Picnic

A picnic is a meal taken outdoors (al fresco) as part of an excursion – ideally in scenic surroundings, such as a park, lakeside, or other place affording an interesting view, or else in conjunction with a public event such as preceding an open-air theatre performance[1], and usually in summer.

Picnics are usually meant for the late mornings or midday breakfasts, but could also be held as a luncheonette or a dinner event. Descriptions of picnics show that the idea of a meal that was jointly contributed and was enjoyed out-of-doors was essential to a picnic from the early 19th century.[2]

Picnics are often family oriented but can also be an intimate occasion between two people or a large get together such as company picnics and church picnics. It is also sometimes combined with a cookout, usually a form of barbecue: either grilling (griddling, gridironing, or charbroiling), braising (by combining a charbroil or gridiron grill with a broth-filled pot), baking, or a combination of all of the above.

On romantic and family picnics, a picnic basket and a blanket (to sit or recline on) are usually brought along. Outdoor games or some other form of entertainment are common at large picnics. In established public parks, a picnic area generally includes picnic tables and possibly other items related to eating outdoors, such as built-in grills, water faucets, garbage containers, and restrooms.

Some picnics are a potluck, an entertainment at which each person contributed some dish to a common table for all to share. When the picnic is not also a cookout, the food eaten is rarely hot, instead taking the form of deli sandwiches, finger food, fresh fruit, salad, cold meats and accompanied by chilled wine or champagne or soft drinks.

Thomas Cole's "The Picnic", Brooklyn Museum IMG 3787
The artist Thomas Cole depicted "The Picnic" prior to 1860.
Picnic in Columbus
A picnic party assembling in Columbus, Ohio, c. 1950

Etymology

François lemoyne - piquenique durante a caçada 03-1
Hunt Picnic by François Lemoyne, 1723

The first usage of the word is traced to the 1692 edition of Tony Willis, Origines de la Langue Française, which mentions pique-nique as being of recent origin; it marks the first appearance of the word in print. The term was used to describe a group of people dining in a restaurant who brought their own wine. The concept of a picnic long retained the connotation of a meal to which everyone contributed something. Whether picnic is actually based on the verb piquer which means 'pick' or 'peck' with the rhyming nique meaning "thing of little importance" is doubted; the Oxford English Dictionary says it is of unknown provenance.[3].

Picnicking was common in France after the French Revolution, when it became possible for ordinary people to visit and mingle in the country’s royal parks. In 18th and 19th centuries, picnics were elaborate social events with complex meals and fancy drinks that sometimes took days to prepare.

The word picnic first appeared in English in a letter of the Gallicized Lord Chesterfield in 1748 (OED), who associates it with card-playing, drinking and conversation, and may have entered the English language from this French word.[4] The practice of an elegant meal eaten out-of-doors, rather than an agricultural worker's dinner in a field, was connected with respite from hunting from the Middle Ages; the excuse for the pleasurable outing of 1723 in François Lemoyne's painting (illustration, left) is still offered in the context of a hunt.

Though it may have appeared in a 17th-century dictionary as "pique-nique," the actual usage began as "pique un niche" meaning to "pick a place," an isolated spot (a nest) where family or friends could enjoy a jolly meal together away from the distractions, demands, and public nature of a communal life. The term morphed into "pique-nique" and after years of usage entered the official French language.[5][6]

Despite having been thoroughly debunked, a spurious etymology linking the origin of the word to lynchings of African-Americans in the American South continues to resurface from time to time.[7]

Related historical events

After the French Revolution in 1789, royal parks became open to the public for the first time. Picnicking in the parks became a popular activity amongst the newly enfranchised citizens.

Early in the 19th century, a fashionable group of Londoners (including Edwin Young) formed the 'Picnic Society'. Members met in the Pantheon on Oxford Street. Each member was expected to provide a share of the entertainment and of the refreshments with no one particular host. Interest in the society waned in the 1850s as the founders died.[8]

From the 1830s, Romantic American landscape painting of spectacular scenery often included a group of picnickers in the foreground. An early American illustration of the picnic is Thomas Cole's The Pic-Nic of 1846 (Brooklyn Museum of Art).[9] In it, a guitarist serenades the genteel social group in the Hudson River Valley with the Catskills visible in the distance. Cole's well-dressed young picnickers having finished their repast, served from splint baskets on blue-and-white china, stroll about in the woodland and boat on the lake.

