Pininfarina S.p.A. (short for Carrozzeria Pininfarina) is an Italian car design firm and coachbuilder, with headquarters in Cambiano, (Metropolitan City of Turin), Italy. It was founded by Battista "Pinin" Farina in 1930. On 14 December 2015, Mahindra Group acquired Pininfarina S.p.A. for about €168 million.
Pininfarina is employed by a wide variety of automobile manufacturers to design vehicles. These firms have included long-established customers such as Ferrari, Alfa Romeo, Peugeot, Fiat, GM, Lancia, and Maserati, to emerging companies in the Asian market with Chinese manufactures like AviChina, Chery, Changfeng, Brilliance, and JAC and VinFast in Vietnam and Korean manufacturers Daewoo and Hyundai.
Since the 1980s Pininfarina has also designed high-speed trains, buses, trams, rolling stocks, automated light rail cars, people movers, yachts, airplanes, and private jets. With the 1986 creation of "Pininfarina Extra" it has consulted on industrial design, interior design, architecture, and graphic design.
Pininfarina was run by Battista's son Sergio Pininfarina until 2001, then his grandson Andrea Pininfarina until his death in 2008. After Andrea's death, his younger brother Paolo Pininfarina was appointed as CEO.
At its height in 2006 the Pininfarina Group employed 2,768 with subsidiary company offices throughout Europe, as well as in Morocco and the United States. As of 2012 with the end of series automotive production, employment has shrunk to 821. Pininfarina is registered and publicly traded on the Borsa Italiana (Milan Stock Exchange).
|Società per Azioni|
|Traded as||BIT: PINF|
|Industry||Automotive and Design|
|Founded||Turin, Italy (May 23, 1930)|
|€20.5 million (2016)|
Number of employees
|Parent||Mahindra Group (76.06%)|
When automobile designer and builder Battista "Pinin" Farina broke away from his brother's coach building firm, Stabilimenti Farina, in 1928, he founded "Carrozzeria Pinin Farina" with financial help from his wife's family and Vincenzo Lancia. That first year the firm employed eighteen and built 50 automobile bodies.
On 22 May 1930 papers were filed to become a corporation, Società anonima Carrozzeria Pinin Farina headquartered in Turin, Italy, at 107 Corso Trapani. During the 1930s, the company built bodies for Lancia, Alfa Romeo, Isotta Fraschini, Hispano-Suiza, Fiat, Cadillac, and Rolls-Royce. With its close relationship with Lancia, the pioneer of the monocoque in automobile design, Farina became the first coachbuilder to build bodies for the new technique also known as unibody construction. This development happened in the mid-1930s when others saw the frameless construction as the end of the independent coachbuilder.
In 1939, World War II ended automobile production, but the company had 400 employees building 150 bodies a month. The war effort against the Allies brought work making ambulances and searchlight carriages. The Pinin Farina factory was destroyed by Allied bombers ending the firm's operations.
After the war, Italy was banned from the 1946 Paris Motor Show. The Paris show was attended by 809,000 visitors (twice the pre-war figure), queues stretched from the main gate all the way to the Seine. Pinin Farina and his son Sergio, determined to defy the ban, drove two of their cars (an Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 S and a Lancia Aprilia cabriolet) from Turin to Paris, and found a place at the entrance to the exhibition to display the two new creations. The managers of the Grand Palais said of the display, "the devil Pinin Farina", but to the press and the public it was the successful "Turin coachbuilder's anti-salon".
At the end of 1945 the Cisitalia 202 Coupé was designed. An elegantly proportioned design with a low hood, it is the car that usually is given credit for establishing Pinin Farina's reputation. The Pinin Farina design was honored in the Museum of Modern Art's landmark presentation "Eight Automobiles" in 1951. A total of 170 Coupés were produced by Pinin Farina.
The publicity of the Museum of Modern Art exhibit brought Pinin Farina to the attention of Nash-Kelvinator managers. The subsequent cooperation with Nash Motors resulted in high-volume production of Pinin Farina designs and provided a major entry into the United States market. In 1952, Farina visited the U.S. for the unveiling of his design for the Nash Ambassador and Statesman lines, which, although they did carry some details of Pinin Farina's design, were largely designed by Nash's then-new in-house styling staff when the original Farina-designed model proved unsuited to American tastes, exhibiting a popular 1950s appearance called "ponton". The Nash-Healey sports car body was, however, completely designed and assembled in limited numbers from 1952 to 1954 at Pinin Farina's Turin facilities. Nash heavily advertised its link to the famous Italian designer, much as Studebaker promoted its longtime association with Raymond Loewy. As a result of Nash's million advertising campaign, Pinin Farina became well known in the U.S.
