Piast dynasty

The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.[3] The first documented Polish monarch was Duke Mieszko I (c. 930–992).[4] The Piasts' royal rule in Poland ended in 1370 with the death of king Casimir III the Great.[5]

Branches of the Piast dynasty continued to rule in the Duchy of Masovia and in the Duchies of Silesia until the last male Silesian Piast died in 1675. The Piasts intermarried with several noble lines of Europe, and possessed numerous titles, some within the Holy Roman Empire.

Piast
Insigne Polonicum
Silesia
Country
Founded960
Foundersemi-legendary Piast, son of legendary Chościsko
Final rulerCasimir the Great, in the Kingdom of Poland, and George IV William of Legnica, in the Silesian duchies
Titles
Dissolution1370, in the Kingdom of Poland, and 1675, in the Duchies of Silesia
Cadet branches

Origin of the name

The early dukes and kings of Poland are said to have regarded themselves as descendants of the semi-legendary Piast the Wheelwright (Piast Kołodziej),[6] first mentioned in the Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum (Chronicles and deeds of the dukes or princes of the Poles), written c. 1113 by Gallus Anonymus. However, the term "Piast Dynasty" was not applied until the 17th century.[7][8] In a historical work the expression Piast dynasty was introduced by the Polish historian Adam Naruszewicz, it is not documented in contemporary sources.

No one in over a 1000 years of Polish history bore the first name Piast[9].

History

Ms zanoyskich intro
Deeds of the Princes of the Poles

The first "Piasts", probably of Polan descent, appeared around 940 in the territory of Greater Poland at the stronghold of Giecz.[10] Shortly afterwards they relocated their residence to Gniezno, where Prince Mieszko I ruled over the Civitas Schinesghe from about 960. The name Polani, from Slavic: pole ("field"), did not appear until 1015. The Piasts temporarily also ruled over Pomerania, Bohemia and the Lusatias, as well as Ruthenia, and the Hungarian Spiš region in present-day Slovakia. The ruler bore the title of a duke or a king, depending on their position of power.

The Polish monarchy had to deal with the expansionist policies of the Holy Roman Empire in the west, resulting in a chequered co-existence, with Piast rulers like Mieszko I, Casimir I the Restorer or Władysław I Herman trying to protect the Polish state by treaties, oath of allegiances and marriage politics with the Imperial Ottonian and Salian dynasties. The Bohemian Přemyslid dynasty, the Hungarian Arpads and their Anjou successors, the Kievan Rus', later also the State of the Teutonic Order and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were mighty neighbours.

20110930 Krakow Wawel 0412
Wawel Castle has been the seat of Polish kings for centuries

The Piast position was decisively enfeebled by an era of fragmentation following the 1138 Testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth. For nearly 150 years, the Polish state shattered into several duchies, with the Piast duke against the formally valid principle of agnatic seniority fighting for the throne at Kraków, the capital of the Lesser Polish Seniorate Province. Numerous dukes like Mieszko III the Old, Władysław III Spindleshanks or Leszek I the White were crowned, only to be overthrown shortly afterwards. The senior branch of the Silesian Piasts, descendants of Bolesław III Wrymouth's eldest son Duke Władysław II the Exile, went separate ways and since the 14th century were vassals of the Bohemian Crown.

After the Polish royal line and Piast junior branch had died out in 1370, the Polish crown fell to the Anjou king Louis I of Hungary, son of late King Casimir's sister Elizabeth Piast. The Masovian branch of the Piasts became extinct with the death of Duke Janusz III in 1526. The last ruling duke of the Silesian Piasts was George William of Legnica who died in 1675. His uncle Count August of Legnica, the last male Piast, died in 1679. The last legitimate heir, Duchess Karolina of Legnica-Brieg died in 1707 and is buried in Trzebnica Abbey. Nevertheless, numerous families, like the illegitimate descendants of the Silesian duke Adam Wenceslaus of Cieszyn (1574–1617), link their genealogy to the dynasty.

Coat of arms

About 1295, Przemysł II used a coat of arms with a white eagle[11] – a symbol later referred to as the Piast coat of arms or as the Piast Eagle.[12] The Silesian Piasts in the 14th century used an eagle modified by a crescent, which became the coat of arms of the Duchy of Silesia.

Piast rulers

Piast kings and rulers of Poland appear in list form in the following table. For a list of all rulers, see List of Polish monarchs.

