Pinara (Lycian: 𐊓𐊆𐊍𐊍𐊁𐊑𐊏𐊆 Pilleñni, presumably from the adjective "round"; Greek: τὰ Πίναρα, formerly Artymnesus or Artymnesos according to one account) was a large city of ancient Lycia at the foot of Mount Cragus (now Mount Babadağ), and not far from the western bank of the River Xanthos, homonymous with the ancient city of Xanthos (now Eşen Stream).

The remains of several ancient temples can be seen in Pinara, as well as rock tombs including one "royal tomb", an upper and a lower acropolis, a theatre, an odeon, an agora and a church. The name Pinara has somewhat been assimilated to the name of the present-day village of Minare, half an hour below the ruins and depending Fethiye district of Muğla Province, Turkey.

τὰ Πίναρα (in Greek)
Pinara Amphitheatre Fethiye Mugla Turkiye
The theatre of Pinara.
Pinara is located in Turkey
Shown within Turkey
LocationMinare, Muğla Province, Turkey
Coordinates36°29′19″N 29°15′07″E / 36.48861°N 29.25194°ECoordinates: 36°29′19″N 29°15′07″E / 36.48861°N 29.25194°E


Pinara Ancient Lycian City
Crag with rock-cut tombs towering over Pinara situated on a "round" mass of rock, believed to have given the ancient city its name.

There was a cult of Pandarus, the Lycian hero of the Trojan War, in Pinara, which led some sources to conclude that he was a native of the city.[1]

According to the Lycian history of Menecrates, quoted by Stephanus of Byzantium[2][3] the city was a colony of Xanthos, its original name would be Artymnesos. This name would have preceded the Lycian language name Pinara, derived from the form "Pilleñni" or "Pinale" meaning a "round hill" or simply "round",[2] based on a hypothesis of interchange of liquid consonants. The town is indeed situated on such a great round mass of rock and a more or less circular crag towers over the ruins. Another source, Panyassis, also mentions an eponymous founder by name Pinarus, son of Tremiles or Termilus, and this account is viewed by some sources as unsubstantial as the rest relating to the precedence of names.


The city, though not often mentioned by ancient writers, appears from its vast and beautiful ruins to have been, as Strabo asserts, one of Lycia's largest, its chief port city until the harbor silted up to form the reed-filled wetlands of today.[2]

Yet another rare mention of the city in ancient sources is in connection with the help it provided, along with several other Lycian cities, to Pixodarus of Caria.

Pinara Ancient Lycian City Fethiye Turkey several Rock Tombs detail
Ogival rock-cut tomb at Pinara, 4th century BC.

Pinara was a member of the Lycian League, in which it held three votes. The city surrendered to Alexander the Great in 334 BCE. After Alexander's death, the city fell to the kingdom of Pergamum. Pinara became a Roman city when Pergamum was willed by its last king Attalus III to the Roman Republic in 133 BCE. The city enjoyed prosperity during Roman rule, but was badly damaged by earthquakes in 141 and 240 CE. In the first occurrence, the city is recorded to have received a contribution from Opramoas for the repair of public buildings.

Pinara Ancient Lycian City Fethiye Turkey Rock Tombs
Rock-cut tombs in Pinara.

Pinara was Christianized early. Five bishops are known: Eustathius, who signed the formula of Acacius of Cæsarea at the Council of Seleucia in 359; Heliodorus, who signed the letter from the bishops of Lycia to the emperor Leo I the Thracian (458); Zenas, present at the Trullan Council (692); Theodore, at the Second Council of Nicaea (787); Athanasius, at the synod that reinstated Patriarch Photius I of Constantinople (the Photian Council) in 879. Pinara was the birthplace of Nicolas of Myra. Under repeated pressure from invading forces, the city lost its inhabitants in the ninth century.[4]

Scientific discovery

Pinara's ruins were identified by Sir Charles Fellows.[2] From amidst the ancient city, he says,[5] rises a singular round rocky cliff (the pinara of the Lycians), literally speckled all over with tombs. Beneath this cliff lie the ruins of the extensive and splendid city. The theater is in a very perfect state; all the seats are remaining, with the slanting sides towards the proscenium, as well as several of its doorways. The walls and several of the buildings are of the Cyclopean masonry, with massive gateways formed of three immense stones. The tombs are innumerable, and the inscriptions are in the Lycian characters, but Greek also occurs often on the same tombs. Some of these rock-tombs are adorned with fine and rich sculptures.

