten lists of Japanese critics every year throughout the run of the series.[53] Nikkatsu's higher-quality sex films essentially took the pink film market away from the smaller, independent studios until the mid-1980s, when adult videos began to lure away much of the pink film's clientele.[8]

Tatsumi Kumashiro was one of the major directors of the Roman Porno. Kumashiro directed a string of financial and critical hits unprecedented in Japanese cinematic history, including Ichijo's Wet Desire (1972) and Woman with Red Hair (1979), starring Junko Miyashita.[54] He became known as the "King of Nikkatsu Roman porno"[51][55] Noboru Tanaka, director of A Woman Called Sada Abe (1975), is judged by many critics today to have been the best of Nikkatsu's Roman Porno directors.[56][57] The S&M subgenre of the Roman Porno was established in 1974 when the studio hired Naomi Tani to star in Flower and Snake (based on an Oniroku Dan novel), and Wife to be Sacrificed, both directed by Masaru Konuma.[58] Tani's immense popularity established her as Nikkatsu's third Roman Porno Queen, and the first of their S&M Queens.[59] Other subgenres of the pink film developed under the Roman Porno line included "Violent Pink", established in 1976 by director Yasuharu Hasebe.[60]

1980s

When ownership of VCRs first became widespread in the early 1980s, adult videos made their appearance, and quickly became highly popular.[61] As early as 1982 the AVs had already attained an approximately equal share of the adult entertainment market with theatrical erotic films.[62] In 1984, new government censorship policies and an agreement between Eirin (the Japanese film-rating board) and the pink-film companies added to Nikkatsu's difficulties by putting drastic new restrictions on theatrical films. Theatrical pink movie profits dropped 36% within a month of the new ruling.[62] Eirin dealt a serious blow to the pink film industry in 1988 by introducing stricter requirements for sex-related theatrical films. Nikkatsu responded by discontinuing their Roman Porno line. Bed Partner (1988) was the final film of the venerable 17-year-old Roman Porno series. Nikkatsu continued to distribute films under the name Ropponica, and pink films through Excess Films, however these were not nearly as popular or critically respected as the Roman Porno series had been in its heyday.[63] By the end of the 1980s, adult videos had become the main form of adult cinematic entertainment in Japan.

The dominant directors of pink films of the 1980s, Genji Nakamura, Banmei Takahashi and Mamoru Watanabe are known collectively as "The Three Pillars Of Pink".[64] All three were veterans of the pink film industry since the 1960s. Coming to prominence in the 1980s, a time when the theatrical porn film was facing considerable difficulties on several fronts, this group is known for elevating the pink film above its low origins by concentrating on technical finesse and narrative content. Some critics dubbed the style of their films "pink art".[54]

By the time Nakamura joined Nikkatsu in 1983, he had already directed over 100 films.[65] While the plots of his films, which could be extremely misogynistic, were not highly respected, his visual style earned him a reputation for "erotic sensitivity."[54] Nakamura directed one of Japan's first widely distributed, well-received films with a homosexual theme, Legend of the Big Penis: Beautiful Mystery (1983),[66] for Nikkatsu's ENK Productions, which was founded in 1983 to focus on gay-themed pink films.[5] Some of Nakamura's later pink films were directed in collaboration with Ryūichi Hiroki, and Hitoshi Ishikawa under the group pseudonym Go Ijuin.[67]

Banmei Takahashi directed "intricate, highly stylistic pinku eiga",[68] including New World of Love (1994), the first Japanese theatrical film to display genitals.[69] Another prominent cult director of this era, Kazuo "Gaira" Komizu, is known for his Herschell Gordon Lewis-influenced "splatter-eros" films, which bridge the genres of horror and erotica.[70]

1990s

Nikkatsu, Japan's largest producer of pink films during the 1970s and 1980s, filed for bankruptcy protection in 1993.[71] Nevertheless, even in this most difficult period for the pink film, the genre never completely died out, and continued exploring new artistic realms. Indeed, at this time the pink film was viewed as one of the last refuges of the "auteur" in Japan. So long as the director provided the requisite number of sex scenes, he was free to explore his own thematic and artistic interests.[72]

