Pindari Glacier

The Pindari Glacier is a glacier found in the upper reaches of the Kumaon Himalayas, to the southeast of Nanda Devi and Nanda Kot. The glacier is about three kilometers long and 365 meters wide[1] and gives rise to the Pindar River which meets the Alakananda at Karnaprayag in the Garhwal district.

Pindari and Kafni glacier trek Route Map

The trail to reach the glacier crosses the villages of Saung, Loharkhet, crosses over the Dhakuri Pass, continues onto Khati village (the last inhabited village on the trail), Dwali, Phurkia and finally Zero Point, Pindar, the end of the trail. Though most of the trail is along the banks of the Pindari River, the river is mostly hidden until after Khati.

The Pindari Glacier trail provides for a 90 km (56 mi) round-trip trek that most people find comfortable to complete in six days. The Pindari Glacier is also famous for other adventure sports like ice climbing and mountain biking.[2]

Pindari glacier, Uttarakhand, India
Pindari glacier


Several surveys have mapped the retreat of Pindari over the years. The glacier was first surveyed by P.Cotter in 1906. A 1958 survey by Amber P Tiwari and Jangpangi in connection with International Geophysical Year, recorded a retreat of 1,040 m (3,410 ft) in the fifty two years since 1906. A 1966 survey recorded a further retreat of 200 m (660 ft) and discovered that a branch of the glacier, the Chhanguch branch, had separated and formed a separate ice shelf. As a result of the separation, the glacier lost several thousand cubic meters of ice. Recent studies have shown that the glacier has retreated an additional 1,569.01 kilometers between 1976 and 2014, possibly because of climate change.[3] This accelerating retreat, along with the retreat of other Himalayan glaciers, is likely to have an adverse impact on agriculture in the entire Ganges region since the Pindar river feeds the Alaknanda river, a headstream of the Ganges.[4]

See also


  1. ^ Singh, Ruchira (13 April 2012). "Pindari glacier: Resilient earth".
  2. ^ "Mountain Biking the Pindari Glacier |". Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  3. ^ Padma, T.V. (16 May 2018). "Scientists confirm massive retreat of Pindari glacier". Down to Earth.
  4. ^

External links

Coordinates: 30°16′51″N 80°00′47″E / 30.2808°N 80.0130°E

Asim Mukhopadhyay

Asim Mukhopadhyay (Bengali: অসীম মুখোপাধ্যায়, also known as Asim Mukherjee Bengali: অসীম মুখার্জি) is a famous figure in the history of mountaineering in West Bengal, India. He is the pioneer in India for organizing high altitude scientific expeditions in the Himalayan region. He took part in many such expeditions as a climber between 1959 and 1974, and organised a few more in that period and later as an administrator. He was one of the main organisers of the first successful climbing on Nanda Ghunti and Tirsuli peaks by any non-government Indian organisation. Mukhopadhyay is also known for his vast knowledge on Pali, Buddhist literature and culture.


Bageshwar is a town and a municipal board in Bageshwar district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is located at a distance of 470 km from the National Capital New Delhi and 332 km from the State Capital Dehradun. Bageshwar is known for its scenic beauty, Glaciers, Rivers and Temples. It is also the administrative headquarters of Bageshwar district.Situated on the confluence of Sarju and Gomati rivers, Bageshwar is surrounded by the mountains of Bhileshwar and Nileshwar to its east and west and by the Suraj Kund in the north and Agni Kund in the south. Bageshwar was a major trade mart between Tibet and Kumaun, and was frequented by the Bhotia traders, who bartered Tibetan wares, wool, salt and Borax in exchange for Carpets and other local produces in Bageshwar. The trade routes were, however, closed after the Indo-China War of 1962.

The city is of great religious, historic and political significance. Bageshwar finds mention in various puranas, where, it has been associated with Lord Shiva. The Uttrayani fair held annually in Bageshwar used to be visited by approx 15,000 people in the early twentieth century, and was the largest fair of Kumaon division. The fair became the epicenter of the Coolie Begar Movement in January 1921. The city of Bageshwar gets its name from the Bagnath Temple. Hindi and Sanskrit are the official Languages however Kumaoni is spoken by a large number of people.


Changuch is a Himalayan mountain peak situated at the boundary of Pithoragarh and Bageshwar district of the Uttarakhand state of India. This peak is situated above the Pindari Glacier. This peak offers a ridge leading to Nanda Kot. On its massif Traill's pass is situated, which connects Pindari valley to Goriganga valley. The first successful ascent to the peak was made by an Indo-British team on 9 June 2009 at 9 am.

Kafni Glacier

The Kafni Glacier is located in the upper reaches of the Kumaon Himalayas, to the southeast of Nanda Devi. The glacier gives rise to the Kafni River, which is a tributary of the Pindar River. The Pinder River is a tributary to Alaknanda River, which eventually is one of the two headstreams of the Ganges. This is relatively small glacier but a popular trekking destination along with Pindari Glacier.


