A pin is a device used for fastening objects or material together, and can have three sorts of body: a shaft of a rigid inflexible material meant to be inserted in a slot, groove, or hole (as with pivots, hinges, and jigs); a shaft connected to a head and ending in a sharp tip meant to pierce one or more pieces of soft materials like cloth or paper (the straight or push pin); a single strip of a rigid but flexible material (e.g. a wire) whose length has been folded into parallel prongs in such fashion that the middle length of each curves towards the other so that, when anything is inserted between them, they act as a clamp (e.g. the bobby pin), or two strips of a rigid material bound together by a spring at one end so that, when the spring held open, one can insert some material between the prongs at the other end that, the spring allowed to close, then clamp the inserted material. According to their function, pins can be made of metals (e.g. steel, copper, or brass), wood, or plastic.

A collection of push-pins in a cork board
Bobby pin
A bobby pin

Sewing and fashion pins

The development of the pin closely paralleled that of its perforated counterpart, the needle. Archaeological evidence suggests that curved sewing pins have been used for over four thousand years. Originally, these were fashioned out of iron and bone by the Sumerians and were used to hold clothes together. Later, pins were also used to hold pages of books together by threading the needle through their top corner.[1]

Many later pins were made of brass, a relatively hard and ductile metal that became available during the Bronze Age. This development was followed by the use of steel which was much stronger but tended to rust when exposed to humid air. The development of inexpensive electroplating techniques allowed the steel to be plated with nickel. Nickel did not rust, but tended to flake off the steel in humid weather, again allowing it to rust. However, this took many months or even years to happen, and as nickel plated steel pins were usually used only temporarily to hold fabric in place prior to sewing, no further refinement has been considered necessary. Note, however, that some modern specialty pins are made out of rust-proof and very strong titanium.[2]

Adam Smith described the manufacture of pins using extensive division of labor in his Wealth of Nations. John Ireland Howe invented a pin-making machine in 1832, and an improved machine in 1841; his Howe Manufacturing Company of Derby, Connecticut, used three machines to produce 72,000 pins per day in 1839.

Walter Hunt invented the safety pin by forming an eight-inch brass pin into a bent pin with a spring and guard. He sold the rights to his invention to pay a debt to a friend,[3] not knowing that he could have made millions of dollars.

Straight pins

Pin type Typical size[Note 1] Typical length Features
Beading pins 14 78 in (22 mm) A wider-than-usual-head allows this pin to hold beads more easily.
T-pins 0.75 mm 1 14 in (32 mm) These pins have a head bent into a capital letter "T" to make it easier to grab with the finger tips.
Dressmaker pins 17-20 1 116 in (27 mm) The most common type of sewing pin, they are used for light- to medium-weight fabrics and may have either a small flat head or a round plastic one.
Pleating pins 17 1 116 in (27 mm) Considered "extra fine", they are used for pinning pleats and lightweight fabrics.
Appliqué pins 0.6 mm 34 in (19 mm) Pins have small round glass heads that are easy to work around; also, because the pins are comparatively short, they are less likely to "stick out" when holding small pieces of fabric against a larger one.
Bridal and lace pins 17 1 14 in (32 mm) These pins are made entirely of stainless steel and will not rust; they are used for fine and lightweight fabrics.
Patchwork pins 22 (0.5 mm) 1 716 in (37 mm) Pins have extra sharp tips for penetrating thick iron-on patches; their size and length also make them suitable for quilting; they have glass heads that will not melt if pressed in an iron.
Quilting pins 30 (0.6 mm) 1 78 in (48 mm) Quilting pins are exceptionally long and often have glass heads.
Silk pins 0.5 mm 1 716 in (37 mm) Silk pins are suitable for lightweight fabrics and have a glass head that will not melt when ironed.
Pearlized pins 24 1 12 in (38 mm) These have round plastic heads which have been painted (often in bright colors) to superficially resemble the appearance of pearls.
Sequin pins 8 (0.5 mm) 12 in (13 mm) Their exceptionally short length makes these pins suitable for appliqué; a large flat head makes them able to hold sequins in place.
Tidy pins - 1 12 in (38 mm) U-shaped pins with no head are used for holding slip covers and doilies in place; often made of brass so that they will not rust; also called fork pins.
Hatpins - 8 in (20 cm) These are exceptionally long decorative pins used to hold a woman's hat in place.

