Pichavaram

Pichavaram is a village near Chidambaram in Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India. [1][2] It is located between the Vellar estuary in the north and Coleroon estuary in the south. The Vellar-Coleroon estuarine complex forms the Killai backwater and the mangroves that are permanently rooted in a few feet of water.It is open also on sunday.

Pichavaram 1
Pichavaram hosts the second largest mangrove forests in the world
Pichavaram mangrove forest panorama
A view of the forest

Mangrove forests

Pichavaram consists of a number of islands interspersing a vast expanse of water covered with mangrove forest. Pichavaram mangrove Forest is the second largest mangrove forest in the world covering about 1100 hectare of area. It is separated from the Bay of Bengal by a sand bar. The biotope consists of species like Avicennia and Rhizophora. It also supports the existence of rare varieties of economically important shell and finfishes.[3]

Fauna

The mangroves also attract migrant and local birds including snipes, cormorants, egrets, storks, herons, spoonbills and pelicans. About 177 species of birds belonging to 15 orders and 41 families have been recorded. High population of birds could be seen from November to January due to high availability of prey, coincidence of the time of arrival of true migrants from foreign countries and local migrants from their breeding grounds across India. The availability of different habitat types such as channels, creeks, gullies, mud flats and sand flats and adjacent sea shore offers ideal habitat for difference species of birds and animals.

References

  1. ^ "UNESCO list".
  2. ^ "Mangrove forests".
  3. ^ "Mangrove".

External links

Altererythrobacter indicus

Altererythrobacter indicus is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped and non-spore-forming bacterium from the genus of Altererythrobacter which has been isolated from the rhizosphere from the rice plant Porteresia coarctata in Pichavaram in India.

Chidambaram

Chidambaram is a town and municipality in Cuddalore district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the headquarters of the Chidambaram taluk. The town is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the Pallavas until 9th century, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Later Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Marathas and the British. The town is known for the Thillai Nataraja Temple, and the annual chariot festival held in the months of December–January (In the Tamil month of Marghazhi known as "Margazhi Urchavam") and June to July (In the Tamil month of Aani known as "Aani Thirumanjanam")

Chidambaram covers an area of 4.8 km2 (1.9 sq mi) and had a population of 62,153 as of 2011. It is administered by a first-grade municipality. Teritiary sector involving tourism is the major occupation. Roadways are the major means of transportation with a total of 64.12 km (39.84 mi) of district roads including one national highway passing through the town. As of 2011, there were eleven government schools: six primary schools, three middle schools and two higher secondary schools in Chidambaram. Annamalai University, established in 1929 in Chidambaram, is one of the oldest and most prominent universities in the state.

Cuddalore district

Cuddalore District is one of the districts of the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The city of Cuddalore is the district headquarters. According to the 2011 Census, Cuddalore district had a population of 2,605,914 with a sex-ratio of 987 females for every 1,000 males.

Dornier Do 228

The Dornier Do 228 is a twin-turboprop STOL utility aircraft, manufactured by Dornier GmbH (later DASA Dornier, Fairchild-Dornier) from 1981 until 1998. In 1983, Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL) bought a production licence and manufactured 125 aircraft. In Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, 245 were built, and 125 in Kanpur, India. In July 2017, 63 aircraft were in airline service.

In 2009, RUAG started building a Dornier 228 New Generation in Germany with the fuselage, wings and tail unit manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in Kanpur (India) and transported to Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich, where RUAG Aviation carries out aircraft final assembly, customized equipment installation, product conformity inspection and aircraft delivery. It is basically the same aircraft with improved technologies and performances, such as a new five blade propeller, glass cockpit and longer range.

The first delivery was made in September 2010 to a Japanese operator.

Episesarma versicolor

The violet vinegar crab (Episesarma versicolor) is a swimming crab species in the genus Episesarma. Distributed all over marine and brackish waters of Indo-West Pacific regions. It is harvested by many local fishermen for rich proteinaceous food.