The image of picnics as a peaceful social activity can be utilised for political protest, too. In this context, a picnic functions as a temporary occupation of significant public territory. A famous example of this is the Pan-European Picnic held on both sides of the Hungarian/Austrian border on the 19 August 1989 as part of the struggle towards German reunification.

In 2000, a 600-mile-long picnic took place from coast to coast in France to celebrate the first Bastille Day of the new Millennium. In the United States, likewise, the 4 July celebration of American independence is a popular day for a picnic. In Italy, the favorite picnic day is Easter Monday.

Cultural representations of picnics

Nobleman picnic
A nobleman with his entourage enjoying a picnic. Illustration from a French edition of The Hunting Book of Gaston Phoebus, 15th century

In film

  • The 1955 film Picnic, based on the Pulitzer Prize-winning play by William Inge, was a multiple Oscar winner. The film has been remade twice, in 1986 and 2000.
  • Picnickers are used to illustrate the scale of one metre in the film Powers of Ten (1968).
  • The Office Picnic (1972) is a dark comedy set in an Australian Public Service office. It was written and produced by filmmaker Tom Cowan, who is now famous for his work on the series Survivor.
  • In Peter Weir's mystery film Picnic at Hanging Rock (1975), three girls and one of their teachers on a school outing mysteriously disappear. The only one who is later found remembers almost nothing. It is based on a 1967 drama and mystery novel of the same name by Australian author Joan Lindsay.
  • In Bhaji on the Beach (1993, titled Picknick on the Beach in the German version), nine Indian women of various ages flee from their everyday lives by taking a joint excursion to the British resort town of Blackpool.
  • Blissfully Yours (2002), features a picnic in a jungle.
  • Picnics are featured in several episodes of the AMC series Mad Men, most notably S2 Ep.7 The Gold Violin (2008) in which the family dumps their picnic garbage thoughtlessly in the park.

In fine art

  • Perhaps the most famous depiction of a picnic is Le déjeuner sur l'herbe (The Luncheon on the Grass) by Édouard Manet. The 1862 painting depicts the juxtaposition of a female nude and a scantily dressed female bather on a picnic with two fully dressed men in a rural setting.
  • A more contemporary portrayal is Past Times by Kerry James Marshall, from 1997, which depicts a black family picnicking in front of a lake. Two radios laid on their gingham patterned picnic blanket emit the lyrics of The Temptations and Snoop Dogg, while figures in the background engage in other activities synonymous with affluent white-American suburban culture.[10]

In literature

A book of verse beneath the bough,
A loaf of bread, a jug of wine, and thou
Beside me singing in the Wilderness –
Ah, wilderness were paradise enow!

— Omar Khayyam, in his 12th century Rubaiyat[11]

"The Rat brought the boat alongside the bank, tied it up, helped awkward Mole safely ashore, and swung out the picnic basket. The Mole begged to be allowed to unpack it all by himself. He took out all the mysterious packets one by one and arranged their contents, gasping 'Oh my! Oh my!' at each fresh surprise."

In music

  • In 1906, the American composer John Walter Bratton wrote a musical piece originally titled "The Teddy Bear Two Step". It became popular in a 1908 instrumental version renamed "Teddy Bears' Picnic", performed by the Arthur Pryor Band. The song regained prominence in 1932 when the Irish lyricist Jimmy Kennedy added words and it was recorded by the then popular Henry Hall (and his BBC Dance Orchestra) featuring Val Rosing (Gilbert Russell) as lead vocalist, which went on to sell a million copies. "The Teddy Bears' Picnic" resurfaced again in the late 1940s and early 1950s when it was used as the theme song for the Big Jon and Sparkie children's radio show. This perennial favorite has appeared on many children's recordings ever since, and is the theme song for the AHL's Hershey Bears hockey club. lyrics and audio from the BBC
  • "Stone Soul Picnic", by Laura Nyro (released in 1968), was a major hit for the group The 5th Dimension.
  • "Malcolm's X-Ray Picnic" was a moderate hit for the indie-pop group Number One Cup.
  • Roxette's "June Afternoon" depicts images of people having fun and eating on a park during a warm June day.

Gallery

Picnic table on the dock, Lake Providence, LA IMG 7405

A table on the dock awaits picnickers at Lake Providence, Louisiana, 2013.