General purpose pins

The push pin was invented in 1900 by Edwin Moore[4] and quickly became a success. These pins are also called "thumbtacks". There is also a new push pin called a "paper cricket".

Steel pins without heads

Thin, hardened pins can be driven into wood with a hammer with the goal of not being seen.

Mechanical fasteners

In engineering and machine design, a pin is a machine element that secures the position of two or more parts of a machine relative to each other. A large variety of types has been known for a long time; the most commonly used are solid cylindrical pins, solid tapered pins, groove pins, slotted spring pins and spirally coiled spring pins.


  1. ^ The size numbers given here correspond to those found on the packaging of various manufacturers-- they do not necessarily correspond to any objective width measurement or to the size numbers of other manufacturers. Measurements given in millimeters are actual millimeters.


  1. ^ Petroski, Henry, "From Pins to Paper Clips", The Evolution of Useful Things, Knopf, New York, 1993, p. 53
  2. ^ Bridgman, Roger. 1000 Inventions & Discoveries. New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing [1], 2002, p.126
  3. ^ Alfred, R (2008-10-04). "April 10, 1849: Safety Tech Gets to the Point, Baby". Wired. Archived from the original on April 30, 2014. Retrieved 2008-10-23.
  4. ^ US patent 654319, Edwin Moore, "Push-pin", published Jul 24, 1900
  • Henry Petroski, The Evolution of Useful Things, Chapter 4. ISBN 0-679-74039-2.
  • Robert Parmley, Standard handbook of fastening and joining. 1st edition. Chapter 2. McGraw-Hill (New York). 1977. ISBN 0-07-048511-9
  • McMaster-Carr Supply Company
  • Gardette
  • [2]
AC power plugs and sockets

AC power plugs and sockets allow electric equipment to be connected to the alternating current (AC) power supply in buildings and at other sites. Electrical plugs and sockets differ from one another in voltage and current rating, shape, size, and connector type. Different standard systems of plugs and sockets are used around the world.

Plugs and sockets for portable appliances became available in the 1880s, to replace connections to light sockets with wall-mounted outlets. A proliferation of types developed for both convenience and protection from electric shock. Today there are about 20 types in common use around the world, and many obsolete socket types are found in older buildings. Coordination of technical standards has allowed some types of plug to be used across large regions to facilitate trade in electrical appliances, and for the convenience of travellers and consumers of imported electrical goods. Some multi-standard sockets allow use of several types of plug; improvised or unapproved adaptors between incompatible sockets and plugs may not provide the full safety and performance of an approved socket–plug combination.


This article is about bowling in general. For specific types of bowling, see Ten-pin bowling, Duckpin bowling, Candlepin bowling, Nine-pin bowling, and Five-pin bowling. For other uses of the term, see Bowling (disambiguation)

Bowling is a target sport and recreational activity in which a player rolls or throws a bowling ball toward pins or another target.

In pin bowling, the goal is to knock over pins at the end of a lane, with either two or three balls per frame allowed to knock down all pins. A strike is achieved when all the pins are knocked down on the first roll, and a spare is achieved all the pins are knocked over on a second roll. Lanes have wood or synthetic surfaces onto which oil is applied in different oil patterns. Common types of pin bowling include ten-pin, candlepin, duckpin, nine-pin, and five-pin bowling.

In target bowling, the aim is usually to get the ball as close to a mark as possible. The surface may be grass, gravel, or a synthetic surface. Bowls, skittles, kegel, bocce, carpet bowls, pétanque, and boules may have both indoor and outdoor varieties.

Bowling is played by 100 million people in more than 90 countries (including 70 million in the United States), and is the subject of video games.

In the U.S. and Canada, the term bowling usually refers to ten-pin bowling, whereas in the U.K. and Commonwealth countries the term often denotes lawn bowls.


Dodgeball refers to a collection of team sports in which players on two teams try to throw balls at each other while avoiding being hit themselves.

There are many variations of the game, but generally the main objective of each team is to eliminate all members of the opposing team by hitting them with thrown balls, catching a ball thrown by a member of the opposing team, or forcing them to move outside the court boundaries when a ball is thrown at them.

Internationally, there are currently two world bodies: World Dodgeball Federation (WDBF), which uses foam, and the World Dodgeball Association (WDA), which uses cloth. The international dodgeball day is April 27th.


EMV is a payment method based upon a technical standard for smart payment cards and for payment terminals and automated teller machines that can accept them.

