Pieter Harting

Pieter Harting (27 February 1812 – 3 December 1885) was a Dutch biologist and naturalist, born in Rotterdam. He made contributions in a number of scientific disciplines, and is remembered for his work in the fields of microscopy, hydrology, botany, and biostratigraphy.

In 1835 he obtained his medical degree from the University of Utrecht and spent the following years as a doctor in Oudewater. From 1841 he taught classes in medicine at the Athenaeum of Franeker, and two years later returned to the University of Utrecht, where he worked until retirement in 1875. At Utrecht he was a full professor of pharmacology and plant physiology (from 1846), and later zoology (from 1855). In 1856 he was appointed director of the zoological museum. He was a member of Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW)[1] and was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Leiden. Harting was one of the first Dutch scholars to accept the theory of evolution and was important supporter of Charles Darwin. He died in Amersfoort on 3 December 1885.

Jaansen Microscope
Reproduction of the "Snijder tube". Pieter Harting claimed in 1858 that this was an early microscope which he attributed to Sacharias Jansen. Its actual function and creator has been disputed.[2]

Throughout his career he maintained an avid interest in the historical development of the microscope and in the manufacture of lenses. He is credited with making design improvements to the microscope, and was the author of a landmark book on microscopy that was translated into several languages, including German (Das Mikroskop, 1859 by Friedrich Wilhelm Theile).[3] At Utrecht he established a popular microscopy laboratory for students.

In the field of hydrology he conducted extensive scientific groundwater research in an effort to improve the quality of water for public health. In collaboration with other scientists he formed the first committee for creation of a geological map of the Netherlands. The settlement of Hartingsburg in the Transvaal was named in his honor (later renamed Warmbad), as is a species of squid, Architeuthis hartingii.

Pieter Harting
Pieter Harting (1812-1885)


  1. ^ "Pieter Harting (1813 - 1885)" (in Dutch). Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  2. ^ Albert Van Helden, Sven Dupré, Rob Van Gent, Huib Zuidervaart, The Origins of the Telescope, pages 32-36
  3. ^ Friedrich Wilhelm Theile - bibliography at Who Named It
  4. ^ IPNI.  Harting.
  • This article was originally based on a translation of the equivalent article from the Dutch Wikipedia.

External links

Alfonso Giacomo Gaspare Corti

Alfonso Giacomo Gaspare Corti (22 June 1822 – 2 October 1876) was born at Gambarana, near Pavia in 1822. A famous friend of Corti's father, Antonio Scarpa, may have kindled his boyhood interest in anatomy and medicine. As a medical student he enrolled first at the University of Pavia. Corti's favorite study there was microanatomy with Bartolomeo Panizza and Mario Rusconi. In 1845, against paternal wishes, Corti moved to Vienna to complete his medical studies and to work in the anatomical institute of Joseph Hirtl. There he received the degree in medicine in 1847 under the supervision of professor Hyrtl, with a thesis on the bloodstream system of a reptile. He was then appointed by Hyrtl to be his Second Prosector. With the outbreak of the 1848 Revolution he left Vienna, and after brief military service in Italy made visits to eminent scientists in Bern, London and Paris. At the beginning of 1850 Corti had received the invitation of the anatomist Albert Kölliker and had moved to Würzburg, where he made friends with Virchow. At the Kölliker Laboratory he began to work on the mammalian auditory system. Corti spent a short time in Utrecht, where he visited Professors Jacobus Schroeder van der Kolk and Pieter Harting. During his stay he learned to use methods to preserve several preparations of the cochlea. From Utrecht he returned to Würzburg to complete his study of at least 200 cochleas of man and different animals. His famous paper, "Recherches sur l'organe de l'ouïe des mammiferes",

appeared in 1851 in Kölliker's journal "Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie". In the same year, after the death of his father, he inherited his father's estate and the title "Marchese de San Stefano Belbo" and moved back to Italy. In 1855 Corti married the daughter from a neighboring estate, Maria Bettinzoli. His young wife presented him with a daughter Bianca, and a son Gaspare, but in 1861 she died, leaving him with the responsibility of rearing the children. Unfortunately he was gradually developing arthritis deformans. Corti's last 15 years were further darkened by the inexorable progress of his crippling illness. In 1876, on the second of October, he died at Corvino San Quirico.


Bela-Bela (Tswana: The pot that boils) is a town in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Deriving its name from the geothermic hot springs around which the town was built, it was called Warmbaths, until 2002.The town is situated in the Waterberg District of the Limpopo Province. It lies off the N1 road between Pretoria and Polokwane (Pietersburg). Its hot springs produce 22,000 litres per hour at 52 °C (126 °F).