Excoecaria

Excoecaria is a plant genus of the family Euphorbiaceae, formally described by Linnaeus in 1759. The genus is native to the Old World Tropics (Africa, southern Asia, northern Australia, and assorted oceanic islands).The milky latex of Excoecaria agallocha, also known as Thillai, milky mangrove, blind-your-eye mangrove and river poison tree, is poisonous. Mangroves of this plant surround the ancient Thillai Chidambaram Temple in Tamil Nadu. Contact with skin can cause irritation and rapid blistering; contact with eyes will result in temporary blindness. It is distributed in the Pichavaram wetlands, near Chidambaram India, in Australia from northern New South Wales, along the northern coastline around to Western Australia.The latex is extremely poisonous. Even dried and powdered leaves contain the poison which can kill fish very quickly.

Species

formerly includedmoved to other genera (Actinostemon Adenopeltis Alchornea Anomostachys Bocquillonia Bonania Cerbera Falconeria Grimmeodendron Gymnanthes Homalanthus Maprounea Microstachys Neoshirakia Sapium Sclerocroton Sebastiania Shirakiopsis Spirostachys Stillingia Triadica )

Indomalayan realm

The Indomalayan realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms. It extends across most of South and Southeast Asia and into the southern parts of East Asia.

Also called the Oriental realm by biogeographers, Indomalaya extends from Afghanistan through the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia to lowland southern China, and through Indonesia as far as Java, Bali, and Borneo, east of which lies the Wallace line, the realm boundary named after Alfred Russel Wallace which separates Indomalayan from Australasia. Indomalaya also includes the Philippines, lowland Taiwan, and Japan's Ryukyu Islands.

Most of Indomalaya was originally covered by forest, mostly tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, with tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests predominant in much of India and parts of Southeast Asia. The tropical moist forests of Indomalaya are mostly dominated by trees of the dipterocarp family (Dipterocarpaceae).

List of forests in India

This is an incomplete list of forests in India.

List of mangrove ecoregions

This is a list of mangrove ecoregions ordered according to whether they lie in the Afrotropic, Australasian, Indomalayan or Neotropic areas of the world. Mangrove estuaries such as those found in the Sundarbans of southwestern Bangladesh are rich productive ecosystems which serve as spawning grounds and nurseries for shrimp, crabs, and many fish species, a richness which is lost if the area is cleared and converted to ponds for shrimp farming or rice paddies.

Little egret

The little egret (Egretta garzetta) is a species of small heron in the family Ardeidae. The genus name comes from the Provençal French Aigrette, "egret", a diminutive of Aigron," heron". The species epithet garzetta is from the Italian name for this bird, garzetta or sgarzetta.It is a white bird with a slender black beak, long black legs and, in the western race, yellow feet. As an aquatic bird, it feeds in shallow water and on land, consuming a variety of small creatures. It breeds colonially, often with other species of water birds, making a platform nest of sticks in a tree, bush or reed bed. A clutch of bluish-green eggs is laid and incubated by both parents. The young fledge at about six weeks of age.

Its breeding distribution is in wetlands in warm temperate to tropical parts of Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. A successful colonist, its range has gradually expanded north, with stable and self-sustaining populations now present in the United Kingdom.In warmer locations, most birds are permanent residents; northern populations, including many European birds, migrate to Africa and southern Asia to over-winter there. The birds may also wander north in late summer after the breeding season, and their tendency to disperse may have assisted in the recent expansion of the bird's range. At one time common in Western Europe, it was hunted extensively in the 19th century to provide plumes for the decoration of hats and became locally extinct in northwestern Europe and scarce in the south. Around 1950, conservation laws were introduced in southern Europe to protect the species and their numbers began to increase. By the beginning of the 21st century the bird was breeding again in France, the Netherlands, Ireland and Britain. Its range is continuing to expand westward, and the species has begun to colonise the New World; it was first seen in Barbados in 1954 and first bred there in 1994. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed the bird's global conservation status as being of "least concern".