EMV cards are smart cards (also called chip cards or IC cards) that store their data on integrated circuits in addition to magnetic stripes (for backward compatibility). These include cards that must be physically inserted (or "dipped") into a reader, as well as contactless cards that can be read over a short distance using near-field communication (NFC) technology. Payment cards that comply with the EMV standard are often called Chip and PIN or Chip and Signature cards, depending on the authentication methods employed by the card issuer.

There are standards based on ISO/IEC 7816 for contact cards, and standards based on ISO/IEC 14443 for contactless cards (Mastercard Contactless, Visa PayWave, American Express ExpressPay).

EMV originally stood for "Europay, Mastercard, and Visa", the three companies that created the standard. The standard is now managed by EMVCo, a consortium of financial companies. The most widely known chips of the EMV standard are

VIS – Visa

Mastercard chip – Mastercard

AEIPS – American Express

UICS – China Union Pay

J Smart – JCB

D-PAS – Discover/Diners Club International.

Rupay – NPCIVisa and Mastercard have also developed standards for using EMV cards in devices to support (CNP) card not present transactions over the telephone and Internet. Mastercard has the Chip Authentication Program (CAP) for secure e-commerce. Its implementation is known as EMV-CAP and supports a number of modes. Visa has the Dynamic Passcode Authentication (DPA) scheme, which is their implementation of CAP using different default values.

In February 2010, computer scientists from Cambridge University demonstrated that an implementation of EMV PIN entry is vulnerable to a man-in-the-middle attack; however, the way PINs are processed depends on the capabilities of the card and the terminal and in this demonstration it was only implementations where the PIN was validated offline that were vulnerable.

King of the Ring

King of the Ring is a professional wrestling single-elimination tournament held by WWE. The tournament was held annually from 1985 to 2002, with the exception of 1990 and 1992. From 1993 to 2002, the tournament was produced as a pay-per-view event. In 2003, the event's pay-per-view slot was replaced by Bad Blood.

The tournament endured a four-year hiatus until its return in 2006 as an exclusive event of the SmackDown brand. The tournament returned as an inter-brand event for both SmackDown and Raw in 2008, 2010, and 2015. WWE released a best of King of the Ring DVD in late 2011.


Laparoscopy (from Ancient Greek λαπάρα (lapara), meaning 'flank, side', and σκοπέω (skopeo), meaning 'to see') is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis using small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera. The laparoscope aids diagnosis or therapeutic interventions with a few small cuts in the abdomen.Laparoscopic surgery, also called minimally invasive surgery (MIS), bandaid surgery, or keyhole surgery, is a modern surgical technique. There are a number of advantages to the patient with laparoscopic surgery versus the more common, open procedure. These include reduced pain due to smaller incisions, reduced hemorrhaging and shorter recovery time. The key element is the use of a laparoscope, a long fiber optic cable system which allows viewing of the affected area by snaking the cable from a more distant, but more easily accessible location.

Laparoscopic surgery includes operations within the abdominal or pelvic cavities, whereas keyhole surgery performed on the thoracic or chest cavity is called thoracoscopic surgery. Specific surgical instruments used in a laparoscopic surgery include forceps, scissors, probes, dissectors, hooks and retractors. Laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgery belong to the broader field of endoscopy.

Miniature Pinscher

The Miniature Pinscher (Zwergpinscher or Min Pin) is a small breed of dog originating from Germany. The breed's earliest ancestors may have included the German Pinscher mixed with Italian greyhounds and dachshunds.Historical artifacts and paintings place the Min Pin as a very old breed, but factual documentation began less than 200 years ago, leaving their actual origins to debate. The Miniature Pinscher is reported to include the Dachshund and Italian Greyhound among its ancestors. Many historians and those who have researched the background of the breed agree that this heritage is most likely correct, adding the shorthaired German Pinscher to the family tree.

The international kennel club, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, lists the Miniature Pinscher in Group 2, Section 1.1 Pinscher, along with the Dobermann, the German Pinscher, the Austrian Pinscher, and the other Toy Pinscher, the Affenpinscher. Other kennel clubs list the Miniature Pinscher in the Toy Group or Companion Group.

PCI Express

PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express), officially abbreviated as PCIe or PCI-e, is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard, designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X and AGP bus standards. PCIe has numerous improvements over the older standards, including higher maximum system bus throughput, lower I/O pin count and smaller physical footprint, better performance scaling for bus devices, a more detailed error detection and reporting mechanism (Advanced Error Reporting, AER), and native hot-swap functionality. More recent revisions of the PCIe standard provide hardware support for I/O virtualization.