Three of the most prominent pink film directors of the 1990s, Kazuhiro Sano, Toshiki Satō and Takahisa Zeze all made their directorial debuts in 1989. A fourth, Hisayasu Satō, debuted in 1985. Coming to prominence during one of the most precarious times for the pink film, these directors worked under the assumption that each film could be their last, and so largely ignored their audience to concentrate on intensely personal, experimental themes. These directors even broke one of the fundamental pink rules by cutting down in the sex scenes in pursuit of their own artistic concerns. Their films were considered "difficult"—dark, complex, and largely unpopular with the older pink audience. The title "Four Heavenly Kings of Pink" (ピンク四天王 pinku shitenno) was applied to these directors, at first sarcastically, by disgruntled theater owners. On the other hand, Roland Domenig, in his essay on the pink film, says that their work offers "a refreshing contrast to the formulaic and stereotyped films that make up the larger part of pink eiga production, and are strongly influenced by the notion of the filmmaker as auteur."[5]

Pink film today

The newest prominent group of seven pink film directors all began as assistant directors to the shitenno. Their films display individualistic styles and introspective character indicative of the insecurity of Japan's post-bubble generation. Known together as the "Seven Lucky Gods of Pink" (ピンク七福神 pinku shichifukujin) they are Toshiya Ueno, Shinji Imaoka, Yoshitaka Kamata, Toshiro Enomoto, Yūji Tajiri, Mitsuru Meike and Rei Sakamoto.[5] Ueno was the first director of this group to rise to prominence, acting as an "advance guard" for the group when his Keep on Masturbating: Non-Stop Pleasure (1994) won the "Best Film" award at the Pink Grand Prix.[73] Founded in 1989,[74] the Pink Grand Prix has become a yearly highlight for the pink film community by awarding excellence in the genre and screening the top films.[75]

The 2000s have seen a significant growth in international interest in the pink film. Director Mitsuru Meike's The Glamorous Life of Sachiko Hanai (2003) made an impression in international film festivals and gained critical praise.[76] A planned annual "women-only" pink film festival was first held in South Korea in 2007, and again in November 2008.[77][78][79] In 2008 a company called Pink Eiga, Inc. was formed with the sole purpose of releasing pink films on DVD in the U.S.[80]

Directors

While some directors have used pink films as a steppingstone for their careers, others work exclusively with the genre. Some notable directors of pink films include:

Actresses

Some notable pinku eiga actresses include:

Notable Pink films and related genres

Pink films

Nikkatsu "Roman Porno"

Toei "Pinky violence"

Awards

Outstanding Pink films and their actors and directors have been given awards both from the adult entertainment industry and from the mainstream film community. The following is a partial listing.

Hochi Film Award

Mainstream film award.
1979

Kinema Junpo awards

Cinema bi-weekly journal film award.
1969

  • Best Independent Film—Shinya Yamamoto for Spring of Ecstasy (1968)[82]

1972

Nikkatsu awards

Nikkatsu studio's in-house awards.
1985

1987

Ona-Pet Award

Tabloid magazine award for "the girl you think of while masturbating". The other yearly award was given for the "Tsuma No Mibun", or "girl you would like to marry."
1976

Pink Grand Prix

Hosted every April by PG magazine. Currently the major pink film award ceremony. Founded 1989, covers 1988–present.

Pinky Ribbon Awards

Annual award held by the Kansai region Pink Link magazine. 2004–present.

Yokohama Film Festival

Mainstream film festival awards.
1985

Zoom-Up Awards

The Zoom-Up Film Festival (ズームアップ映画祭) pink film awards began in 1980 for movies released in the previous year.[89] The awards continued to at least 1994. Since no listing of the awards seems to be presently available, the following scattered references are what items can be gleaned from the web.