Dukes of the Polans

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Chościsko
  • Latin: Semovit filius Past Ckosisconis, Pazt filius Chosisconisu
  • Duke
9th century9th century9th centuryA legendary ruler of the Polans, father of Piast the WheelwrightPolans (Tribe)Monarch-emp
Piast the Wheelwright
  • Polish: Piast Kołodziej
    Latin: Past Ckosisconis, Pazt filius Chosisconisu
  • Duke
9th century9th century9th centuryA legendary ruler of the Polans
Son of Chościsko, father of Siemowit
Founder of the Piast dynasty
PiastPiastus
Siemowit
  • Ziemowit
  • Duke
9th century9th century9th centuryA semi-legendary ruler of the Polans, son of Piast the Wheelwright and RzepichaPiastSiemowit
Lestek
  • Leszek, Lestko
  • Duke
9th / 10th centuries9th / 10th centuries9th / 10th centuriesA semi-legendary ruler of the Polans, son of SiemowitPiastLestek
Siemomysł
  • Ziemomysł
  • Duke
10th century10th century10th centuryA semi-legendary ruler of the Polans, son of LestekPiastSiemomysł

Dukes and Kings of Poland

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Mieszko I of Poland
  • Duke
ca. 940 – 25 May 992ca. 960992Son of Siemomysł
First Christian monarch
Misico, dux Wandalorum
PiastMieszkoDagome
Bolesław I the Brave
  • Bolesław I the Great
    Polish: Bolesław I Chrobry (Wielki)
  • King of Poland
    King
967 – 17 June 1025Duke: 992
King: 18 April 1025
Duke: 18 April 1025
King: 17 June 1025
Son of Mieszko I and Dobrawa of Bohemia
First to be crowned King
Regnum Sclavorum, Gothorum sive Polonorum
PiastChrobry1
Mieszko II Lambert
  • King of Poland
    King
ca. 990 – 10/11 May 103410251031Son of Bolesław I and Emnilda of LusatiaPiastMieszko II
Bezprym
  • Duke
ca. 986 – 103210311032Son of Bolesław I and Judith of Hungary (disputed)PiastBezprym.jpeg
Otto Bolesławowic
  • Duke
1000 – 103310321032Son of Bolesław I and EmnildaPiastMonarch-emp
Theodorick
  • Dytryk
  • Duke
after 992 - after 103210321032 /1033Grandson of Mieszko I and Oda of HaldenslebenPiastMonarch-emp
Mieszko II Lambert
  • Duke
ca. 990 – 10/11 May 103410321034RestoredPiastMieszko II
Bolesław the Forgotten
  • Polish: Bolesław Zapomniany
  • Duke
before 1016 – 1038 or 103910341038 /1039Semi-legendary, existence disputedPiastMonarch-emp
Casimir I the Restorer
  • Polish: Kazimierz I Odnowiciel
  • Duke
25 June 1016 – 28 November 1058 (aged 42)10391058Son of Mieszko II and Richeza of LotharingiaPiastOdnowiciel
Bolesław II the Bold
  • Polish: Bolesław II Szczodry / Śmiały
  • King of Poland
    King
ca. 1041 or 1042 – 2 or 3 April 1081 or 1082Duke: 1058
King: 1076
Duke: 1076
King: 1079
Son of Kazimierz I and Maria Dobroniega of KievPiastBolesław II Śmiały by Aleksander Lesser
Władysław I Herman
  • Duke
ca. 1044 – 4 June 110210791102Son of Kazimierz I and Maria DobroniegaPiastJan Matejko, Władysław I Herman
Zbigniew
  • Zbygniew
  • Duke
ca. 1073 – 8 July 111311021107Son of Władysław I and Przecława of Prawdzic coat of arms (disputed)
First jointly with Władysław I 1098-1102
PiastZbigniew
Bolesław III Wrymouth
  • Polish: Bolesław III Krzywousty
  • Duke
20 August 1086 – 28 October 1138 (aged 52)11071138Son of Władysław I and Judith of Bohemia
First jointly with Władysław 1098-1102
Introduced senioral principle
PiastKrzywousty1