The Christian bishopric of Pinara, no longer a residential see, is included in the Catholic Church' list of titular sees.[6]


  1. ^ Strabo xiv. 665; Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. Artymnesos; Arrian, Anab. i. 24; Pliny the Elder, v. 28; Ptolemy v. 3. § 5; Hierocles p. 684.
  2. ^ a b c d Smith 1854, p. 11.
  3. ^ Styephanus, s.v. Artymnesos Ἀρτύμνησος).
  4. ^ Pétridès 1911.
  5. ^ Fellows 2005, p. 136.
  6. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 953


  • Fellows, Sir Charles (2005) [1852]. Travels and Researches in Asia Minor, More Particularly in the Province of Lycia (reprinted ed.). p. 139. ISBN 1-4021-5278-7.

Further reading

  • Bean, George E. (1978). Lycian Turkey: An Archaeological Guide ISBN 978-0-393-05708-9. Ernest Benn Ltd. templatestyles stripmarker in |title= at position 40 (help)
  • McDonagh, Bernard (2001). Turkey. Blue Guide. London: A & C Black. p. 368. ISBN 0-393-32137-1.

External links

Aethes pinara

Aethes pinara is a species of moth of the family Tortricidae. It is found on Cuba.

The wingspan is about 8 mm for males and 9 mm for females. The ground colour of the forewings is whitish, the base of the costa suffused with brownish. The markings are brown-yellow with a few brown dots. The hindwings are whitish, tinged with yellowish terminally.

Babadağ (mountain)

Babadağ (ancient Mount Anticragus, Ancient Greek: Ἀντίκραγος) is a mountain near Fethiye, in Muğla Province, southwest Turkey.The mountain has a principal summit at an elevation of 1,969 metres (6,460 ft) and a second one called "Karatepe" at an elevation of 1,400 metres (4,593 ft). These two summits face each other and are separated by a flood valley, which led to the term "mountain range" to be used in some sources in association with Babadağ. The mass is composed mainly of limestone. It is noted for its rich flora, including the endemic Acer undulatum, and forests of Cedrus libani.

It is also notable for the proximity of its summit to the sea (less than 5 km) which is one of the factors that make it particularly suitable and popular for paragliding.

Baldia Town

Baldia Town (Sindhi: بلدیا ٽائون‎, Urdu: بلدیہ ٹاؤن ‎) is a town located in the western part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan with a population of more than 400,000 as per the 1998 census. It is bordered by SITE Town and Orangi to the east and by Kiamari Town to the north and west, with most of the western boundary formed by part of the RCD Highway. The population consists of 97% Muslim and includes several ethnic groups such as kutchi kumhar, kutchi lohar wada, kutchi sanghar, kutchi somra, kutchi junija, kutchi pinara, kutchi syed saddat. The Punjabi form the majority of the town. The other groups include Pakhtun, Baloch, Sindhi, Brahui, Muhajir, Hazarewal, Seraiki, Kashmiri, Memon, and some other Gujarati-speaking communities. The official Website of the town is

Ezequiél Moreno y Díaz

Saint Ezequiél Moreno y Díaz, OAR was a member of the Order of Augustinian Recollects and now venerated as a Saint in the Roman Catholic Church. He was born on April 9, 1848 in Alfaro, La Rioja, Spain and later served as a missionary to the Philippines. He also became the Bishop of Pinara and later of Pasto, in Colombia.

His brother Julián Moreno, OAR, is also venerated as a Blessed because of his martyrdom in Motril. Saint Ezequiel is popularly invoked as the patron of cancer patients.