Mangrove

A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The total mangrove forest area of the world in 2000 was 137,800 square kilometres (53,200 sq mi), spanning 118 countries and territories.Mangroves are salt-tolerant trees, also called halophytes, and are adapted to life in harsh coastal conditions. They contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action. They are adapted to the low oxygen conditions of waterlogged mud.The word is used in at least three senses: (1) most broadly to refer to the habitat and entire plant assemblage or mangal, for which the terms mangrove forest biome, and mangrove swamp are also used, (2) to refer to all trees and large shrubs in the mangrove swamp, and (3) narrowly to refer to the mangrove family of plants, the Rhizophoraceae, or even more specifically just to mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora.The mangrove biome, or mangal, is a distinct saline woodland or shrubland habitat characterized by depositional coastal environments, where fine sediments (often with high organic content) collect in areas protected from high-energy wave action. The saline conditions tolerated by various mangrove species range from brackish water, through pure seawater (3 to 4%), to water concentrated by evaporation to over twice the salinity of ocean seawater (up to 9%).Mangrove forests move carbon dioxide "from the atmosphere into long-term storage" in greater quantities than other forests, making them "among the planet's best carbon scrubbers" according to a NASA-led study based on satellite data.

Mangrove swamp

A mangrove swamp is a distinct saline woodland or shrubland habitat formed by mangrove trees. They are characterized by depositional coastal environments, where fine sediments (often with high organic content) collect in areas protected from high-energy wave action. The saline conditions tolerated by various mangrove species range from brackish water, through pure seawater (3 to 4%), to water concentrated by evaporation to over twice the salinity of ocean seawater (up to 9%).

Parangipettai block

Parangipettai block is a revenue block of Cuddalore district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. This revenue block consist of 41 panchayat villages.

Pichavaram Zamindar

The Zamindar of Pichavaram is considered the descendants of chola emperors. The last anointed heir was Chidambaranatha Soorappa Chozhanar, who died at the age of 63 on 10 December 2013. The last rites were held at Chellappanpettai near Panthanallur in Thanjavur district.

Satrumun Kidaitha Thagaval

Satrumun Kidaitha Thagaval (English: Information received a while back) is a 2009 Tamil thriller with actors such as Kanal Kannan, fame Bharathi, Livingston, Kushboo, K. S. Ravikumar, Sethu and others. The film was released 30 January 2009.

Sethiathoppu

Sethiathoppu (pronounced [ˈsetiaːtopu]) is a panchayat town in Bhuvanagiri TalukCuddalore district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is situated on the crossroads of Chennai - Tanjore (NH-45C) Highway. Sethiyathope was established as a civilian town by the Cholas in the 11th century C.E. According to Tamil scholars, Sethiyathope was formed as a settlement when the famous Chola King Rajendra moved his capital from Thanjavur to Gangaikondacholapuram which lies 20 km south.

Sethiyaar, a landlord used to own this piece of woodlands (Thoppu) on the banks of river Vellar and thus derives the name Sethiyarthoppu (Sethiathope).There are close to 60 villages around this town largely agrarian communities.

Tourism in Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu is a state in the south-eastern part of the Indian Peninsula. Tamilnadu is previously a part of the United Madras Province, which was later partitioned based on languages. Tamilnadu has more than 4,000 years of continuous cultural history. Tamil Nadu has some of the most remarkable temple architecture in the country, and a living tradition of music, dance, folk arts and fine arts. Tamil Nadu is well renowned for its temple towns and heritage sites, hill stations, waterfalls, national parks, local cuisine and the natural environment and wildlife. The state has the largest tourism industry in India with an annual growth rate of 16%. In 2015, the number of domestic arrivals was at 333.5 million making the state the most popular tourist destination in the country, and foreign arrivals numbered 4.68 million, the highest in the country, making it the most popular state for tourism in the country.

Veeramudayanatham

Veeramudaiyanatham (syn: Veeranam) is a village in Cuddalore district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.It is located in near the vallaru(white river),25 km from chidambaram; 23 km from virudhachalam; 80 km from Pondicherry.

Vilandhai

Vilandhai is a village nearer to Andimadam in the Ariyalur district of Tamil Nadu, India. Vilandhai is divided into Vilandhai-North and Vilandhai-South.The main businesses include weaving. The nearest places of interest are Sri Agatheswarar Temple Vilanthai-Andimadam, Gangaikonda Cholapuram (UNESCO), Thillai Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram Pichavaram mangrove forest boating-Chidambaram, Virudhachalam Pazhamalai Nathar Sivan Temple.

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