Defined by its number of lanes, the PCI Express electrical interface is also used in a variety of other standards, most notably the laptop expansion card interface ExpressCard and computer storage interfaces SATA Express and M.2.

Format specifications are maintained and developed by the PCI-SIG (PCI Special Interest Group), a group of more than 900 companies that also maintain the conventional PCI specifications.

Pin-up model

A pin-up model (known as a pin-up girl for a female and less commonly male pin-up for a male) is a model whose mass-produced pictures see wide appeal as popular culture. Pin-ups are intended for informal display, i.e. meant to be "pinned-up" on a wall. Pin-up models may be glamour models, fashion models, or actors. These pictures are also sometimes known as cheesecake photos. Cheesecake was an American slang word, that was considered a publicly acceptable term for seminude women because pin-up was considered taboo in the early twentieth century.The term pin-up may refer to drawings, paintings, and other illustrations as well as photographs (see the list of pin-up artists). The term was first attested to in English in 1941; however, the practice is documented back at least to the 1890s. Pin-up images could be cut out of magazines or newspapers, or on a postcard or lithograph. Such pictures often appear on walls, desks, or calendars. Posters of pin-ups were mass-produced, and became popular from the mid 20th century.

Male pin-ups were less common than their female counterparts throughout the 20th century, although a market for homoerotica has always existed as well as pictures of popular male celebrities targeted at women or girls. Examples include James Dean and Jim Morrison.

Pin (amateur wrestling)

A pin, or fall, is a victory condition in various forms of wrestling that is met by holding an opponent's shoulders or scapulae (shoulder blades) on the wrestling mat for a prescribed period of time. This article deals with the pin as it is defined in amateur wrestling.

In amateur wrestling, a pin ends the match regardless of when it occurs. Situations which are almost pins but for whatever reason do not meet the criteria—for example, have only one shoulder down or have the defending wrestler blocked in a neck bridge—are rewarded with exposure points (in collegiate wrestling, known as near fall points or back points) in order to encourage wrestlers to take risks to try to pin their opponents.

Pin (chess)

In chess, a pin is a situation brought on by an attacking piece in which a defending piece cannot move without exposing a more valuable defending piece on its other side to capture by the attacking piece. Moving the attacking piece to bring on the pin is called pinning; the defending piece so restricted is described as pinned.

Only pieces that can move an indefinite number of squares in a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal line (i.e. bishops, rooks, and queens) can pin. Kings, knights, and pawns cannot pin. Any piece can be pinned except the king, since the king must be immediately removed from check under all circumstances (see Skewer (chess)#Absolute skewer).

Pin (professional wrestling)

A pinfall is a victory condition in various forms of professional wrestling that is met by holding (pinning) an opponent's shoulders on the wrestling mat, usually until the referee counts to three. In professional wrestling, a pinfall is a common method of winning a match.

The count is broken (a near-fall) if the opponent manages to raise one or both of his shoulders off of the mat, commonly by kicking out (throwing their legs up to cause their shoulders to rise from the mat). In some positions, a wrestler may bridge (arching their back so that only their feet and the top of their head are touching the ground) to put more of their weight on the pinned opponent or to prop themselves up from being pinned. Sometimes, an attacking wrestler may (illegally) hook the opponent's tights for extra leverage. Another popular illegal tactic of heel wrestlers is to attempt a pin close to the ring ropes so they can prop their legs (or on rare occasions, arms) up on the ropes to gain additional leverage, putting more weight on the opponent. On the other hand, a pin fall attempt cannot occur in the first place when one rolls out of the ring if falls do not count anywhere, or if the opponent lies on his/her stomach upon impact, so it would take extra effort to roll the opponent over, even when he/she is knocked out cold due to the body being effectively a dead weight.


Pinball is a type of arcade game, in which points are scored by a player manipulating one or more steel balls on a play field inside a glass-covered cabinet called a pinball table (or "pinball machine"). The primary objective of the game is to score as many points as possible. Many modern pinball machines include a story line where the player must complete certain objectives in a certain fashion to complete the story, usually earning high scores for different methods of completing the game. Points are earned when the ball strikes different targets on the play field. A drain is situated at the bottom of the play field, partially protected by player-controlled plastic bats called flippers. A game ends after all the balls fall into the drain a certain number of times. Secondary objectives are to maximize the time spent playing (by earning "extra balls" and keeping the ball in play as long as possible) and to earn bonus games (known as "replays").