High Dukes of Poland (Fragmentation of the Kingdom)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Władysław II the Exile
  • Polish: Władysław II Wygnaniec
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
1105 – 30 May 115911381146Son of Bolesław III and Zbyslava of Kiev
Also Duke of Silesia
Exiled by his brothers
PiastJan Matejko, Władysław II Wygnaniec
Bolesław IV the Curly
  • Polish: Bolesław Kędzierzawy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1125 – 5 January 117311461173Son of Bolesław III and Salomea of Berg
Also Duke of Masovia
PiastJan Matejko, Bolesław IV Kędzierzawy
Mieszko III the Old
  • Polish: Mieszko III Stary
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1127 – 13 March 120211731177Son of Bolesław III and Salomea
Also Duke of Greater Poland
PiastMieszko stary
Casimir II the Just
  • Polish: Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1138 – 5 May 119411771190Son of Bolesław III and Salomea
Also Duke of Wiślica and Sandomierz
PiastKazimierz II Sprawiedliwy 2
Mieszko III the Old
  • Polish: Mieszko III Stary
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1127 – 13 March 120211901190RestoredPiastMieszko stary
Casimir II the Just
  • Polish: Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1138 – 5 May 119411901194RestoredPiastKazimierz II Sprawiedliwy 2
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122711941198Son of Casimir II and Helen of Znojmo
Also Duke of Sandomierz
PiastJan Matejko, Leszek Biały
Mieszko III the Old
  • Polish: Mieszko III Stary
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1127 – 13 March 120211981199RestoredPiastMieszko stary
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122711991199RestoredPiastJan Matejko, Leszek Biały
Mieszko III the Old
  • Polish: Mieszko III Stary
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1127 – 13 March 120211991202RestoredPiastMieszko stary
Władysław III Spindleshanks
  • Polish: Władysław III Laskonogi
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1161/66 – 3 November 123112021202Son of Mieszko III and Eudoxia of Kiev
Also Duke of Greater Poland
PiastJan Matejko, Władysław Laskonogi
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122712021210RestoredPiastJan Matejko, Leszek Biały
Mieszko IV Tanglefoot
  • Polish: Mieszko I Plątonogi
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1130 – 16 May 121112101211Son of Władysław II and Agnes of Babenberg
Also Duke of Silesia
PiastMieszko IV
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122712111225RestoredPiastJan Matejko, Leszek Biały
Henryk I the Bearded
  • Polish: Henryk I Brodaty
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1165 – 19 March 123812251225Grandson of Władysław II, son of Bolesław I the Tall and Krystyna
Also Duke of Silesia
PiastJan Matejko, Henryk I Brodaty
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122712251227Restored
Assassinated
PiastJan Matejko, Leszek Biały
Władysław III Spindleshanks
  • Polish: Władysław III Laskonogi
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1161/66 – 3 November 123112271229RestoredPiastJan Matejko, Władysław Laskonogi
Konrad I of Masovia
  • Polish: Konrad I Mazowiecki
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 124712291232Son of Kazimierz II and Helen of Znojmo
Also Duke of Masovia
PiastKonrad I Mazowiecki
Henryk I the Bearded
  • Polish: Henryk I Brodaty
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1165 – 19 March 123812321238RestoredPiastJan Matejko, Henryk I Brodaty
Henryk II the Pious
  • Polish: Henryk II Pobożny
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1196 – 9 April 124112381241Son of Henry I and Saint Hedwig of Andechs (Saint Hedwig of Silesia)
Also Duke of Wroclaw and Greater Poland
Fell at Battle of Legnica
PiastHenryk II Pobożny tomb effigy
Bolesław II Rogatka
  • Bolesław II the Horned
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1220 – 122512411241Son of Henry II and Anne of Bohemia
Also Duke of Silesia
PiastMonarch-emp
Konrad I of Masovia
  • Polish: Konrad I Mazowiecki
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 124712411243RestoredPiastKonrad I Mazowiecki
Bolesław V the Chaste
  • Polish: Bolesław Wstydliwy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
21 June 1226 – 7 December 127912431279Son of Leszek the White and Grzymislawa of LuckPiastJan Matejko, Bolesław Wstydliwy
Leszek II the Black
  • Polish: Leszek Czarny
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1241 – 30 September 128812791288Paternal grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
Maternal grandson of Henry II
Son of Casimir I of Kuyavia and Constance of Wrocław
PiastJan Matejko, Leszek Czarny
Bolesław II of Masovia
  • Boleslaw II of Płock
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1251 – 20 April 131312881288Grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
Duke of Masovia
PiastBolesław II
Henryk IV Probus
  • Polish: Henryk IV Prawy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1257/58 – 23 June 129012881289Paternal grandson of Henryk II
Maternal grandson of Konrad I
Son of Henry III the White and Judyta of Masovia
Duke of Lower Silesia
PiastHenryk IV Probus tomb effigy
Bolesław II of Masovia
  • Boleslaw II of Płock
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1251 – 20 April 131312891289RestoredPiastBolesław II
Władysław I the Elbow-high
  • Polish: Władysław I Łokietek
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
1261 – 2 March 133312891289Grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
Son of Kazimierz I of Kujawia and Euphrosyne of Opole
PiastWladislaus I of Poland
Henryk IV Probus
  • Polish: Henryk IV Prawy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1257/58 – 23 June 129012891290RestoredPiastHenryk IV Probus tomb effigy