1st Zoom-Up Awards (1980)

2nd Zoom-Up Awards (1981)

  • Best Supporting Actress—Cecile Goda[90]
  • Best Director—Genji Nakamura[90]

3rd Zoom-Up Awards (1982)

5th Zoom-Up Awards (1984)

6th Zoom-Up Awards (1985)
- Held in Shinjuku, Tokyo in May 1985.[97]

7th Zoom-Up Awards (1986)

8th Zoom-Up Awards (1987)

9th Zoom-Up Awards (1988)

  • Best Actress—Kaori Hasegawa[90]
  • Best Supporting Actor—Kinkichi Ishibe[90]
  • Best Director—Hitoshi Ishikawa[90][99]
  • Best New Director—Daisuke Goto[100]

Notes

  1. ^ Thomas and Yuko Mihara Weisser. 1998. Japanese Cinema Encyclopedia: The Sex Films. Vital Books.
  2. ^ e.g. Jasper Sharp. 2008. Behind the Pink Curtain: The Complete History of Japanese Sex Cinema. Fab Press. or the authors of the article on Pink films in the Japanese wikipedia (ja:ピンク映画)
  3. ^ Richie, Donald (2001). "After the Wave". A Hundred Years of Japanese Film: A Concise History. Tokyo: Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-2682-X. For a time, almost half of the annual film production figures released in Japan were composed of these hour-long mini-features.
  4. ^ Domenig, Roland (2002). "Vital flesh: the mysterious world of Pink Eiga". Archived from the original on 2004-11-18. Retrieved 2007-02-19. Since the mid-1960s, pink eiga have been the biggest Japanese film genre... By the late 1970s the production of pink eiga together with Roman Porno amounted to more than 70% of annual Japanese film production.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Domenig, Roland (2002). "Vital flesh: the mysterious world of Pink Eiga". Archived from the original on 2004-11-18. Retrieved 2007-02-19.
  6. ^ a b Richie, Donald (1987) [1972]. "The Japanese Eroduction". A Lateral View: Essays on Culture and Style in Contemporary Japan. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 156. ISBN 0-9628137-4-5.
  7. ^ Domenig. Vital Flesh. "The term pink eiga was first coined in 1963 by journalist Murai Minoru. But it did not come into general use until the late 1960s. In the early years the films were known as 'eroduction films' (erodakushon eiga) or 'three-million-yen-films' (sanbyakuman eiga)."
  8. ^ a b c Weisser, Thomas; Yuko Mihara Weisser (1998). Japanese Cinema Encyclopedia: The Sex Films. Miami: Vital Books: Asian Cult Cinema Publications. p. 20. ISBN 1-889288-52-7.
  9. ^ Weisser. p. 23.
  10. ^ Richie. The Japanese Eroduction. p. 163.
  11. ^ Harritz, Pia D (2006). "Consuming the Female Body: Pinku Eiga and the case of Sagawa Issei". mediavidenskab. Archived from the original on 2007-07-02. Retrieved 2007-07-07.
  12. ^ Richie. The Japanese Eroduction pp. 159–160. "In theory, directors are instructed to aim at some kind of sex scene every five minutes; in practice, however, it has proved almost impossible to construct a story-line which allows this, with the results that sex scenes are sometimes fewer but somewhat longer."
  13. ^ Domenig. Vital Flesh. "Pink eiga... typically 60 minutes long..."
  14. ^ Richie. The Japanese Eroduction p. 157. "The shooting-time for each remains short—a week at the most..."
  15. ^ Harritz. Writing in 2006, Pia Harritz gives the required budget as about $35,000.