Fort Thomas Arizona Picnic 1886

United States Army officers and their families having a picnic at Fort Thomas, Arizona, in 1886

Picnic in a wooded area

Picnic in a wooded area (Harry Walker, photographer, circa 1900–1949)

Aire de pique-nique en Haute-Savoie (France)

Picnic area in Haute-Savoie (east of France), autumn 2012

2013-05-06 17 38 56 Picnic area next to the Nature Center at YMCA Camp Bernie

Picnic area next to the Nature Center at YMCA Camp Bernie

16 04 001 indian springs

Picnic shelter at Indian Springs State Park

References

  1. ^ "Beautiful Picnic Locations Around The World". 2018-05-04.
  2. ^ Hern, Mary Ellen W. (1989). "Picnicking in the Northeastern United States, 1840-1900". Winterthur Portfolio. 24 (2/3): 139–152. doi:10.1086/496417. JSTOR 1181262.
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, "picnic"
  4. ^ The German Picknick, not part of Lord Chesterfield's cultural sphere, may simply be a parallel borrowing from the French word, pique-nique.
  5. ^ Jean Anisson, ed. (1694). Dictionnaire étymologique, ou Origines de la langue françoise. Paris. p. 580..
  6. ^ Jean-Baptiste Coignard, ed. (1740). Dictionnaire de l'Académie françoise. 2 (3 ed.). Paris. p. 341.
  7. ^ "The Word 'Picnic' Originated with Lynchings?". Snopes.com. 2017-01-21. Retrieved 2017-10-26.
  8. ^ English picnics are described in Georgina Battiscombe (1949). English picnics. London: Harvill Press; there is also a National Trust Book of Picnics (1982).
  9. ^ Hern, Mary Ellen W. (1989). "Picnicking in the Northeastern United States, 1840-1900". Winterthur Portfolio. 24 (2/3): 139–152. doi:10.1086/496417. JSTOR 1181262.
  10. ^ "How Kerry James Marshall Rewrites Art History". Hyperallergic. 2016-07-12. Retrieved 2019-03-21.
  11. ^ Austin Chronicle article A Loaf of Bread, a Jug of Wine - The simple but elegant art of picnic pairing published APRIL 22, 2005 says "But what constitutes the Perfect Picnic? Some sandwiches you throw together or grab and go? An elegant plate of poached salmon accompanied by a fruit and cheese platter? A couple of dogs on a grill? Each of these menus has its charms, but it doesn't get any better than the outdoor dining menu devised by Omar Khayyam in his 12th century The Rubaiyat."
  12. ^ Emma by Jane Austen - Project Gutenberg. Gutenberg.net. 1994-08-01. Retrieved 2009-12-07.
  13. ^ The Mystery of Edwin Drood by Charles Dickens - Project Gutenberg. Gutenberg.net. 1996-06-01. Retrieved 2011-07-01.

External links

Big Spring State Forest Picnic Area

Big Spring State Forest Picnic Area is a 45-acre (18 ha) Pennsylvania state park in Toboyne Township, Perry County, Pennsylvania in the United States. The park is on Pennsylvania Route 274, 5.5 miles (8.9 km) southwest of New Germantown. Big Spring State Forest Picnic Area is a hiking and picnic area. A partially completed railroad tunnel in Conococheague Mountain is a feature of the park.

Brannan Island State Recreation Area

Brannan Island State Recreation Area is a state park unit of California, United States, preserving a maze of waterways in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta. The recreation area is located in Sacramento County between Rio Vista and Isleton. This park northeast of San Francisco Bay has countless islands and marshes with many wildlife habitats and many opportunities for recreation, including boating, windsurfing and swimming. The 329-acre (133 ha) park was established in 1952.The area offers fishing, including striped bass, sturgeon, catfish, bluegill, perch and bullhead. Southeast, accessed by the San Joaquin River, Frank’s Tract, a protected wetland marsh, is home to beaver, muskrat, river otter, mink and 76 species of birds. Another wetland also managed by Brannan Island's Park Rangers is Delta Meadows River Park near the town of Locke. Canoe tours of 'the meadows' may be reserved on weekends during the spring and fall season through Brannan Island SRA.Brannan Island SRA has a six-lane launch ramp, over 140 campsites and areas for picnicking and swimming.

The visitor center is open weekends and by arrangement. Inside are displays on the cultural and natural history of the Delta, including a large interactive map of the San Francisco Bay Area and Delta.

Day use areas include the Windy Cove windsurfing access, the group picnic area located at the Ramadas, and Seven Mile Slough picnic area. The group picnic facility and Seven Mile Slough day use area close at sunset. Windy Cove closes at the hour posted at the entrance road to Windy Cove.