Kings of Poland (Reunification attempts)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Przemysł II
  • Premyslas, Premislaus
  • King of Poland
    King
14 October 1257 – 8 February 1296 (aged 38)High Duke: 1290
King: 1295
High Duke: 1291
King: 1296
Grandson of Henryk II
Son of Przemysł I and Elisabeth of Wrocław
Also Duke of Poznań, Greater Poland and Pomerania
PiastPrzemysł II by Aleksander Lesser

Kings of Poland (Reunited Kingdom)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Władysław I the Elbow-high
  • Polish: Władysław I Łokietek
  • King of Poland
    King
1261 – 2 March 133313201333Restored
Re-united the Kingdom of Poland
PiastWladislaus I of Poland
Casimir III the Great
  • Polish: Kazimierz III Wielki
  • King of Poland
    King
30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370 (aged 60)13331370Son of Władysław I the Elbow-high and Jadwiga of Kalisz
Regarded as one of the greatest Polish monarchs
PiastCasimir the Great by Leopold Löffler

Female Piasts

Queen consorts

Denar rys chrobry1
Denar Princes Polonie, 11th century (in the times of Bolesław I Chrobry), one of the most famous coins in the history of Polish coinage.

Priesthood

Polska 992 - 1025
Poland in the times of the Piast dynasty (992-1025)

Archbishops

Bishops

See also

Cieszyn Piast dynasty COA
Coat of arms of Cieszyn Piast dynasty

References

  1. ^ A. Małecki, Studya heraldyczne [Heraldic Studies], vol. I, Lwów 1890, pp. 268-285; M. L. Wójcik, Ród Gryfitów do końca XIII wieku. Pochodzenie — genealogia — rozsiedlenie, Historia CVII, Wrocław 1993, p. 39.
  2. ^ Rodowód książąt pomorskich Edward Rymar Książnica Pomorska, 2005, page 53
  3. ^ "FamilyTreeDNA - Genetic Testing for Ancestry, Family History & Genealogy". www.familytreedna.com. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  4. ^ Ring, Trudy; Watson, Noelle; Schellinger, Paul (28 October 2013). "Northern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places". Routledge. Retrieved 22 June 2019 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ "Casimir III of Poland - New World Encyclopedia". www.newworldencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  6. ^ Ulwencreutz, Lars (1 November 2013). "Ulwencreutz's The Royal Families in Europe V". Lulu.com. Retrieved 22 June 2019 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN Warsaw 1975 vol. III p. 505
  8. ^ "Piast Dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 March 2011. The name Piast was not applied to the dynasty until the 17th century.
  9. ^ [1] No actual person bore the name Piast
  10. ^ "Gniezno czy Giecz, czyli skąd pochodzi dynastia?". Gniezno czy Giecz, czyli skąd pochodzi dynastia? - Gniezno czy Giecz, czyli skąd pochodzi dynastia? - Wydarzenia - Wiedza - HISTORIA: POSZUKAJ. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  11. ^ Tomaney, William. "Poland Today » White eagle regains its crown". Poland Today » White eagle regains its crown. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  12. ^ Górczyk, Wojciech, "Półksiężyc, orzeł, lew i smok. Uwagi o godłach napieczętnych Piastów" http://histmag.org/?id=3057&act=ac

External links

Bolesław the Forgotten

Bolesław the Forgotten (Polish: Bolesław Zapomniany) or the Cruel (Bolesław Okrutny; before 1016 – 1038/39) was a semi-legendary Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty from 1034 until his death in 1038 or 1039. He was allegedly the first-born son of Mieszko II Lambert.

Casimir III the Great

Casimir III the Great (Polish: Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370. He was the third son of King Władysław I ("the Elbow-high") and Duchess Jadwiga of Kalisz, and the last Polish king from the Piast dynasty.Kazimierz inherited a kingdom weakened by war and made it prosperous and wealthy. He reformed the Polish army and doubled the size of the kingdom. He reformed the judicial system and introduced a legal code, gaining the title "the Polish Justinian". Kazimierz built extensively and founded the University of Kraków, the oldest Polish university. He also confirmed privileges and protections previously granted to Jews and encouraged them to settle in Poland in great numbers.

Kazimierz left no lawful male heir to his throne, producing only daughters. When Kazimierz died in 1370 from an injury received while hunting, his nephew, King Louis I of Hungary, succeeded him as king of Poland in personal union with Hungary.

Casimir I the Restorer

Casimir I the Restorer (Polish: Kazimierz Karol I Odnowiciel; b. Kraków, 25 July 1016 – d. Poznań, 28 November 1058), was Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death.