Pinin Farina also built the bodies for the limited-series Cadillac Eldorado Brougham for General Motors in 1959 and 1960, assembled them and sent them back to the U.S. There were 99 Broughams built in 1959 and 101 in 1960. A similar arrangement was repeated in the late 1980s when Pininfarina designed (and partially assembled) the Cadillac Allanté at the San Giusto Canavese factory. The car bodies were assembled and painted in Italy before being flown from the Turin International Airport to Detroit for final vehicle assembly.
It started in 1951 with a meeting at a restaurant in Tortona, a small town halfway between Turin and Modena. This neutral territory was chosen because neither Farina nor Enzo Ferrari wanted to meet at the other's headquarters. Pinin’s son, Sergio Pininfarina recalled, "It is not difficult to imagine how I felt that afternoon when my father, without taking his eyes off the road for one moment told me his decision as we drove back to Turin: "From now on you'll be looking after Ferrari, from A to Z. Design, engineering, technology, construction—the lot!"—I was over the moon with happiness." "
Since that meeting the only road-going production Ferraris not designed by Pininfarina are the 1973 Dino 308 GT4 and 2013's LaFerrari. Their relationship was so close that Pininfarina became a partner of Ferrari in "Scuderia Ferrari SpA SEFAC", the organization that ran Ferrari's race team from 1961–1989, Pinin was a vice president of Ferrari, and Sergio later sat on Ferrari's board of directors.
Ferrari does not sell new cars by Pininfarina in 2018. The last penned by Pininfarina was the Ferrari F12berlinetta which was produced 2012–17.
In 1954 to 1955 Pinin Farina purchased land in Grugliasco, outside of Turin, for a new factory. "The factory in no way would look like the one of Corso Trapani. It would be a car no longer on my measurements but on those of my children, built looking like them; I had this in mind and wanted it," said Farina.
Around the same time, Alfa Romeo accepted Pininfarina's design over Bertone for the new Giulietta Spider. The Alfa was the first vehicle that Pinin Farina produced in large numbers, in fact Alfa Romeo chose Pinin Farina to produce the Spider in large part because they felt confident that they could produce 20 cars a day for a run of 1,000 bodies. The Spider was a huge success for Alfa Romeo and Pinin Farina. Max Hoffman the importer for the United States said he could sell as many as they could make. In 1956, the first year of production, they produced 1025 units which then expanded to over 4,000 in 1959 the first full year of the new Grugliasco factory.
Starting with the planning for the new plant in Grugliasco in 1956, Pinin started to groom his replacements–Sergio his son and Renzo Carli his son-in-law. To his heirs apparent, Pinin said of the Corso Trapani facility "This old plant has reached the limits of its growth. It has no room for expansion and is far from being up to date. If I were alone I'd leave it as it is. But I want you to decide which way to go–to stay as we are or to enlarge. Either way is fine with me. It's your decision to make and I don't want to know what it is. I'm finished and it's your time to take over. The future is absolutely up to you." In 1958, upon leaving for a world tour Pinin added "In my family we inherit our legacies from live people–not from the dead."
In 1961 at the age of 68, “Pinin” Farina formally turned his firm over to his son Sergio and his son-in-law, Renzo Carli, it was the same year that the President of Italy formally authorized the change of Farina’s last name to Pininfarina and the business took on the same name.
Starting in the mid-1960s, Pininfarina started to make investments in the science of automotive design, a strategy to differentiate itself from the other Italian coachbuilders.
In 1966, Pininfarina opened the Studies and Research Centre (Studi e Ricerche) in Grugliasco. The research centre occupied 8,000 sq. metres (2 acres) and employed 180 technicians capable of producing 25 prototypes a year.
The Calculation and Design Centre was set up in 1967, the first step in a process of technological evolution which, during the 1970s, would take Pininfarina into the lead in automated bodywork design.
Then in 1972 construction of a full-sized wind tunnel was completed. The project was started in 1966. When it opened, it not only was the first wind tunnel with the ability to test full-sized cars in Italy, but also one of the first in the world with this ability. To put this foresight in perspective, GM's full-sized wind tunnel didn't open until 1980.
The 1980s started a period of expansion for Pininfarina.