  16. ^ Bornoff, Nicholas (1994) [1991]. "18 (Naked Dissent)". Pink Samurai: An Erotic Exploration of Japanese Society; The Pursuit and Politics of Sex in Japan (Paperback ed.). London: HarperCollins. p. 602. ISBN 0-586-20576-4.
  17. ^ a b Weisser, p. 22.
  18. ^ Anderson, Joseph; Donald Richie (1982). The Japanese Film: Art and Industry (Expanded ed.). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 266–267.
  19. ^ Sato, Tadao (1987) [1982]. Gregory Barrett (translator) (ed.). Currents in Japanese Cinema (paperback ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha. pp. 212–213. ISBN 0-87011-815-3.
  20. ^ Sharp, Jasper. "Tetsuji Takechi: Erotic Nightmares". www.midnighteye.com. Retrieved 2007-03-15.
  21. ^ Fentone, Steve (1998). "A Rip of the Flesh: The Japanese 'Pink Film' Cycle". She. 2 (11): 5.
  22. ^ a b Weisser, p. 21.
  23. ^ Connell, Ryann (March 2, 2006). "Japan's former Pink Princess trades raunchy scenes for rural canteen". Mainichi Shimbun. Retrieved 2007-03-06.
  24. ^ Firsching, Robert. "Kuroi Yuki". Allmovie. Archived from the original on 2012-07-19. Retrieved 2007-10-29. The resultant obscenity trial... ended with a landmark decision which allowed complete narrative freedom in Japanese films. This development paved the way for the thousands of softcore pinku eiga and S & M films which would define Japanese exploitation cinema until... the late '80s...
  25. ^ Weisser, p. 12.
  26. ^ Richie. A Hundred Years of Japanese Film
  27. ^ Weisser, p. 287.
  28. ^ Desser, David (1988). Eros Plus Massacre: An Introduction to the Japanese New Wave Cinema. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 99–101. ISBN 0-253-31961-7.
  29. ^ Iwauchi, Hideki; Koji Wakamatsu (interviewee). "Koji Wakamatsu Film Director Interview". www.insite-tokyo.com. Archived from the original on 2007-04-26. Retrieved 2007-07-07. He... produced numerous films that are shocking for their treatments of sex, violence, and politics.
  30. ^ Weisser, p. 105.
  31. ^ Sharp, Jasper (2008). Behind the Pink Curtain: The Complete History of Japanese Sex Cinema. Guildford: FAB Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-903254-54-7.
  32. ^ Weisser, p. 81.
  33. ^ Weisser, p. 79.
  34. ^ Weisser, p. 131.
  35. ^ Weisser, p. 441.
  36. ^ Weisser, p. 151.
  37. ^ Weisser, p. 153.
  38. ^ Weisser, p. 103.
  39. ^ Weisser, p. 197.
  40. ^ Richie. The Japanese Eroduction, p. 158.
  41. ^ Macias, p. 189.
  42. ^ Macias, p. 189
  43. ^ D., Chris (2005). Toei's Bad Girl Cinema (booklet to DVD set The Pinky Violence Collection. Panik House Entertainment. p. 8.
  44. ^ Macias, p. 190
  45. ^ Chris D., p. 10.
  46. ^ Macias, Patrick (2001). "Nikkatsu's Roman Porno". TokyoScope: The Japanese Cult Film Companion. San Francisco: Cadence Books. p. 187. ISBN 1-56931-681-3.
  47. ^ Weisser, pp. 420, 434.
  48. ^ Sato. p. 244.