The Cretaceous ( , kri-TAY-shəs) is a geologic period and system that spans from the end of the Jurassic Period 145 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era, and the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cretaceous Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide (chalk, creta in Latin).

The Cretaceous was a period with a relatively warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas. These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles, ammonites and rudists, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds, as well as flowering plants, appeared.

The Cretaceous (along with the Mesozoic) ended with the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, a large mass extinction in which many groups, including non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs and large marine reptiles died out. The end of the Cretaceous is defined by the abrupt Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary (K–Pg boundary), a geologic signature associated with the mass extinction which lies between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.

Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel

Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel (24 October 1811 in Neuenhaus – 23 January 1871 in Utrecht) was a Dutch botanist, whose main focus of study was on the flora of the Dutch East Indies.

Friedrich Wilhelm Theile

Friedrich Wilhelm Theile (11 November 1801, in Buttstädt – 20 October 1879, in Weimar) was a German physician and anatomist.

In 1825 he received his medical doctorate from the University of Jena with the dissertation-thesis De Musculis nervisque laryngeis. From 1828, with Heinrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Wackenroder, he was in charge of the pharmaceutical institute at Jena. In 1831 he became an associate professor, and three years later relocated to the University of Bern as a full professor of anatomy. From 1853 he practiced medicine in Weimar, during which time, he largely concerned himself with literary activities.

Harting (disambiguation)

Harting is a parish in the English county of Sussex.

Harting may also refer to:

Harting (UK electoral ward), of Chichester District, West Sussex, England

History of the telescope

The earliest known telescope appeared in 1608 in the Netherlands when an eyeglass maker named Hans Lippershey tried to obtain a patent on one. Although Lippershey did not receive his patent, news of the new invention soon spread across Europe. The design of these early refracting telescopes consisted of a convex objective lens and a concave eyepiece. Galileo improved on this design the following year and applied it to astronomy. In 1611, Johannes Kepler described how a far more useful telescope could be made with a convex objective lens and a convex eyepiece lens and by 1655 astronomers such as Christiaan Huygens were building powerful but unwieldy Keplerian telescopes with compound eyepieces.Isaac Newton is credited with building the first reflector in 1668 with a design that incorporated a small flat diagonal mirror to reflect the light to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. Laurent Cassegrain in 1672 described the design of a reflector with a small convex secondary mirror to reflect light through a central hole in the main mirror.

The achromatic lens, which greatly reduced color aberrations in objective lenses and allowed for shorter and more functional telescopes, first appeared in a 1733 telescope made by Chester Moore Hall, who did not publicize it. John Dollond learned of Hall's invention and began producing telescopes using it in commercial quantities, starting in 1758.

Important developments in reflecting telescopes were John Hadley's production of larger paraboloidal mirrors in 1721; the process of silvering glass mirrors introduced by Léon Foucault in 1857; and the adoption of long-lasting aluminized coatings on reflector mirrors in 1932. The Ritchey-Chretien variant of Cassegrain reflector was invented around 1910, but not widely adopted until after 1950; many modern telescopes including the Hubble Space Telescope use this design, which gives a wider field of view than a classic Cassegrain.

During the period 1850–1900, reflectors suffered from problems with speculum metal mirrors, and a considerable number of "Great Refractors" were built from 60 cm to 1 metre aperture, culminating in the Yerkes Observatory refractor in 1897; however, starting from the early 1900s a series of ever-larger reflectors with glass mirrors were built, including the Mount Wilson 60-inch (1.5 metre), the 100-inch (2.5 metre) Hooker Telescope (1917) and the 200-inch (5 metre) Hale telescope (1948); essentially all major research telescopes since 1900 have been reflectors. A number of 4-metre class (160 inch) telescopes were built on superior higher altitude sites including Hawaii and the Chilean desert in the 1975–1985 era. The development of the computer-controlled alt-azimuth mount in the 1970s and active optics in the 1980s enabled a new generation of even larger telescopes, starting with the 10-metre (400 inch) Keck telescopes in 1993/1996, and a number of 8-metre telescopes including the ESO Very Large Telescope, Gemini Observatory and Subaru Telescope.

The era of radio telescopes (along with radio astronomy) was born with Karl Guthe Jansky's serendipitous discovery of an astronomical radio source in 1931. Many types of telescopes were developed in the 20th century for a wide range of wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays. The development of space observatories after 1960 allowed access

to several bands impossible to observe from the ground, including X-rays and longer wavelength infrared bands.