Hispano-Celtic languages

Hispano-Celtic is a hypernym to include all the varieties of Celtic spoken in the Iberian Peninsula before the arrival of the Romans (in c. 218 BC, during the Second Punic War):

a northern-eastern, inland language attested at a relatively late date in the extensive corpus of Celtiberian. This variety, which Jordán Cólera proposed to name northeastern Hispano-Celtic, has long been synonymous with the term Hispano-Celtic and is universally accepted as a Celtic language.

a language in the north west corner of the peninsula, with a northern and western boundary marked by the Atlantic Ocean, a southern boundary along the river Douro, and an eastern boundary marked by Oviedo, which Jordán Cólera has proposed to call northwestern Hispano-Celtic, where there is a corpus of Latin inscriptions containing isolated words and sentences that are clearly Celtic.Western Hispano-Celtic is a term that has been proposed for a language continuum of dlalects, ranging from Celtic Gallaecian, Tartessian (according to Koch and others) to Lusitanian, which has sometimes been labelled "para-Celtic", located in the Iberian peninsula west of an imaginary line running north-south linking Oviedo and Mérida. According to Koch, the Western Celtic varieties of the Iberian Peninsula share with Celtiberian a sufficient core of distinctive features to justify Hispano-Celtic as a term for a linguistic sub-family as opposed to a purely geographical classification. In Naturalis Historia 3.13 (written 77–79 CE), Pliny the Elder states that the Celtici of Baetica (now western Andalusia) descended from the Celtiberians of Lusitania, since they shared common religions, languages, and names for their fortified settlements.As part of the effort to prove the existence of a western Iberian Hispano-Celtic dialect continuum, there have been attempts to differentiate the Vettonian dialect from the neighboring Lusitanian language using the personal names of the Vettones to describe the following sound changes (PIE to Proto-Celtic):

*ō > ā occurs in Enimarus.

*ō > ū in final syllables is indicated by the suffix of, e. g., Abrunus, Caurunius.

*ē > ī is attested in the genitive singular Riuei.

*n̥ > an appears in Argantonius.

*m̥ > am in names with Amb-.

*gʷ > b is attested in names such as Bouius, derived from *gʷow- 'cow'.

*kʷ in PIE *perkʷ-u- 'oak' appears in a lenited form in the name Erguena.

*p > ɸ > 0 is attested in:*perkʷ-u- > ergʷ- in Erguena (see above).

*plab- > lab- in Laboina.

*uper- > ur- in Uralus and Urocius.However, *p is preserved in Cupiena, a Vettonian name not attested in Lusitania; also in names like Pinara, while *-pl- probably developed into -bl- in names like Ableca.

Leptophobia pinara

Leptophobia pinara, the Pinara white, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae. It is found in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia.The wingspan is about 47–50 mm (1.9–2.0 in).

List of moths of Australia (Lasiocampidae)

This is a list of the Australian moth species of the family Lasiocampidae. It also acts as an index to the species articles and forms part of the full List of moths of Australia.

Mount Cragus

Mount Cragus or Mount Cragos or Mount Kragos (Greek: Κράγος) – also recorded as Hiera Acra – is a mountain in Turkey, in what was formerly ancient Lycia, Asia Minor. It is identified with the modern Sandak Dağ.

Strabo (p. 665), whose description proceeds from west to east, after the promontory Telmissus, mentions Anticragus, on which is Carmylessus, and then Cragus, which has eight summits (or he may mean capes), and a city of the same name. Pinara, in the interior, was at the base of Cragus. There are coins of the town Cragus of the Roman imperial period, with the epigraph Λυκιων Κρ. or Κρα. or Κραγ. The range of Anticragus and Cragus is represented in the map in Spratt and Forbes as running south from the neighbourhood of Telmissus, and forming the western boundary of the lower basin of the river Xanthus. The southern part is Cragus. The direction of the range shows that it must abut on the sea in bold headlands. In Francis Beaufort's map of the coast of Karamania, the Anticragus is marked 6000 feet high. Beaufort's examination of this coast began at Yediburun (Yedy-Booroon), which means "the Seven Capes", a knot of high and rugged mountains that appear to have been the ancient Mount Cragus of Lycia. The ruins of Pinara are where Strabo describes them, on the east side of this range, about halfway between Telmissus and the termination of the range on the south coast. There is a pass leading between the summits of Cragus and Anticragus. Between the two chief peaks is a plain 4000 feet above the sea; and above it rises the highest peak of Cragus, more than 2500 feet above this elevated plain. The first half of the ascent from the plain is through a thick forest, and the remainder over bare rock. From the summit there is a view of the whole plain of Xanthus, and of the gorges of the Massicytus, which lies east of it. The side towards the sea is so steep, that from this lofty summit the waves are seen breaking white against the base of this precipitous mountain mass. It appears that Strabo is right when he describes a valley or depression as separating Anticragus and Cragus; and the highest part, which towers above the sea at the Seven Capes, seems to be the eight summits that Strabo speaks of. There was a promontory Cragus, according to Scylax and Pliny the Elder (v. 27), which must be the Seven Capes. The Hiera Acra of the Stadiasmus seems also to be the Seven Capes. The position of the Cragus between Xanthus and Telmissus is mentioned by Pomponius Mela (i. 15), and he also probably means the same striking part of the range.