  49. ^ Konuma, Masaru. Interviewed by Weisser, Thomas and Yuko Mihara Weisser. (1998). "An Interview with Masaru Konuma; An exclusive ACC interview with Nikkatsu's most notorious director conducted... in Tokyo on November 6, 1998." in Asian Cult Cinema, #22, 1st Quarter 1999, p. 21."The company wanted to convince people that these movies were somehow different, perhaps to make them immediately socially acceptable. However—from the creator's side—there was no difference between the making of Roman Porn and Pink."
  50. ^ Bornoff, Nicholas (1994) [1991]. "Bye-Bye Pink Cinema, Hello Adult Video". Pink Samurai: An Erotic Exploration of Japanese Society; The Pursuit and Politics of Sex in Japan (Paperback ed.). London: HarperCollins. p. 603. ISBN 0-586-20576-4.
  51. ^ a b Weisser, p. 204
  52. ^ Macias, p. 187. "While single men and curious couples alike lined up for roman porno fare, film critics had no hesitations about singing their praises."
  53. ^ Hirano, Kyoko (1987). "Japan". In William Luhr (ed.). World Cinema Since 1945. New York: The Ungar Publishing Company. p. 412. ISBN 0-8044-3078-0. at least one or two Roman Pornos have been chosen every year since 1971 as among the ten best films of the year by Japanese critics.
  54. ^ a b c Weisser, p. 495.
  55. ^ Johnson, William (2003). "A New View of Porn: The Films of Tatsumi Kumashiro" (PDF). Film Quarterly, vol. 57, no.1, Fall 2003. University of California Press. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-03-04. Retrieved 2007-03-06.
  56. ^ Weisser, pp. 323, 359.
  57. ^ Thompson, Bill (1985). "Jitsuroko [sic] Abe Sada". In Frank N. Magill (ed.). Magill's Survey of Cinema: Foreign Language Films; Volume 4. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Salem Press. pp. 1568–1573. ISBN 0-89356-247-5.
  58. ^ Konuma, p. 22–23.
  59. ^ Weisser, p. 329.
  60. ^ Hasebe, Yasuharu. (1998). Interviewed by Thomas and Yuko Mihara Weisser in Tokyo, 1999, in Asian Cult Cinema, #25, 4th Quarter, 1999, p. 39.
  61. ^ Schönherr, Johannes (December 29, 2006). "Japanese AV – A Short Introduction". Midnight Eye. Retrieved 2007-07-09.
  62. ^ a b Weisser, p. 29.
  63. ^ Weisser, pp. 30, 63, 155.
  64. ^ Weisser, p. 231.
  65. ^ Weisser, p. 60
  66. ^ Weisser, p. 229
  67. ^ Weisser, p. 383.
  68. ^ Weisser, p. 183.
  69. ^ Weisser, p. 292.
  70. ^ Weisser, pp. 126–127.
  71. ^ Macias, p. 188.
  72. ^ Zeze, Takahisa quoted in "Takahisa Zeze interview". midnighteye.com. Retrieved 2007-10-04. Question: "Pink film is often seen as one of the last few reserves of the auteur. It is often said that as long as you deliver so many sex scenes in one hour, the director can fill the rest of the running time with whatever he wants. Is this true?" Zeze: "Yes it is. We believed it was true at the time, so we tried to make what we wanted to make..."
  73. ^ Sharp, Behind the Pink Curtain, p. 311.
  74. ^ "3. The Appearance of AV, and the Death of Roman Porno: The Pink Film in Crisis (3. AVの登場とロマンポルノの終焉 ピンク映画の危機(1982-1989) - 3. AV no tōjō to roman porno no shūen: pinku eiga no kiki (1982–1989))" (in Japanese). biglobe.ne.jp. Retrieved 2010-07-13. ピンク映画専門のミニコミ「New Zoom-Up」創刊。第一回ピンク大賞を選出し、授賞式を亀有名画座で行う
  75. ^ Sharp, Jasper (2008-12-04). "Pink thrills: Japanese sex movies go global". The Japan Times. Retrieved January 23, 2009.
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References