Seven Mile Slough picnic area includes picnic tables, barbecues and drinking water. New restroom facilities were completed late in 1997 and include flush toilets and outdoor cold showers. Seven Mile Slough's swim beach has lifeguards from Memorial Day through Labor Day. Ample parking is close to the beach.

The Ramadas have shaded picnic structures with large barbecues, picnic tables, water and trash receptacles. A large open grassy area is adjacent to the site for games. The closest restroom to the Ramadas is located north of the swim beach along Seven Mile Slough.

The climate in the Delta is mild, with winter temperatures usually ranging between 45 and 55 degrees and summer temperatures between 75 and 95. An occasional heat wave will push the temperatures in summer to 100 degrees or more but the Delta breeze is never far away.

Canoe-Picnic Point State Park

Canoe-Picnic Point State Park is a 70-acre (0.28 km2) state park located on Grindstone Island in the St. Lawrence River. The park is within the bounds of the Town of Clayton in Jefferson County, New York.

Company Picnic

"Company Picnic" is the fifth season finale of the American comedy television series The Office, and the 100th overall episode of the series. It originally aired on NBC in the United States on May 14, 2009. In the episode, Michael plans to win back his ex-girlfriend Holly at a Dunder Mifflin company picnic, while the rest of the Scranton office get involved in a competitive company volleyball tournament.

The episode was written by Paul Lieberstein and Jennifer Celotta, and directed by Ken Kwapis. It marked return appearances of former guest stars Amy Ryan as Holly Flax and Idris Elba as Charles Miner. Actress Jenna Fischer is not as talented a volleyball player as she is portrayed in the episode, so some of her scenes were modified with computer-generated imagery.

The scene in which Jim and Pam discover the pregnancy includes no dialogue, and is a homage to a similar scene in the original British version of The Office, where Tim Canterbury silently proclaims his love for Dawn Tinsley. The episode also features a sketch about the history of Dunder Mifflin which parodies the film Slumdog Millionaire.

"Company Picnic" received generally positive reviews, particularly for the return of Holly and the scene in which Jim discovers Pam is pregnant. According to Nielsen ratings, the episode was watched by 6.72 million viewers. It was the lowest-rated episode of the season and had the lowest original episode rating for The Office in two years, which reviewers said was especially surprising given that it was a season finale episode.

Electric Picnic

Electric Picnic is an annual arts-and-music festival which has been staged since 2004 at Stradbally Hall in Stradbally, County Laois, Ireland. It is organised by Pod Concerts and Festival Republic, who purchased the majority shareholding in 2009. It was voted Best Medium-Sized European Festival at the 2010 European Festival Awards, and has been voted Best Big Festival at each of the last four Irish Festival Awards since they began in 2007.

The Picnic has been described as "Ireland's version of Glastonbury" and "a great inspiration to Latitude" by one of its business partners, Laois. US magazine Billboard calling it as "a magnificent rock n roll circus, a textbook example of everything a festival should be" and Rolling Stone describing it as "one of the best festivals we've ever been to". The 2008 event was described by The Irish Times as "the best Electric Picnic yet".Electric Picnic differs from other festivals in Ireland in that the music choice is more eclectic than the other mainstream events (its history includes international acts such as Kraftwerk, Röyksopp, Nick Cave, Sonic Youth, New Order, Björk, Arcade Fire, Beastie Boys, The Stooges, The Chemical Brothers, Gary Numan, The Flaming Lips, Sigur Rós and Sex Pistols), and there is more emphasis on quality festival services (such as food and sleeping arrangements) and a generally more positive and relaxed atmosphere. There is also an emphasis on eco-friendly initiatives.Electric Picnic began as a one-day event in 2004, before growing to a weekend-long festival within a year. The festival incorporates attractions such as the 24-hour cinema tent, the Body and Soul arena (offering an ambient lounge with beanbags, massages and tarot card readings) and the Comedy Tent (curated by Gerry Mallon) and a silent disco. In 2008, Amnesty International attended the festival to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, whilst renowned American Burning Man artist, David Best constructed a Temple of Truth on site. Electric Picnic has been described as an "enormously successful, award-winning, established brand" which "attempts to bring to life a microcosmic cultural experience where music is just the tip of the iceberg".