In 1982, the company opened “Pininfarina Studi e Ricerche" in Cambiano. It was separate from the factory and wind tunnel in Grugliasco, to keep design and research activities independent from manufacturing. On 14 October 2002, Pininfarina inaugurated a new engineering centre. The new facility, which was built at the Cambiano campus, to give greater visibility and independence to the engineering operations.
In 1996, Mitsubishi entered into talks for Pininfarina build their new compact SUV, the Pajero, in Italy. While Mitsubishi recognized Pininfarina's expertise in design and engineering, the reason for choosing them was that manufacturing costs were half of those in Germany. After entering into an agreement in 1996, Pininfarina purchased an industrial site at Bairo Canavese near Turin, Italy. in April 1997, Bairo Canavese was dedicated to the production of the new Mitsubishi Pajero Pinin.
Pininfarina Sverige AB in Uddevalla, Sweden, was established in 2003 as a joint venture (JV) between Volvo Cars and Pininfarina to produce a new Volvo convertible that will be sold in Europe and the United States. The JV is owned 60% by Pininfarina and 40% by Volvo. The C70 model designed by Volvo's John Kinsey—was launched on 13 April 2006, sharing the Volvo P1 platform used in the S40.
In April 2008, after three years of serious losses totaling 115 million euros at the end of 2007, Pininfarina made the first of several moves to raise capital and restructure its enormous debt:
Pininfarina announced Piero Ferrari, Alberto Bombassei (chairman of Brembo), and the Marsiaj family (founders of the Sabelt seatbelt company), will join with Vincent Bolloré, a French financier, and Ratan Tata, head of India's Tata Group conglomerate, who already announced their plans to invest. The five would together invest million. Funding would come through the sale of stock to other investors. The Pininfarina family was willing to reduce its share from 55% to 30%, which would still be enough to secure a controlling interest.
On 31 December 2008, Pininfarina announced a debt restructuring that would require the family to sell its stake in the company. The agreement was made after Pininfarina's value dropped 67 per cent during 2008, and it then had a market capitalization of about €36 million. It had total debts of €598 million at the end of November. Of that amount, €555 million was the subject of the debt restructuring agreement that was agreed on with a consortium of banks.
Pincar, Pininfarina's family holding company, announced it has hired investment bank Leonardo & Co. to find a buyer for its 50.6% stake in Pininfarina per the debt restructuring agreement reached in December.
Pininfarina released a statement saying that it is still gathering "possible offers from potential buyers," adding it would release more information when it was appropriate.
Company sources added, the family will not sell its entire 50.7% stake but that Pincar would no longer be a majority shareholder.
An agreement with creditor banks including Intesa Sanpaolo, UniCredit, Mediobanca and Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena to restructure net debt of 76 million euros is on track and will be reached in the coming months, said three sources close to the situation. "The debt situation is stable and the talks are not contentious, so there is no hurry," said one of the sources, speaking on condition anonymity. "The agreement will fix the capital structure for the foreseeable future."
When finalised, the debt accord will give control of the family's 77 % stake to its creditor banks, ending the Pininfarina family's ownership.
The deal will close a chapter that began in 2008 when the banks swapped 180 million euros in debt in exchange for a promise of proceeds from a future sale of part of the Pininfarina's family stake.
But no takers materialised. Potential buyers were not willing to acquire a design company when they can easily contract its services, said one of the people familiar with the situation.
In a statement released on 15 February, the Cambiano-based company, which owes over million to a number of Italian banks, said its debt repayment date has been extended to 2018, from 2015.
The agreement, which will be signed in the next few weeks, will also see the company take advantage of interest rates “significantly lower than [current] market rates”. With the new debt restructuring deal with its creditors Pininfarina will remain under the control of the Pininfarina family.
Automotive News reported Pininfarina projects will be profitable in 2012, thanks in part to debt restructuring. The Italian design studio hasn't be in profit in eight years, but signed a deal in April to restructure million in debt. The move effectively stretched the studio's repayment deadline from 2015 to 2018. At the same time, Pininfarina announced it will likely see an operating loss this year, but a one-time gain of million will result in the net profit. The preceding year, the company lost million in the first quarter, though that figure has dropped to just under million during Q1 2012.
Pininfarina also saw its net revenue increase by million.
Pininfarina in the black for first time since 2004 Italian design house Pininfarina predicted last May that it would face an operating loss for 2012 but still come out with a net profit. Both predictions came true: the company is reporting an operating loss of 8.2 million euros and a net profit of 32.9 million euros.
According to Reuters, the good news came because of a debt restructuring arranged the preceding year that gave the company three more years to repay its million in debt, and a one-time gain of approximately 45 million euros. It is the company's first profit since 2004.