List of botanists by author abbreviation (H)

This is an incomplete list of botanists by their author abbreviation, which is designed for citation with the botanical names or works that they have published. This list follows that established by Brummitt & Powell (1992). Use of that list is recommended by Rec. 46A Note 1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. The list is kept up to date online at The International Plant Names Index and Index Fungorum.Note that in some cases an "author abbreviation" consists of a full surname, while in other cases the surname is abbreviated and/or accompanied by one or more initials. There is no space between the initials and the surname (or its abbreviation).

List of microscopists

This is a list a microscopists.

List of people associated with Utrecht University

Notable alumni and faculty of Utrecht University.

Outline of hydrology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to hydrology:

Hydrology – study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.


Pieter is a male given name, the Dutch form of Peter, The name has been one of the most common names in the Netherlands for centuries, but since the mid-twentieth century its popularity has dropped steadily, from almost 3000 per year in 1947 to about 100 a year in 2016.Some of the better known people with this name are below. See All pages with titles beginning with Pieter for a longer list.

Pieter de Coninck (?-1332), Flemish revolutionary

Pieter van der Moere (c. 1480–1572), Flemish Franciscan missionary in Mexico known as "Pedro de Gante"

Pieter Coecke van Aelst (1502–1550), Flemish artist, architect, and author

Pieter Aertsen (1508–1575), Dutch Mannerist painter

Pieter Pourbus (1523–1584), Netherlandish painter, sculptor, draftsman and cartographer

Pieter Bruegel the Elder (c 1525-1569), Netherlandish painter

Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser (1540–1596), Dutch navigator who mapped the southern sky

Pieter Platevoet (1552–1622), Dutch-Flemish astronomer and cartographer better known as "Petrus Plancius"

Pieter Pauw (1564–1617), Dutch botanist

Pieter Brueghel the Younger (1564–1633), Netherlandish painter

Pieter Both (1568–1615), first Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft (1581–1647), Dutch historian, poet and playwright

Pieter Lastman (1583–1633), Dutch painter of historical and biblical scenes

Pieter de Carpentier (1586–1659), Dutch Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies 1623–27

Pieter Nuyts (1598–1655), Dutch explorer, diplomat, and politician

Pieter Claesz (1597–1660), Dutch still life painter

Pieter Jansz Saenredam (1597–1665), Dutch painter of interiors

Pieter van Laer (1599–1642), Dutch painter and printmaker

Pieter de Grebber (c.1600–1653), Dutch Golden Age painter

Pieter Post (1608–1669), Dutch architect

Pieter Stuyvesant (later Peter) (c.1611–1672), Dutch Director-General of New Netherland 1647–64

Pieter van der Faes (1618–1680), Dutch portrait painter in England known as "Peter Lely"

Pieter Boel (1626–1674), Flemish still life and animal painter

Pieter de Hooch (1629–1684), Dutch genre painter

Pieter van der Aa (1659–1733), Dutch publisher of maps and atlases

Pieter Burmann the Elder (1668–1741), Dutch classical scholar

Pieter van Musschenbroek (1692–1761), Dutch scientist and inventor

Pieter Teyler van der Hulst (1702–1778), Dutch merchant and banker (of Teyler's Museum)

Pieter Burmann the Younger (1714–1778), Dutch philologist

Pieter Hellendaal (1721–1799), Dutch composer, organist and violinist

Pieter van Maldere (1729–1768), South-Netherlandish violinist and composer

Pieter Boddaert (1730–1795), Dutch physician and naturalist

Pieter Gerardus van Overstraten (1755–1801), Governor-general of the Dutch East Indies 1796–1801

Pieter Maurits Retief (1780–1838), South African Voortrekker leader

Pieter Harting (1812–1885), Dutch biologist and naturalist

Pieter de Decker (1812–1891), Prime Minister of Belgium 1855–57

Pieter Bleeker (1819–1878), Dutch medical doctor, ichthyologist, and herpetologist

Pieter Cort van der Linden (1846–1935), Prime Minister of the Netherlands 1913–18

Pieter Jelles Troelstra (1860–1930), Dutch socialist politician and republican

Pieter Zeeman (1865–1943), Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate

Pieter Cornelis Mondriaan (1872–1944), Dutch abstract painter

Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy (1885–1961), Prime Minister of the Netherlands in exile, 1940–45

Pieter Geyl (1887–1966), Dutch historian

Pieter Willem Botha (1916–2006), President of South Africa 1978–89

Pieter Kooijmans (1933–2013), Dutch Minister of Foreign Affairs (1973–77, 1993–94)