External links

Akiho Yoshizawa

Akiho Yoshizawa (Japanese: 吉沢明歩, Hepburn: Yoshizawa Akiho), often known simply as Acky (あっきー), is a Japanese former adult video actress (AV), who also apperared in pink film, mainstream film and television as well. With a career spanning over more than 15 years, Yoshizawa was widely renowned as one of the most famous and recognizable faces in Japanese adult entertainment, with an appeal that managed to cross over into mainstream entertainment as well.

She started her AV career in 2003 with the companies Alice Japan and Max-A, and in 2007 she transitioned to studios Maxing and S1 No. 1 Style appearing alongside with other famous AV actresses like Yuma Asami, Mihiro, Sola Aoi or Megu Fujiura. She was also a member of the idol group Ebisu Muscats between 2008 and 2013. Yoshizawa announced her retirement from AV in late 2018, and her final adult films were released in March 2019.

Banmei Takahashi

Banmei Takahashi (高橋伴明, Takahashi Banmei) (or Tomoaki Takahashi) is a Japanese film director. Takahashi started his career in the pink film industry, making his directorial debut in 1972 with Escaped Rapist Criminal. Due to a disagreement with his producer, Takahashi quit the film industry for a couple years. He joined pink film pioneer Kōji Wakamatsu's production studio in 1975, working as a script-writer until Wakamatsu produced Takahashi's second film, Delinquent File: Juvenile Prostitution (1976). For the next few years Takahashi averaged five films annually at Wakamatsu's studio, until Takahashi left to start his own production company in 1979.Takahashi married Nikkatsu Roman Porno and pink film actress Keiko Sekine who then changed her name to Keiko Takahashi and starred in several of Takahashi's films. Sekine appeared in Takahashi's Tattoo Ari (1982), a mainstream box-office hit which won Takahashi the award for Best Director at the 4th Yokohama Film Festival. With the success of this film, Takahashi dissolved Takahashi Productions to focus on mainstream filmmaking. Takahashi's 1994 film New World of Love, inspired by photographer Nobuyoshi Araki's work, is significant as the first Japanese production to play uncensored and unfogged domestically.

Kōji Wakamatsu

Kōji Wakamatsu (若松孝二, Wakamatsu Kōji, 1 April 1936 – 17 October 2012) was a Japanese film director who directed such pinku eiga films as Ecstasy of the Angels (天使の恍惚, Tenshi no Kōkotsu, 1972) and Go, Go, Second Time Virgin (ゆけゆけ二度目の処女, Yuke Yuke Nidome no Shojo, 1969). He also produced Nagisa Ōshima's controversial film In the Realm of the Senses (1976). He has been called "the most important director to emerge in the pink film genre," and one of "Japan's leading directors of the 1960s."His 2010 film, Caterpillar, was nominated for the Golden Bear at the 60th Berlin International Film Festival.

List of The Pink Panther cartoons

This is a list of the original 124 Pink Panther animated shorts produced between December 18, 1964, and February 1, 1980, by DePatie–Freleng Enterprises (DFE Films) 92 shorts were released theatrically and eventually the first 62 entries appeared on Saturday mornings via The Pink Panther Show under the same umbrella title starting in 1969 on NBC. All 36 made-for-television entries were also distributed to theaters after initially airing on The Pink Panther Show under the title The All New Pink Panther Show in 1978–1980 on ABC, respectively.

The Pink Panther's long-time foil, known simply as the Little Man, appeared in many entries except where noted.

Mamoru Watanabe

Mamoru Watanabe (渡辺 護, Watanabe Mamoru) (March 19, 1931 – December 24, 2013) was a Japanese film director, screenwriter and actor, known for his work in the pink film genre. Along with directors Genji Nakamura and Banmei Takahashi, Watanabe was known as one of the "Three Pillars of Pink".

Million Film

Million Film (ミリオンフィルム) was one of the early independent studios which produced pink films. Along with OP Eiga, Shintōhō Eiga, Kantō and Kōji Wakamatsu's production studio, Million Film was one of the most influential on the genre during its first decade. Many of the most prominent directors and performers in the pink film genre worked for Million Film.

Naomi Tani

Naomi Tani (谷ナオミ, Tani Naomi) is a Japanese pink film actress who is best known for her appearances in Nikkatsu's Roman Porno films with an S&M theme during the 1970s.

OP Eiga

OP Eiga (オーピー映画), also known as Ōkura Eiga (大蔵映画) or Okura Pictures, is the largest and one of the oldest independent Japanese studios which produce and distribute pink films. It was founded in 1961 by Mitsuru Ōkura, former president of film studio Shintōhō. Along with Shintōhō Eiga, Kantō, Million Film, and Kōji Wakamatsu's production studio, Ōkura was one of the most influential studios on the pink film genre. Among the many notable pink films released by the studio are Satoru Kobayashi's Flesh Market (1962), the first film in the pink film genre.