Hanyu Pinyin (simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, and was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes. But "some cities, businesses, and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.The word Hànyǔ (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語) means "The spoken language of the Han people." Pīnyīn (拼音) literally means "spelled sounds".

Postal Index Number

A Postal Index Number or PIN or PIN code is a code in the post office numbering or post code system used by India Post, the Indian postal administration. The code is six digits long.


In telecommunications, RS-232, Recommended Standard 232 is a standard introduced in 1960 for serial communication transmission of data. It formally defines the signals connecting between a DTE (data terminal equipment) such as a computer terminal, and a DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment or data communication equipment), such as a modem. The RS-232 standard had been commonly used in computer serial ports. The standard defines the electrical characteristics and timing of signals, the meaning of signals, and the physical size and pinout of connectors. The current version of the standard is TIA-232-F Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange, issued in 1997.

An RS-232 serial port was once a standard feature of a personal computer, used for connections to modems, printers, mice, data storage, uninterruptible power supplies, and other peripheral devices. RS-232, when compared to later interfaces such as RS-422, RS-485 and Ethernet, has lower transmission speed, short maximum cable length, large voltage swing, large standard connectors, no multipoint capability and limited multidrop capability. In modern personal computers, USB has displaced RS-232 from most of its peripheral interface roles. Many computers no longer come equipped with RS-232 ports and must use either an external USB-to-RS-232 converter or an internal expansion card with one or more serial ports to connect to RS-232 peripherals. Nevertheless, thanks to their simplicity and past ubiquity, RS-232 interfaces are still used—particularly in industrial machines, networking equipment, and scientific instruments where a short-range, point-to-point, low-speed wired data connection is fully adequate.

Railway coupling

A coupling (or a coupler) is a mechanism for connecting rolling stock in a train. The design of the coupler is standard, and is almost as important as the track gauge, since flexibility and convenience are maximised if all rolling stock can be coupled together.

The equipment that connects the couplings to the rolling stock is known as the draft gear or draw gear.

Tai chi

Tai chi (taiji), short for T'ai chi ch'üan, or Tai ji quan (pinyin: tàijíquán; 太极拳), is an internal Chinese martial art practiced for both its defense training and its health benefits. The term taiji refers to a philosophy of the forces of yin and yang, related to the moves. Though originally conceived as a martial art, it is also typically practiced for a variety of other personal reasons: competitive wrestling in the format of pushing hands (tui shou), demonstration competitions and achieving greater longevity. As a result, a multitude of training forms exist, both traditional and modern, which correspond to those aims with differing emphasis. Some training forms of tàijíquán are especially known for being practiced with relatively slow movements.

Today, tai chi has spread worldwide. Most modern styles of tai chi trace their development to at least one of the five traditional schools: Chen, Yang, Wu (Hao), Wu and Sun. All of the former, in turn, trace their historical origins to Chen Village.

Ten-pin bowling

Ten-pin bowling is a type of bowling in which a bowler rolls a bowling ball down a wood or synthetic lane toward ten pins positioned in a tetractys (equilateral triangle-based pattern) at the far end of the lane. The objective is to knock down as many pins as possible.

Behind a foul line is an approach approximately 15 feet (5 m) long used to impart speed and apply rotation to the ball. A 41.5-inch-wide (105 cm), 60-foot-long (18 m) lane is bordered along its length by gutters (semicylindrical channels) that collect errant balls. The lane's narrow shape prevents straight-line ball paths from achieving an angle optimally desired to achieve strikes; accordingly, more advanced bowlers impart sideways rotation to hook (curve) the ball into the target. Oil applied in different patterns to the first two-thirds (approximate) of the lane's length adds complexity and challenge to the sport.

Commonly, two finger holes and a thumb hole are drilled into the ball. Ball weights vary considerably to make the sport playable for all ages, and young children may use ramps. While ten-pin bowling leagues and tournaments are common, the sport is also played recreationally by millions of people.

In Canada, the United States, United Kingdom, Ireland and Australia, the game is commonly referred to as just "bowling". In New England, the game is specifically called "ten-pin bowling" or "big-ball bowling" to distinguish it from smaller balls used in candlepin bowling, duckpin bowling, and five-pin bowling.

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