The rocks and forests of Cragus were embellished by poetic fictions as the occasional residence of Diana. Here, according to the authority quoted by Stephanus of Byzantium (s. v. Κράγος), were the so-called θεῶν ἀγρίων ἄντρα.

Nicholas of Sion

Nicholas of Sion was a 6th-century Christian saint from Pharroa in Lycia. He died in Myra in 564 shortly after he was ordained bishop of Pinara. During the course of his lifetime, he travelled to Jerusalem twice and was reputed to have performed healing miracles. The identity of his hagiographer is not known, but scholars believe his biography was written sometime in the 6th or 7th centuries. The style of writing was more accessible than previous vitae written by the Cappadocian Fathers and some elements style seem to have been influenced by New Testament Greek. Nicholas' vita mostly takes place in a rural setting. His cult was later absorbed by that of Nicholas of Myra.

P. divisa

P. divisa may refer to:

Pinara divisa, the common pinara, a moth species found in the south-east quarter of Australia

Platypleura divisa, a cicada species found in Africa

Pieria (Syria)

In Classical times Pieria was the southern area of the Amanus Mountains, a part of the province of Roman Syria. Cities included Seleucia Pieria and Pinara. Today it is part of Turkey.

Pinara (Pieria)

Pinara (Greek: τὰ Πίναρα; Eth.: Πιναρεύς) was an ancient city in Pieria in ancient Syria, mentioned by Pliny the Elder (H.N., v. 19 and v. 22) and Ptolemy (Geography, v. 15. § 12). Its present location has not been precisely determined, but it is known to be north-east of İskenderun in the southern Nur Mountains (then known as the Amanus mountains) in the modern-day Hatay Province of Turkey. The Nur / Amanus mountains separated ancient Cilicia from Coele-Syria. It may have been near Belen, Hatay, near the Belen Pass.

Pinara (disambiguation)

Pinara is the name of:

Pinara, a large city of Lycia

Pinara (Pieria), a city of Pieria (Syria), between Cilicia and ancient SyriaPinara may also refer to:

Pinara (moth), genus of the family Lasiocampidae

Pinara (moth)

Pinara is a genus of moths in the family Lasiocampidae. The genus was erected by Francis Walker in 1855.

Pinara cana

Pinara cana, the neat pinara, is a species of moth of the family Lasiocampidae first described by Francis Walker in 1855. It is found in the south-east quarter of Australia.

The wingspan is about 40 mm for males and 60 mm for females.

The larvae feed on eucalyptus species.

Pinara divisa

Pinara divisa, the common pinara, is a species of moth of the family Lasiocampidae. It was first described by Francis Walker in 1855. It is found in the south-east quarter of Australia.

The wingspan is about 40 mm.

The larvae feed on eucalyptus species.

Pinara metaphaea

Pinara metaphaea, the pinara moth, is a species of moth of the family Lasiocampidae. It was first described by Francis Walker in 1862. It is known from south-east Australia, including New South Wales and Victoria.

The wingspan is about 40 mm for males and about 60 mm for females. Males have brown forewings shading darker at the bases, and dark brown hindwings with broad orange margins. Females have pale grey or brown forewings, each with a submarginal arc of dark dots. The hindwings are darker with broad white margins.The larvae feed on the foliage of Eucalyptus species.


Pixodarus or Pixodaros (in Lycian 𐊓𐊆𐊜𐊁𐊅𐊀𐊕𐊀 Pixedara; in Greek Πιξώδαρoς; ruled 340–335 BC), was a ruler of Caria, nominally the Achaemenid Empire Satrap, who enjoyed the status of king or dynast by virtue of the powerful position his predecessors of the House of Hecatomnus (the Hecatomnids) created when they succeeded the assassinated Persian Satrap Tissaphernes in the Carian satrapy. Lycia was also ruled by the Carian dynasts since the time of Mausolus, and the name of Pixodarus as ruler appears in the Xanthos trilingual inscription in Lycia.

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