Pink Grand Prix

The Pink Grand Prix (ピンク大賞, pink taishō) or PG Film Prize (PG映画大賞, PG eiga taishō, "Pink film festival" or "Pink Prize") is an annual Japanese film award ceremony which recognizes excellence in the pink film. Known as the "Academy Awards of the Pink Film", the ceremony attracts a diverse audience of industry personnel, film scholars and the general public.Pink film scholar Jasper Sharp calls it the high point of the year for the pink film community.PG, a magazine focusing on the genre, hosts the Pink Grand Prix in April of each year as a review of pink films released the previous year. The top ten films are selected by a readers' poll, and the top five films are screened during the evening of the ceremony held at the Kameari-za theater in Aoto, Tokyo until its closing in 1999, and at the Shinbungeiza theater thereafter.

Pinky Ribbon Awards

The Pinky Ribbon Awards (ピンキーリボン賞, Pinkiiribon shō) are a Japanese cinema awards ceremony which recognizes excellence in the pink film genre. The award is held by Pink Link (ぴんくりんく), a Kansai region paper covering the pink film industry. Readers of the paper elect the winners of the awards, which have been held annually since 2004. Honors go to the best three films of the year—Gold, Silver and Pearl awards—and to the best actresses. Actress awards are Best Actress, Best Supporting Actress, Best New Actress, and since 2006, Outstanding Performance by an Actress.

Pretty in Pink

Pretty in Pink is a 1986 American romantic comedy film about love and social cliques in American high schools in the 1980s. A cult classic, it is commonly identified as a "Brat Pack" film. It was directed by Howard Deutch, produced by Lauren Shuler Donner, and written by John Hughes, who also served as co-executive producer. It was named after the song by The Psychedelic Furs.

The film's soundtrack has been rated as one of the best in modern cinema. It features a re-recorded version of the title song by The Psychedelic Furs. Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark's "If You Leave" became an international hit and charted at #4 on the Billboard Hot 100 in May 1986.

Rokurō Mochizuki

Rokurō Mochizuki (望月六郎, Mochizuki Rokurō) is a Japanese film director who has worked in pink film, adult videos and mainstream cinema. He won the award for Best Director at the 19th Yokohama Film Festival for Onibi and A Yakuza in Love.

Ryūichi Hiroki

Ryūichi Hiroki (廣木 隆一, Hiroki Ryūichi, born January 1, 1954) is a Japanese film director. He won critical acclaim for 800 Two Lap Runners. Film critic and researcher Alexander Jacoby has described Hiroki as "one of the modern Japanese cinema's most intelligent students of character".

Shintōhō Eiga

Shintōhō Eiga (新東宝映画, lit. Shintoho Pictures) is a Japanese pink film production company and film distributor located in Tokyo, Japan which has been among the most influential studios in the pink film genre since its beginnings.

Strike Me Pink (film)

Strike Me Pink is a 1936 American musical comedy film directed by Norman Taurog, starring Eddie Cantor and Ethel Merman, and produced by Samuel Goldwyn.

Cantor plays a nebbishy employee of an amusement park, forced to assert himself against a gang of slot-machine racketeers. The climax involves a wild chase over a roller coaster and in a hot-air balloon, filmed at The Pike in Long Beach, California.

The film was Eddie Cantor's sixth of six films for Goldwyn, all produced and released within seven years. The story derives from the novel Dreamland by the once-popular writer Clarence Budington Kelland, reworked as a 1933 stage musical comedy by Ray Henderson for Jimmy Durante.

Yumi Yoshiyuki

Yumi Yoshiyuki (吉行由実 or 吉行由美, Yoshiyuki Yumi) is a Japanese film director, actress, and screenwriter best known for her work in the pink film genre.

Yutaka Ikejima

Yutaka Ikejima (池島ゆたか, Ikejima Yutaka, or 池嶋ゆたか; born March 30, 1948) is a Japanese film director, actor, and producer. Considered the most successful filmmaker in the pink film genre in the 2000s, his films are popular with traditional pink film audiences, fans of cinema, and with critics. Because of his prolific contributions to the pink film he has earned the nickname "Mr. Pink".

Yōjirō Takita

Yōjirō Takita (滝田 洋二郎 Takita Yōjirō, born December 4, 1955) is a Japanese filmmaker.

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