Mahindra group, together with affiliate Tech Mahindra, have 76 % stake from holding company Pincar for 25.3 million euros. The Indian company will offer the same price for the remaining stock. In addition to buying stock, Mahindra will invest 20 million euros in Pininfarina and provide a guarantee to creditors of 114.5 million euros.
On December 10, 2011 Pininfarina announced it would end all automotive production. In truth production ended in November 2010 with the conclusion of the contract to produce the Alfa Romeo Brera and Spider at the San Giorgio plant.
Opened in 1958 with nearly 1,000 employees, by 1960 output exceeded 11,000 car bodies. In 2009 Pininfarina sold the factory to Finpiemonte, the public finance of the Piedmont Region, at the price of 14.4 million euro. Finpiemonte, as part of the deal, leases the plant to Gian Mario Rossignol at a rent of per year for six years renewable.
The Grugliasco sale did not include an adjacent structure that houses the wind tunnel.
Opened in 1986 to build Cadillac Allante bodies for General Motors, the same year Pininfarina was first listed on the Stock Exchange in Milan. Automotive production ended at San Giorgio with the conclusion of the Ford production in July 2010, and Alfa Romeo production in November 2010.
Following the end of contract manufacturing activities San Giorgio Canavese is being used for production of spare parts for cars manufactured in the past.
Pininfarina opened its third manufacturing plant in 1997. Currently Pininfarina leases the plant and 57 employees to the Cecomp Group. This agreement to produce 4,000 electric Bolloré Bluecars runs from 1 April 2011 to 31 December 2013. On 13 September 2013 a new lease agreement was announced, this new agreement will run from 1 January 2014 until the end of 2016.
A joint venture between Pininfarina S.p.A. and Volvo Car Corporation began in 2003. Volvo and Pininfarina S.p.A. have agreed upon the termination of the joint venture agreement regarding Pininfarina Sverige AB and its operations in Uddevalla, Sweden. As of 31 December 2011 the termination this agreement would result in a 30 million euros fee paid to Pininfarina.
Although Pininfarina rarely gave credit to individuals, that policy seems to have changed in recent years and many of the designers of the past have become known. As of 2016 Pininfarina employs 98 people in their design department, that is down from 185 in 2005.
Pininfarina designs, manufactures, assembles, and tests prototypes and production vehicles under contract for other automakers.
As of 10 December 2011 Pininfarina announced it would end all mass automotive production with the sale of its 40% stake in the Uddevalla, Sweden plant to Volvo in 2013. In the past Pininfarina has produced both cars and car-bodies under contract from other automakers. This production includes Pininfarina-designed cars and vehicles designed by others.
A sortable list of complete cars or car bodies manufactured in one of the five Pininfarina factories:
Before the war Pininfarina built car bodies mostly for individual customers, many of the bodies were "one offs" and not mass-produced.
In addition to production vehicles, Pininfarina creates prototype, show, and custom cars for auto manufacturers, as well as private clients. Most prototypes—such as the Ferrari Mythos, were concept cars, although several have become production models, including the Ferrari 612 Scaglietti and Ferrari F50.
A recent privately commissioned custom example was the Ferrari P4/5 of 2006, a one-car rebody (changing the exterior design) of the Enzo Ferrari according to the client's specifications. Its design began in September 2005 with sketches by Jason Castriota moving through computer aided sculpture and stringent wind tunnel testing. More than 200 components were designed especially for the car though the engine, drivetrain and many other components are simply modified from the original Enzo Ferrari. The Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) is unchanged from the Enzo it was derived from. The P4/5 was publicly revealed on 18 August 2006 at the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance and shown again at the Paris Motor Show in late September. Another recent prototype is the Pininfarina Nido, a two-seater sub-compact that could possibly make airbags obsolete.
The Pininfarina B0 solar-electric concept, designed with Bolloré was shown at the 2008 Paris Motor Show featuring a range between charges of more than 150 miles (241 km) with an electronically limited 88-mile-per-hour (142 km/h) top speed, and an estimated acceleration to 37 miles per hour (60 km/h) in 6.3 seconds. The car has solar panels on the roof and on the nose, while its battery pack is said to last up to 125,000 miles (201,168 km).
On 15 May 2013 Pininfarina announced the BMW Pininfarina Gran Lusso Coupé to be revealed on 24 May at the Concorso d’Eleganza Villa d’Este. Pininfarina announced this one-off concept car as the first collaboration between BMW and Pininfarina, but in 1949 BMW commissioned Pininfarina design and build a prototype of the BMW 501—it was rejected for being too modern.