Emirler Archaeological Site and City Forest Museum

Emirler Archaeological Site and City Forest Museum (Turkish: Emirler Örenyeri Ve Kent Ormanı Müzesi) is a small museum located in Mersin Province, southern Turkey, exhibiting archaeological artifacts found at site and some fauna of the city forest.

Pan-European Picnic

The Pan-European Picnic (German: Paneuropäisches Picknick; Hungarian: páneurópai piknik) was a peace demonstration held on the Austrian-Hungarian border near Sopron, Hungary on 19 August 1989, the day before the Hungarian holiday commemorating Stephen I of Hungary. Part of the Revolutions of 1989 leading to the lifting of the Iron Curtain and the reunification of Germany, it was organised by the Paneuropean Union and the opposition Hungarian Democratic Forum under the sponsorship of Archduke Otto von Habsburg and Imre Pozsgay.

Pavilion

In architecture, a pavilion (from French pavillon, from Latin papilio) has several meanings. In architectural terminology it refers to a subsidiary building that is either positioned separately or as an attachment to a main building. Often its function makes it an object of pleasure.In the traditional architecture of Asia, palaces or other large houses may have one or more subsidiary pavilions that are either freestanding or connected by covered walkways, as in the Forbidden City, Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, and in the Red Fort and other buildings of Mughal architecture.

In another more specific meaning applied to large palaces, it refers to symmetrically placed subsidiary building blocks that appear to be attached to each end of a main building block or to the outer ends of wings that extend from both sides of a central building block – the corps de logis. Such configurations provide an emphatic visual termination to the composition of a large building, akin to bookends.

Picnic (chocolate bar)

Picnic is a brand of chocolate bar consisting of milk chocolate and peanuts, covering chewy nougat, caramel, biscuit and puffed rice. Picnic bars are lumpy in shape. It is sold in Australia, parts of Canada (such as Quebec), New Zealand, New York City, India, Ireland, Russia, Ukraine, South Africa (packaged as "Lunch Bar") and the United Kingdom. The UK and Indian versions differ from the Australasian version in that they also contain raisins. The Cadbury Picnic bar was first released in the UK in 1958.A marketing slogan for the Picnic, released in the early 2000s, was "Deliciously ugly". During the 1970s the Australian slogan for Picnic was "More like a banquet than a picnic". Picnic is manufactured by Cadbury UK.

In Australia, limited-edition variants Picnic Honeycomb (a Picnic bar with honeycomb pieces), Picnic Hedgehog (a picnic bar with biscuit pieces) and Picnic Rocky Road (a Picnic bar with mini marshmallows and gumdrops) have been sold in recent years. In 2010, a limited edition Almond Picnic bar was made available in New Zealand and is now also available in Australia under the name Roast Almond Feast.In April 2009 Cadbury altered the weight of the standard Picnic bar from 50 grams down to 48.4 grams.

Again in August 2014 Cadbury altered the weight of the standard Picnic bar down to 46g in Australia, with a noticeable

reduction in the width of the bar, yet still in the old size wrapper.

In the UK the standard bar is 48.4 grams as of 2018 and is also available in multipacks.

In 2011, a fruit and nut picnic bar was released in Australia.

Now in Russia as of 2018, there are two variants of the bar available, classic one with peanuts and raisins and another one with walnuts, at first released as of limited-edition but later included in the permanent line.[3]

Picnic Garden

Picnic Garden is a neighbourhood in Kolkata.

Technically it is a locality in the Tiljala area, extending between Bartala More and VIP area. For all practical purposes and in popular parlance, Picnic Garden refers to the area east of the Bondel Gate, off Ballygunge Place.

Picnic Island

Picnic Island is a small, privately owned, rocky island, with an area of about one hectare, part of the Schouten Island Group, lying close to the eastern coast of Tasmania near the Freycinet Peninsula. It is composed of sandstone overlying granite.Picnic Island has recently been put on sale by its owner, with an asking price of $500,000 - $1 million.

Picnic at Hanging Rock (film)

Picnic at Hanging Rock is a 1975 Australian mystery drama film which was produced by Hal and Jim McElroy, directed by Peter Weir, and starred Vivean Gray, Dominic Guard, Anne-Louise Lambert, Helen Morse, and Rachel Roberts. It was adapted by Cliff Green from the 1967 novel of the same name by Joan Lindsay, who was deliberately ambiguous about whether the events really took place, although the story is in fact entirely fictitious.

The plot involves the disappearance of several schoolgirls and their teacher during a picnic at Hanging Rock, Victoria on Valentine's Day in 1900, and the subsequent effect on the local community. Picnic at Hanging Rock was a commercial and critical success.