Kapkot or Kapkote is a village in Bageshwar district, Uttarakhand, India. It houses the headquarters of Kapkot Tehsil, the largest administrative subdivision of Bageshwar district. It is known for being the last bus terminus on the route to Pindari Glacier. Kapkot is located almost 25 kilometres (16 mi) from its district headquarters at Bageshwar.


Karnaprayag is a city and municipal board in Chamoli District in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Karnaprayag is one of the Panch Prayag (five confluences) of Alaknanda River, situated at the confluence of the Alaknanda, and Pindar River.


Kausani (Hindi: कौसानी) is a hill station and Village situated in Bageshwar district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is famous for its scenic splendour and its spectacular 300 km-wide panoramic view of Himalayan peaks like Trisul, Nanda Devi and Panchchuli. Mahatma Gandhi called this place the 'Switzerland of India', due to similarity in landscapes.

List of glaciers of India

Himalayan region of India is home of some of the most notable glaciers in the world. This is a list of the notable glaciers in India. Most glaciers lie in the states of Sikkim, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

Few glaciers are also found in Arunachal Pradesh.

Long-distance trail

A long-distance trail (or long-distance footpath, track, way, greenway) is a longer recreational trail mainly through rural areas used for hiking, backpacking, cycling, horse riding or cross-country skiing. They exist on all continents except Antartica.

Many trails are marked on maps. Typically, a long-distance route will be at least 50 km (30 mi) long, but many run for several hundred miles, or longer.

Many routes are waymarked and may cross public or private land and/or follow existing rights of way. Generally, the surface is not specially prepared, and there are often rough ground and uneven areas, except in places such as converted rail tracks or popular walking routes where stone-pitching and slabs have been laid to prevent erosion. In some places, official trails will have the surface specially prepared to make the going easier.

Nanda Devi

Nanda Devi (Hindi: नन्दा देवी) is the second highest mountain in India, and the highest located entirely within the country. (Kangchenjunga, which is higher, is on the border of India and Nepal.) It is the 23rd-highest peak in the world. It was considered the highest mountain in the world before computations in 1808 proved Dhaulagiri to be higher. It was also the highest mountain in India until 1975 when Sikkim, the state in which Kangchenjunga is located, joined the Republic of India. It is part of the Garhwal Himalayas, and is located in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, between the Rishiganga valley on the west and the Goriganga valley on the east. The peak, whose name means "Bliss-Giving Goddess", is regarded as the patron-goddess of the Uttarakhand Himalaya. In acknowledgment of its religious significance and for the protection of its fragile ecosystem, the peak as well as the circle of high mountains surrounding it—the Nanda Devi sanctuary—were closed to both locals and climbers in 1983. The surrounding Nanda Devi National Park was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988.

Nanda Khat

Mt. Nandakhat (Bed of Nandadevi) positioned outside the Nandadevi sanctuary or at the rim of Nandadevi Sanctuary (Longitude 79° 58' 33’’ and Latitude 30° 18' 6’’ N) at an elevation of 6,611 m.

Operation Surya Hope

Operation Surya Hope was the Indian Army’s Central Command response to the June 2013 North India floods in Uttarakhand. The Uttarakhand flood was caused by record off-season monsoon rains, cloud burst, floods, flash floods, and glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs), which were possibly induced by climate change. The humanitarian disaster affected millions, stranded over 100,000 pilgrims and tourists in Himalayan religious sites, and killed several thousand people.

The Indian Army's Lucknow based Central Command conducted the operation. Surya or Sun, is the emblem of the Central Command and features prominently on the Command's formation sign and flag, which is probably why Central Command chose to name the effort Operation Surya Hope.Operation Surya Hope was the follow-up to Operation Ganga Prahar. The operation was commanded by Lieutenant General Anil Chait, the General Officer Commanding in Chief (GOC in C) of Central Command. He was succeeded by Lieutenant General Rajan Bakhshi on 1 July 2013. Soon after assuming command, Bakhshi said that the Army would continue with the relief operations, and that he would soon visit Uttarakhand. Over 10,000 troops participated in Operation Surya Hope. It was conducted in arrangement with efforts from the Indian Air Force (IAF) (Operation Rahat), Border Road Organization, National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) and other para military forces under the Ministry of Home.The floods and landslides in Uttarakhand was considered by many as the worst natural disaster in the area in a hundred years. The Government of India classifies the disaster as a tsunami. India Meteorological Department (IMD) states that the total rainfall in Uttarakhand from 1 to 18 June 2013 totaled to 385.1 mm, the highest in the last 80 years. The normal rainfall during the period is 71.3 mm, making the total 440% larger than the normal.

Pindar (disambiguation)

Pindar is (Pindaros), the ancient Greek poet.

Pindar may refer to:

Pindar, one of the Military citadels under London, named after the poet

Pindar River, which emerges from Pindari Glacier

Pindar, Western Australia

Pindar River

The Pindar River is a river located in Uttarakhand, India.

Tourism in India by state

Tourism in India is economically very important and is growing rapidly. The World Travel & Tourism Council calculated that tourism generated ₹14.02 lakh crore (US$200 billion) or 9.6% of the nation's GDP in 2016 and supported 40.343 million jobs, 9.3% of its total employment. The sector is predicted to grow at an annual rate of 6.8% to ₹28.49 lakh crore (US$410 billion) by 2027 (10% of GDP). Various states and union territories of India attract tourists due to diversity among them.