A list of Post WWII cars designed by Pininfarina that went into production.
Pininfarina, has introduced its own electric vehicle concept, the Pininfarina B0 (pronounced "B Zero"). The four-seat hatchback features a solid-state lithium-polymer battery, supercapacitors, and a roof- integrated solar panel to achieve a range of 153 miles (246 km). Developed in partnership with the Bolore Group, the vehicle was slated for limited production in 2009 as the Bolloré Bluecar.
Pininfarina will display a turbine-powered plug-in hybrid called the Cambiano at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show.
At the 2016 Geneva Motor Show Pininfarina revealed the H2 Speed, an electric sports car concept. The H2 Speed is a hydrogen vehicle with two race-specification electric motors which are fed by a hydrogen fuel cell. The hydrogen power unit was designed by Swiss company GreenGT.
On 27 November 2018, it was announced that Automobili Pininfarina had invested over €20m in Pininfarina design services to support plans for its range of luxury electric cars. This includes design and engineering services for the first Pininfarina-branded hyper performance car which is a luxury electric hypercar called the Battista (named after company founder Battista 'Pinin' Farina and originally codenamed PF0). With four electric motors, the car is supposed to be able to reach 100 kph in under two seconds with a maximum velocity of 350 kph. Automobili Pininfarina plans to reveal the car at the 2019 Geneva Motor Show. Further details on the Battista surfaced on March 4, 2019. It has 1900 horsepower, and only 150 will be built. It is also related to the Rimac C Two.
On December 1999, Pininfarina cooperated with Casio and designed a watch under its label, the G-Shock GE-2000. However, the watch received negative critics from the fans due to its weak strap, which was vulnerable to breaks during normal use.
Pininfarina Extra, founded in 1986, is the Pininfarina Group design company which does not work in the transport sector. Examples include:
The Alfa Romeo 2uettottanta is a 2010 Pininfarina concept car and a tribute to mark the 80th anniversary of Pininfarina and the centenary of Alfa Romeo. It is also a tribute to the Duetto Spider.Alfa Romeo Dardo
The Alfa Romeo Dardo is a concept car designed by Pininfarina, whose source of inspiration was the Alfa Romeo 156 and a homage to decades of Pininfarina/Alfa Romeo cooperation in spiders design. The Dardo (Italian for dart) was introduced in the 1998, it is equipped with 2.5 litre V6, also from 156. With wheelbase slightly shorter than that of the 156. The styling for the Dardo’s flanks uses a closing triangular shapes, as does the rear. The car incorporates the 156′s dashboard with leather upholstery used for it and the seats. Pininfarina worked with Sparco to design and build the seats, which are supposed to have extremely rigid shell using carbon-Kevlar-carbon. It's also equipped with four-point seat belts. Its twin headlights were developed jointly with Valeo.Alfa Romeo Eagle
The Alfa Romeo Eagle is a concept car built by Pininfarina. The car debuted at the Turin Auto Show in 1975.Battista Farina
Battista "Pinin" Farina (later Battista Pininfarina; 2 November 1893, Cortanze, Italy – 3 April 1966, Lausanne, Switzerland) was an Italian automobile designer and the founder of the Carrozzeria Pininfarina coachbuilding company, a name associated with many of the best-known postwar sports cars.Daewoo Tacuma
The Daewoo Tacuma (or Rezzo) is a compact MPV that was produced by South Korean manufacturer Daewoo. Developed under the U100 code name, it was designed by Pininfarina and is based on the original Daewoo Nubira J100, a compact car.
Following the phasing out of Daewoo as a brand in most export markets, the car was rebadged as a Chevrolet, retaining either model name depending on the market. Additionally, the Chevrolet Vivant nameplate was introduced for the South African and South American markets.Enzo Ferrari (automobile)
The Enzo Ferrari (also unofficially referred to as the Ferrari Enzo) (Type F140) is a 12 cylinder mid-engine sports car named after the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari. It was developed in 2002 using Formula One technology, such as a carbon-fibre body, F1-style electrohydraulic shift transmission, and carbon fibre-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) ceramic composite disc brakes. Also used are technologies not allowed in F1 such as active aerodynamics and traction control. The Enzo Ferrari generates substantial amounts of downforce which is achieved by the front underbody flaps, the small adjustable rear spoiler and the rear diffuser working in conjunction, 3,363 N (756 lbf) is generated at 200 km/h (124 mph) 7,602 N (1,709 lbf) is attained at 299 km/h (186 mph) before decreasing to 5,738 N (1,290 lbf) at top speed.The Enzo's F140 B V12 engine was the first of a new generation for Ferrari. It is based on the design of the V8 engine found in the Maserati Quattroporte, using the same basic design and 104 mm (4.1 in) bore spacing. This design replaced the former architectures seen in V12 and V8 engines used in most other contemporary Ferrari models. The 2005 F430 is the second Ferrari automobile to get a version of this new powerplant.Ferrari
Ferrari (; Italian: [ferˈraːri]) is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 out of Alfa Romeo's race division as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940. However, the company's inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed.
