Pilmatueia

Pilmatueia is a diplodocoid sauropod belonging to the family Dicraeosauridae that lived in Argentina during the Early Cretaceous.

Pilmatueia
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous, Valanginian
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Sauropodomorpha
Clade: Sauropoda
Family: Dicraeosauridae
Genus: Pilmatueia
Coria et al., 2018
Type species
Pilmatueia faundezi
Coria et al., 2018

Discovery

The type species, Pilmatueia faundezi, was described in 2018 by Rodolfo Coria and colleagues. The genus name is derived from the Pilmatué locality, where the material was collected, and the species epithet faundezi was chosen in recognition of Ramón Faúndez, manager of the Museo Municipal de Las Lajas, who supported the excavation project. Pilmatueia is the first recognized Valangininan dicraeosaurid and is the earliest recorded Cretaceous dicraeosaurid. It was part of a South American Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous dicraeosaurid radiation.[1]

The fossils were recovered in a layer of the Mulichinco Formation (Valanginian, Lower Cretaceous, Neuquén Basin, Argentina) and is based on isolated skeletal remains collected from a single stratigraphic level, relatively close to each other, with unquestionable dicraeosaurid features in the axial elements.

Description

Pilmatueia faundezi is diagnosed by a unique combination of several features that include cervico-dorsal vertebrae with dorsoventrally oriented ridges on the anterior surfaces of the anterior centrodiapophyseal laminae, and posterior dorsal vertebrae with deep fossae at the bases of the bifid neural spines separated by a thick, low, sagittal lamina. Pilmatueia is recovered as the sister taxon of the late Early Cretaceous Amargasaurus cazaui.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b Rodolfo A. Coria; Guillermo J. Windholz; Francisco Ortega; Philip J. Currie (2018). "A new dicraeosaurid sauropod from the Lower Cretaceous (Mulichinco Formation, Valanginian, Neuquén Basin) of Argentina". Cretaceous Research. in press. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.08.019.
Bajadasaurus

Bajadasaurus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous epoch (late Berriasian to Valanginian stages) of northern Patagonia, Argentina. It was first described in 2019 based on a single specimen found in 2010 that includes a largely complete skull and parts of the neck. The only species is Bajadasaurus pronuspinax. The genus is classified as a member of the Dicraeosauridae, a group of comparatively small and short-necked sauropods that lived from the Early or Middle Jurassic to the end of the Early Cretaceous.

Bajadasaurus sported bifurcated, extremely elongated neural spines extending from the neck vertebrae. Similar elongated spines are known from the closely related and more completely known Amargasaurus. Various possible functions have been proposed for these spines in Amargasaurus, with the 2019 description of Bajadasaurus suggesting that they could have served as passive defense against predators in both genera. The skull was gracile and equipped with around 44 teeth that were pencil-shaped and restricted to the front of the jaws. The eye openings of Bajadasaurus were exposed in top view of the skull, possibly allowing the animal to look forwards while feeding. Bajadasaurus was discovered in sedimentary rocks of the Bajada Colorada Formation, and its environment resembled a braided river system. It shared its environment with other dinosaurs including the sauropod Leinkupal and different theropods.

Brasilotitan

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Cetiosauridae

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Daxiatitan

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Dicraeosauridae

Dicraeosauridae is a family of diplodocoid sauropods who are the sister group to Diplodocidae. Dicraesaurids are a part of the Flagellicaudata, along with Diplodocidae. Dicraeosauridae includes genera such as Amargasaurus, Suuwassea, Dicraeosaurus, and Brachytrachelopan. Specimens of this family have been found in North America, Africa, and South America. Their temporal range is from the Early or Middle Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. Few dicraeosaurids survived into the Cretaceous, the youngest of which was Amargasaurus.The group was first described by German paleontologist Werner Janensch in 1914 with the discovery of Dicraeosaurus in Tanzania. Dicraeosauridae are distinct from other sauropods because of their relatively short neck size and small body size.The clade is monophyletic and well-supported phylogenetically with thirteen unambiguous synapomorphies uniting it. They diverged from Diplodocidae in the Mid-Jurassic, as evidenced by the diversity of dicraeosaurids in both South America and East Africa when Gondwana was still united by land. However, there is some disagreement among paleontologists on the phylogenetic placement of Suuwassea, the only genera of the Dicraeosauridae to be found in North America. It has been characterized as a basal dicraeosaurid by some and a member of the Diplodocidae by others. The placement of Suuwassea within Dicraeosauridae or Diplodocidae has substantial biogeographic implications for the evolution of Dicraeosauridae.

Diplodocinae

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Eomamenchisaurus

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Ferganasaurus

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Flagellicaudata

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Gravisauria

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Huangshanlong

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Jiutaisaurus

Jiutaisaurus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Quantou Formation of China. Jiutaisaurus was a sauropod which lived during the Cretaceous. The type species, Jiutaisaurus xidiensis, was described by Wu et al. in 2006, and is based on eighteen vertebrae.

Kaijutitan

Kaijutitan (meaning "Kaiju titan" after the type of Japanese movie monsters) is a genus of basal titanosaur dinosaur from the Sierra Barrosa Formation from Neuquén Province in Argentina. The type and only species is Kaijutitan maui.

Microcoelus

Microcoelus is a dubius genus of small Titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur native to Argentina. It is known from only a single dorsal vertebra. A left humerus was formerly referred to this species, but it is now considered to belong to Neuquensaurus. This species may be a synonym of the contemporary sauropod Neuquensaurus australis.It was described by British paleontologist Richard Lydekker in 1893.

Oceanotitan

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Tambatitanis

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Tastavinsaurus

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Tengrisaurus

Tengrisaurus (meaning "Tengri lizard") is a genus of lithostrotian sauropod, from the Early Cretaceous (Barremian-Aptian), of the Murtoi Formation, Russia. It was described in 2017 by Averianov & Skutschas. The type species is T. starkovi.

Vulcanodontidae

The Early Jurassic sauropod dinosaurs Zizhongosaurus, Barapasaurus, Tazoudasaurus, and Vulcanodon may form a natural group of basal sauropods called the Vulcanodontidae. Basal vulcanodonts include some of the earliest known examples of sauropods. The family-level name Vulcanodontidae was erected by M.R. Cooper in 1984. In 1995 Hunt et al. published the opinion that the family is synonymous with the Barapasauridae. One of the key morphological features specific to the family is an unusually narrow sacrum.

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