Traill's Pass

Pindari Kanda Traill's Pass (el. 5,300 m or 17,400 ft) is a mountain pass through the Himalayas located between Nanda Devi and Nanda Kot peaks in the Uttarakhand state in the districts of Pithoragarh and Bageshwar in India.

It is situated at the end of Pindari glacier and links Pindari valley to Milam valley (Lawan Gad) and is said to be very difficult to cross. The pass was reached in 1830 by G.W. Traill, the first British Deputy Commissioner of Kumaon division. In 1926, it was crossed by Hugh Ruttledge.People from Johar Valley and Pindar Valley attempted to cross it for trade. Budha Malak Singh of Supi village of Bageshwar District of Uttarakhand State was the first man to cross it 1830 after 100 years. Later Mr. Trail also attempted to cross the pass but failed, though the pass was since then named as Trail’s Pass, earlier it was called "Pindari Kanda". Trail's Pass (el. 5,312 m) is a mountain pass through the Himalayas located between the unnamed southern shoulder of Mt. Nanda Devi East and Changuch (Western shoulder of Mt.Nanda Kot) peaks in Uttarakhand state in the districts of Bageshwar and Pithoragarh. It is situated at the head of Pindari glacier and Trails pass bridges Pindari Valley with LwanValley (Nandadevi East Base camp) and is said to be very difficult to cross. Though Pindari glacier is visited by many people every year, yet Trail’s Pass, which is at its top remains an elusive goal.

By Himalayan standards, the Pindari glacier and the Trail’s Pass do not match most of the giants. The Pindari is neither the largest nor the longest of the glaciers nor is the Trail’s Pass, at its head, the highest of passes. However, Pindari has been the most frequently visited Himalayan glacier since the mid-19th century when a bridle-path with dak bungalows at suitable intervals between there and Almora was built. Even today, it is so popular a trekking destination that a tenfold increase in the number of beds available is unable to cope with the influx.

What faces a visitor to Pindari glacier at the Zero Point, along its left lateral moraine, is an immense wall of jagged, broken ice criss¬crossed with thousands of seracs and crevasses. The upper icefields of the glacier are invisible from there and the near level ice mass at its lower end at the snout below recedes into insignificance. What people call the Pindari glacier is actually a huge icefall passing over a steep slope, through which a direct ascent has yet to be made. Above this lie the icefields of the surrounding heights and the névé basin of the glacier, some 8 km long, separated from the ridge above with a text-book fashion bergschrund. The lowest point on the ridge at 5312 m is the Trail’s Pass. Beyond the pass to the north and east lies the Lwan valley whose catchment is the Gori ganga valley.

Pindar river which forms the main tributary of river Alaknanda which further joins the Bhagirathi to form The Ganges at Dev Prayag.

Since 1830, Trail’s pass has been attempted by more than 90 teams, till now only 17 teams are known to have attained success.

Teams are listed below:


1 1830 Malak Singh, Supi, Bageshwar.

2 1855 Adolf Schlagintweit

3 1861 Captain Ed Smyth

4 1899 Kurt Buch

5 1926 Hughe Ruttledge with wife

6 1930 Hughe Stenlorge

7 1931 Devan Singh Martolia

8 1936 August Gansser

9 1941 S.S. khera

10 1994 Nainital Mountaineering Club Nanital.

11 2009 Martin Moran, England June

12 2009 Bhadreswar Pathfinder Adventurers (in Sept.)

13 2013 Himalpinist -Dhruv Joshi, Bharat Bhushan & Vineet kumar Saini (MAY-JUNE) first smallest team so far

14 2015 Dhruv Joshi, Ulrich - Karen Rauner (SEPT-OCT)

15 2016 HITAM (Himalaya trekkers and mountaineer) largest group till date (12-members, 11- porters) (sept-oct)

16 2017 Major Chirag Chatterjee and team , Indian Army. (6 members) (SEPT)[1]

17 2017 Himalpinist-Dhruv Joshi, Narendra Kumar, Ravi Bangera, Prashant Sawant, Aberrant Wanderers - Sanket Patil(youngest till date) (Sept-Oct) second smallest team

Vaassangyaan Chaudhary

Vaassangyaan Chaudhary (Born on 6 December 2004), is an Indian boy, who holds two world records in mountaineering. He is a student of DPS Sonepat, Haryana.

On 6 June 2016, at 9.30 am, he scaled Mt. Stok Kangri, a 20,182 feet high peak in the Stok range of Laddakh Himalayas. For this feat of his, he was certified by the Indian Mountaineering Foundation, as the world's youngest to scale this summit, at the age of 11 years.On 22 June 2017, at 6.30 am, Vaassangyaan Chaudhary scaled the 21,000 feet high Black Peak (also called Mt. Kala Nag), the highest peak in the Bandarpunch range of Himalayas. He again created a world record in being the youngest to scale this peak, at the age of 12 years.

Dams/ Barrages
Related topics
Hydrography of surrounding areas

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.