In 2014 Ferrari was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance. In June 2018, the 1964 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, setting an all-time record selling price of $70 million.Fiat S.p.A. acquired 50% of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90% in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. (FCA) announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S.p.A. from FCA; as of the announcement FCA owned 90% of Ferrari.
The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N.V. (a company incorporated in the Netherlands) as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Through the remaining steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016.Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing, especially in Formula One, where it is the oldest and most successful racing team, holding the most constructors championships (16) and having produced the highest number of drivers' championship wins (15). Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed, luxury and wealth.Ferrari 330
The Ferrari 330 was a series of V12 powered automobiles produced by Ferrari in 2+2 GT Coupé, two-seat Berlinetta, spyder, and race car versions between 1963 and 1968.
The first, the 2+2 330 America, was a 250 GT/E with a larger 3.3 litre engine; the 330 GTC/GTS shared its chassis with the 275; the 330 GT 2+2 had its own chassis and bodywork; the mid-engined 330P racer was part of the Ferrari P series, produced in four models. Production ended in 1968 with the introduction of the Ferrari 365 series.
All 330 models used an evolution of the 400 Superamerica's 4.0 L Colombo V12 engine. It was substantially changed, with wider bore spacing and an alternator replacing a generator.Ferrari 458
The Ferrari 458 Italia (Type F142) is a mid-engine sports car produced by the Italian automobile manufacturer Ferrari. The 458 replaced the F430, and was first officially unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show. It was succeeded by the 488, which was unveiled at the 2015 Geneva Motor Show.Ferrari 550
The Ferrari 550 Maranello (Type F133) is a front-engine V12 2-seat grand tourer built by Ferrari from 1996 to 2001. The 550 Maranello marked Ferrari's return to a front-engine, rear-wheel drive layout for its 2-seater 12-cylinder model, 23 years after the 365 GTB/4 Daytona had been replaced by the mid-engined Berlinetta Boxer.
In 2000, Ferrari introduced the 550 Barchetta Pininfarina, a limited production roadster version of the 550, limited to just 448 examples. The 550 was replaced by the upgraded 575M Maranello in 2002.Ferrari Modulo
The Ferrari 512S Modulo is a concept sports car designed by Paolo Martin of the Italian carozzeria Pininfarina, unveiled at the 1970 Geneva Motor Show.Ferrari Mythos
The Ferrari Mythos is a mid-engine, rear wheel drive concept car based on the mechanical underpinnings of the Ferrari Testarossa. Designed by Italian design house Pininfarina and developed by automobile manufacturer Ferrari, its world premiere was at the 1989 Tokyo Motor Show.Ferrari P4/5 by Pininfarina
The Ferrari P4/5 (officially known as the Ferrari P4/5 by Pininfarina) is a one-off sports car made by Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari but redesigned by Pininfarina for film director and stock exchange magnate James Glickenhaus.
The car was initially an Enzo Ferrari but the owner James Glickenhaus preferred the styling of Ferrari's 1960s race cars, the P Series. The project cost Glickenhaus US$ 4 million and was officially presented to the public in August 2006 at the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elégance. Several websites were allowed to publish images of the clay model in July 2006.Fiat 1200
Fiat 1200 was the name of three distinct models produced by Italian car manufacturer Fiat, all based on Fiat 1100 mechanicals. The first two were introduced in 1957, and replaced the TV (Turismo Veloce) variants at the top of the Fiat 1100 range: the 1200 Granluce, an upmarket small four-door saloon derived from the 1100, and the 1200 Spyder, an update of the previous 1100 TV Trasformabile 2-door roadster.