Pieter van Vollenhoven (born 1939), the husband of princess Margriet of The Netherlands

Pieter Aspe (born 1953), Belgian crime fiction writer

Pieter Hoekstra (born 1953), Dutch-American politician and diplomat

Pieter De Crem (born 1962), Belgian Minister of Defence 2007–14

Pieter Wispelwey (born 1962), Dutch cellist

Pieter Huistra (born 1967), Dutch footballer and football coach

Pieter van den Hoogenband (born 1978), Dutch freestyle swimmer

Pieter Weening (born 1981), Dutch road bicycle racer

Pieter Timmers (born 1988), Belgian freestyle swimmer

Pieter Bleeker

Pieter Bleeker (July 10, 1819, Zaandam – January 24, 1878, The Hague) was a Dutch medical doctor, ichthyologist, and herpetologist. He was famous for the Atlas Ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises, his monumental work on the fishes of East Asia published between 1862 and 1877.

Tiberius Cornelis Winkler

Tiberius Cornelis Winkler (May 28, 1822 – April 4, 1897) was a Dutch anatomist, zoologist and natural historian, and the second curator of geology, paleontology and mineralogy at Teylers Museum in Haarlem. Besides translating the first edition of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species (1860), he wrote a great number of works popularising science, particularly the life sciences.

Utrecht University

Utrecht University (UU; Dutch: Universiteit Utrecht, formerly Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht) is a university in Utrecht, the Netherlands. Established 26 March 1636, it is one of the oldest universities in the Netherlands. In 2016, it had an enrolment of 29,425 students, and employed 5,568 faculty and staff. In 2011, 485 PhD degrees were awarded and 7,773 scientific articles were published. The 2013 budget of the university was €765 million.Utrecht University has been placed in the top 100 universities in the world by four major ranking tables. The university is rated as the best university in the Netherlands by the Shanghai Ranking of World Universities 2013, and ranked as the 13th best university in Europe and the 52nd best university of the world.

The university's motto is "Sol Iustitiae Illustra Nos," which means "Sun of Justice, shine upon us." This motto was gleaned from a literal Latin Bible translation of Malachi 4:2. (Rutgers University, having a historical connection with Utrecht University, uses a modified version of this motto.) Utrecht University is led by the University Board, consisting of prof. dr. Henk Kummeling (Rector Magnificus) and Hans Amman.

Willem Hendrik de Vriese

Willem Hendrik de Vriese (August 11, 1806 – January 23, 1862) was a Dutch botanist and physician born in Oosterhout, North Brabant.

He studied medicine at the University of Leiden, earning his doctorate in 1831. Afterwards he practiced medicine in Rotterdam, where he also gave classes in botany at the medical school. In 1834, he was appointed associate professor of botany at the Athenaeum Illustré in Amsterdam, and in 1841 was promoted to full professor. In 1845, he became a professor of botany at Leiden and successor to Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt (1773–1854) at the Hortus Botanicus Leiden. He became a member of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences in 1838.In October 1857, he was commissioned to conduct botanical investigations in the Dutch East Indies, and consequently spent the following years performing research in Java, Borneo, Sumatra and the Moluccas. In March 1861, he returned to the Netherlands in a weakened state, and died in Leiden several months later.

Among his written works was the first part of "Hortus Spaarne-Bergensis" (1839), a catalogue of banker Adriaan van der Hoop's exotic plant collection. He was an editor of Caspar Reinwardt's scientific works, two years after Reinwardt's death, he published "Plantae Indiae Batavae Orientalis: quas, in itinere per insulas Archipelagi Indici Javam, Amboinam, Celebem, Ternatam, aliasque, annis 1815-1821 exploravit Casp. Georg. Carol. Reinwardt" (1856). He was the author of a memoir on Franz Julius Ferdinand Meyen as well as of noteworthy treatises on cinchona (1855), vanilla (1856) and camphor (1856). Also, he published monographs on the genus Rafflesia and of the botanical family Marattiaceae (with biologist Pieter Harting 1812-1885).The botanical genus Vriesea (family Bromeliaceae) was named in his honor by British botanist John Lindley (1799–1865).

Zacharias Janssen

Zacharias Janssen (, also Zacharias Jansen or Sacharias Jansen) (1585 – pre-1632) was a Dutch spectacle-maker from Middelburg associated with the invention of the first optical telescope. Janssen is sometimes also credited for inventing the first truly compound microscope. However, the origin of the microscope, just like the origin of the telescope, is a matter of debate.


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