Pork pie

A pork pie is a traditional British meat pie, usually served cold. It consists of a filling of roughly chopped pork and pork fat, surrounded by a layer of jellied pork stock in a hot water crust pastry. It is normally eaten as a snack or with a salad.

Scotch egg

A Scotch egg consists of a hard or soft-boiled egg wrapped in sausage meat, coated in bread crumbs and baked or deep-fried.

Teddy Bears' Picnic

"The Teddy Bears' Picnic" is a song consisting of a melody by American composer John Walter Bratton, written in 1907, and lyrics added by Irish songwriter Jimmy Kennedy in 1932. It remains popular as a children's song, having been recorded by numerous artists over the decades. Kennedy lived at Staplegrove Elm and is buried in Staplegrove Church, Taunton, Somerset, England. Local folklore has it that the small wooded area between the church and Staplegrove Scout Hut was the inspiration for his lyrics.

The 5th Dimension

The 5th Dimension is an American popular music vocal group, whose repertoire includes pop, R&B, soul, jazz, light opera and Broadway—the melange was coined as "Champagne Soul".

Formed as the Versatiles in late 1965, the group changed its name to the hipper "the 5th Dimension" by 1966. They became well-known during the late 1960s and early 1970s for their popular hits: "Up, Up and Away", "Stoned Soul Picnic", "Medley: Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In (The Flesh Failures)", "Wedding Bell Blues", "Never My Love", "One Less Bell to Answer", "(Last Night) I Didn't Get to Sleep at All", and The Magic Garden LP.

The five original members were Billy Davis Jr., Florence LaRue, Marilyn McCoo, Lamonte McLemore, and Ronald Townson. They have recorded for several labels over their long careers. Their first work appeared on the Soul City label, which was started by Imperial Records/United Artists Records recording artist Johnny Rivers. The group later recorded for Bell/Arista Records, ABC Records, and Motown Records.

Some of the songwriters popularized by the 5th Dimension went on to careers of their own, especially Ashford & Simpson, who wrote "California Soul". The group is also notable for having more success with the songs of Laura Nyro than Nyro did herself, particularly with "Stoned Soul Picnic", "Sweet Blindness", "Wedding Bell Blues", "Blowin' Away", and "Save the Country". The group also recorded songs by well-known songwriters such as "One Less Bell to Answer", written by Burt Bacharach and Hal David, and the songs and music of Jimmy Webb, who wrote their hit "Up, Up and Away." The group recorded an album composed almost entirely of Webb songs called The Magic Garden.

The 5th Dimension's producer, Bones Howe, used Bob Alcivar as the singers' vocal arranger, as well as instrumental backing by the Wrecking Crew for their recording sessions.

Toyota Ipsum

The Toyota Ipsum, Picnic, SportsVan or Avensis Verso is a seven-seater multi-purpose vehicle produced by Japanese automaker Toyota from 1995 to 2009. It has never been sold in North America. The Ipsum, like many Toyota products, was shared as a trio of the Toyota Gaia, and sold only at Japanese Toyota dealerships called Toyota Store, next to the Toyota Carina. The Gaia was unique to Toyopet Store locations, and the Toyota Nadia was sold at Toyota Corolla Store.

Wikipedia community

The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors to the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Individual contributors are known as "Wikipedians". OxfordDictionaries.com added the word "Wikipedian" in August 2012.Almost all Wikipedians are volunteers. With the increased maturity and visibility of Wikipedia, other categories of Wikipedians have emerged, such as Wikipedians in residence and students with assignments related to editing Wikipedia.

Willie Nelson's Fourth of July Picnic

Willie Nelson's Fourth of July Picnic is an annual concert hosted by country music singer Willie Nelson. Nelson was inspired to create the annual concert after his participation in the 1972 Dripping Springs Reunion, that was hosted at Hurlbut Ranch in Dripping Springs, Texas. As part of the lineup, Nelson performed on the third day. The event failed to meet the expected attendance due to the concert being poorly promoted.

Interested in the concept, Nelson decided to host the first annual Willie Nelson's Fourth of July Picnic in the same place, as it was already prepared to host a concert. The success of the event led to other concerts. During the late 1970s, the bad reputation of the concert for recurrent problems with safety of the audience made it difficult to find venues. During the 1980s the security improved, and the event recovered the trust of the potential venues.

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