The 1200 Granluce was discontinued in 1961 when larger Fiat saloons were introduced, while the 1200 Trasformabile/Spyder was replaced in 1959 by the 1200 Cabriolet. This was a new Pininfarina design, later developed into the 1200 and 1500 Cabriolets.Fiat 124 Sport Spider
The Fiat 124 Sport Spider is a convertible sports car marketed by Fiat for model years 1966-1985. Designed by and manufactured at the Italian carrozzeria Pininfarina factory, the monocoque, front-engine, rear drive Sport Spider debuted at the November 1966 Turin Auto Show with styling by Tom Tjaarda.
Fiat later marketed the car as the Spider 2000 (1979-1982). After being retired by FIAT, Pininfarina continued the production of the model under his own brand as Pininfarina Spider Azzura for the North American market and Pininfarina Spidereuropa for the European market for three more years, from 1983 until 1985.Honoring its legacy, in 2015 a successor of the Fiat 124 Spider was presented at the LA Auto Show.Fiat Coupé
The Fiat Coupé, officially named the Coupé Fiat and internally designated as the type 175, was a two door, four seat coupé manufactured and marketed by Fiat between 1993 and 2000 across a single generation. The Coupé was introduced at Brussels Motor Show in 1993. and is noted for its distinctive, angular exterior design by Chris Bangle at Centro Stile Fiat. Its interior was designed by Pininfarina.Fiat Pininfarina Cabriolet
The Fiat Pininfarina Cabriolet (tipo 118G) was a two-door, two passenger, front engine rear drive convertible manufactured by Pininfarina, and marketed by Fiat across two generations (1959-1963, 1964-1966), superseding the Fiat 1200 Spyder.
By the end of manufacture in 1966, total production had reached 34,211 with sporting versions (1500 S/1600 S), equipped with OSCA built twin cam engines, reaching a production of 3089. The Cabriolet was superseded by the Fiat 124 Sport Spider, introduced in 1966.Lancia Flaminia
The Lancia Flaminia (Tipo 813/823/824/826) is a luxury car produced by Italian automaker Lancia from 1957 to 1970. It was Lancia's flagship model at that time, replacing the Aurelia. It was available throughout its lifetime as saloon, coupé and cabriolet. The Flaminia coupé and convertible were coachbuilt cars with bodies from several prestigious Italian coachbuilders. Four "presidential" stretched limousine Flaminias were produced by Pininfarina for use on state occasions.
There were 12,633 Flaminias sold over 13 years. Coupés outsold the four-door saloon, an unusual occurrence otherwise seen at the time only in American compact and midsize models whose coupé versions were standard factory models that cost the same or less than the sedan, while the Flaminia coupés' coachbuilt bodies made them considerably more expensive than the limousine-like Berlina.List of Alfa Romeo concept cars
The following are some of the concept cars that have been made by the Italian Alfa Romeo company.
|1946–1949||Maserati A6 1500 Turismo||107 Corso Trapani||58|
|1947–1952||Cisitalia 202||107 Corso Trapani||170|
|1947–1951||Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 Super Cabriolet||107 Corso Trapani||64|
|1948–1951||Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 Super Sport Cabriolet||107 Corso Trapani||25-30|
|1948||Maserati A6 1500 Spider||107 Corso Trapani||2|
|1950–1952||Lancia Aurelia B50 Cabriolet||107 Corso Trapani||265|
|1950–1958||Lancia Aurelia B20 Coupé||107 Corso Trapani||2,640|
|1952||Alfa Romeo 1900 C Cabriolet||107 Corso Trapani||88|
|1952–1953||Alfa Romeo 1900 C Coupé||107 Corso Trapani||100|
|1952–1953||Ferrari 212 Inter cabriolet||107 Corso Trapani||2|
|1952–1953||Ferrari 212 Inter coupé||107 Corso Trapani||11|
|1952–1953||Lancia D20 coupé||107 Corso Trapani||7|
|1952–1954||Nash-Healey||107 Corso Trapani||402|
|1953||Ferrari 375 MM Spider||107 Corso Trapani||15|
|1953||Lancia D23 Spyder||107 Corso Trapani||4 (re-bodied D20s)|
|1953-1954||Lancia D24 Spyder||107 Corso Trapani||6|
|1954-1955||Ferrari 250 Europa GT||107 Corso Trapani||28|
|1954–1957||Fiat 1100 TV Coupé||107 Corso Trapani||126|
|1954–1955||Lancia Aurelia B24 Spider America||107 Corso Trapani||240|
|1954||Lancia D25 Spyder||107 Corso Trapani||4 (re-bodied D24s)|
|1954||Maserati A6 GCS/53 Berlinetta||107 Corso Trapani||4|
|1956||Lancia Aurelia B24 Spider||107 Corso Trapani||521|
|1956–1958||Alfa Romeo Giulietta Spider||107 Corso Trapani||5,493|
|1957–1959||Lancia Appia Pinin Farina Coupé 2 +2 Series II||–||302|
|1958–1960||Ferrari 250 GT Coupé Pinin Farina||Grugliasco||335|
|1959–1962||Alfa Romeo Giulietta Spider||Grugliasco||11,503|
|1959–1960||Cadillac Eldorado Brougham||Grugliasco||200|
|1959–1967||Lancia Flaminia Coupé||Grugliasco||5,236|
|1960–1963||Ferrari 250 GTE 2+2||Grugliasco||955 including prototypes|
|1961–1968||Peugeot 404 Coupé and Cabriolet||Grugliasco||17,223 ( 10,389 Cabriolets, 6,834 Coupés)|
|1962–1971||Lancia Flavia Coupé||Grugliasco||26,084|
|1962–1965||Alfa Romeo Giulia 1600 Spider||Grugliasco||10,336|
|1963||Ferrari 330 America||Grugliasco||50|
|1964-1967||Ferrari 330 GT 2+2||Grugliasco||1080|
|1966–1968||Alfa Romeo Giulia Spider Duetto 1600 Spider||Grugliasco||6,322|
|1966-1968||Ferrari 330 GTC||Grugliasco||604|
|1966-1968||Ferrari 330 GTS||Grugliasco||100|
|1966–1985||Fiat 124 Sport Spider||Grugliasco||198,120|
|1966–1972||Fiat Dino Spider||Grugliasco||1,583|
|1967||Ferrari 330 GTC Coupé Speciale||Grugliasco||3|
|1968–1972||Alfa Romeo Giulia Spider 1300 and 1600 Junior||Grugliasco||4,913|
|1968–1972||Alfa Romeo 1750 Spider Veloce||Grugliasco||8,920|
|1969–1983||Peugeot 504 Coupé||Grugliasco||22,975|
|1969–1983||Peugeot 504 Cabriolet||Grugliasco||8,191|
|1971–1972||Ferrari 365 GTC/4||Grugliasco||505|
|1971–1975||Lancia 2000 Coupé||Grugliasco||–|
|1971–1976||Fiat 130 Coupé||Grugliasco||4,491|
|1974–1981||Lancia Beta Montecarlo Cabrio||Grugliasco||4,375|
|1975–1981||Lancia Beta Montecarlo Coupé||Grugliasco||3,203|
|1976–1984||Lancia Gamma Coupé||Grugliasco||6,790|
|1981–1984||Lancia Beta Coupé HPE||Grugliasco||18.917|
|1981–1985||Peugeot Talbot Samba Cabriolet||Grugliasco||13,062|
|1984–1993||Ferrari Testarossa||Grugliasco / San Giorgio||-|
|1984–1986||Alfa Romeo 33 Giardinetta||Grugliasco||12,238|
|1984–1993||Peugeot 205 Cabriolet||Grugliasco||72,125|
|1985–1989||Ferrari 412 & 412 GT||Grugliasco||576|
|1986–1993||Cadillac Allanté||San Giorgio Canavese||21,430|
|1992–1996||Ferrari 456 GT||–||1435|
|1993–2002||Peugeot 306 Cabriolet||San Giorgio Canavese||77,824|
|1996–1999||Bentley Azure Mark I Convertible||–||895|
|1996–2000||Lancia Kappa SW||–||9,208|
|1996–2004||Peugeot 406 Coupé||San Giorgio Canavese||107,633|
|1999–2005||Mitsubishi Pajero Pinin||Bairo Canavese and Grugliasco||68,555|
|2000–2004||Alfa Romeo GTV & Spider 916 series||San Giorgio Canavese||15,788|
|2002||Pininfarina Argento Vivo||–||4–5|
|2002–2005||Ford Streetka||Bairo Canavese||37,076|
|2005||Ferrari P4/5 by Pininfarina||–||1|
|2005–2010||Alfa Romeo Brera||San Giorgio Canavese||21,786|
|2006–2010||Alfa Romeo Spider||San Giorgio Canavese||12,488|
|2006–2010||Ford Focus Coupé Cabriolet||Bairo Canavese||36,374|
|2006–2013||Volvo C70 II||Uddevalla, Sweden||–|
|2006–2008||Mitsubishi Colt CZC||Bairo Canavese||16,695|