He was the only son of Mieszko II Lambert by his wife Richeza, daughter of Count Palatine Ezzo of Lotharingia (of the Ezzonids) and granddaughter of Emperor Otto II.

Casimir is known as the Restorer because he managed to reunite all parts of the Polish Kingdom after a period of turmoil. He reinstated Masovia, Silesia and Pomerania into his realm. However, he failed to crown himself King of Poland, mainly because of internal and external threats to his rule.

Chościsko

Chościsko (Polish pronunciation: [xɔɕˈtɕiskɔ]) is a legendary figure in a Polish prehistory, father of Piast the Wheelwright, the founder of the Piast dynasty. His name occurs in the first Polish chronicle, Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum by Gallus Anonymus, where the author refers three times to Piast as the son of Chościsko.

Chościsko's name is probably derived from a simplified pronunciation of the word Hastingsko derived from the term Hasding (meaning long-haired) which was difficult to pronounce in Old Slavonic. The other analysis suggests that Chościsko's name is probably derived from chost or chwost meaning tail in old Slavic.

Cymburgis of Masovia

Cymburgis of Masovia (German: Cimburgis von Masowien), also Zimburgis or Cimburga (Polish: Cymbarka mazowiecka; 1394 or 1397 – 28 September 1429), a member of the Polish Piast dynasty, was Duchess of Austria from 1412 until 1424, by her marriage with the Habsburg duke Ernest the Iron. As the mother of later Emperor Frederick III, Cymburgis, after Gertrude of Hohenburg, became the second female ancestor of all later Habsburgs, as only her husband's Ernestine branch of the family survived in the male line.

Duchy of Silesia

The Duchy of Silesia (Polish: Księstwo śląskie, German: Herzogtum Schlesien) with its capital at Wrocław was a medieval duchy located in the historic Silesian region of Poland. Soon after it was formed under the Piast dynasty in 1138, it fragmented into various Duchies of Silesia. In 1327 the remaining Duchy of Wrocław as well as most other duchies ruled by the Silesian Piasts passed to the Kingdom of Bohemia as Duchies of Silesia. The acquisition was completed, when King Casimir III the Great of Poland renounced his rights to Silesia in the 1335 Treaty of Trentschin.

Gertrude of Poland

Gertrude-Olisava (c. 1025 – 4 January 1108), princess of Poland, was the daughter of King Mieszko II of Poland and Queen Richeza of Lotharingia, and the great-granddaughter of German Emperor Otto II.

In 1043, Gertrude married Iziaslav I of Kiev, with whom she had two sons: Yaropolk Iziaslavich and Mstislav, and a daughter, Eupraxia, who later married Mieszko Bolesławowic of Piast dynasty, the Prince of Kraków. Often acknowledged as her son, Sviatopolk II of Kiev may have been the son of Izyaslav by a concubine.

Gertrude inherited a medieval illuminated manuscript, known as the Egbert Psalter or Trier Psalter, which had been created in the late 10th century for archbishop Egbert of Trier. She included her prayer book as part of the codex. In the prayer book she prays six times for Yaropolk, unicus filius meus (translated as either "my favourite son" or "my only son").

Henry II the Pious

Henry II the Pious (Polish: Henryk II Pobożny) (1196 – 9 April 1241), of the Silesian line of the Piast dynasty was Duke of Silesia at Wrocław and Duke of Kraków and thus High Duke of all Poland as well as Duke of Southern Greater Poland from 1238 until his death. During 1238–1239 he also served as a regent of two other Piast duchies: Sandomierz and Upper Silesian Opole–Racibórz. On October 2015, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Legnica opened up his cause for beatification, obtaining him the title of Servant of God.

History of Poland during the Piast dynasty

The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation. The dynasty was founded by a series of dukes listed by the chronicler Gallus Anonymous in the early 12th century: Siemowit, Lestek and Siemomysł. It was Mieszko I, the son of Siemomysł, who is now considered the proper founder of the Polish state at about 960 AD. The ruling house then remained in power in the Polish lands until 1370. Mieszko converted to Christianity of the Western Latin Rite in an event known as the Baptism of Poland in 966, which established a major cultural boundary in Europe based on religion. He also completed a unification of the West Slavic tribal lands that was fundamental to the existence of the new country of Poland.Following the emergence of the Polish state, a series of rulers converted the population to Christianity, created a kingdom of Poland in 1025 and integrated Poland into the prevailing culture of Europe. Mieszko's son Bolesław I the Brave established a Roman Catholic Archdiocese in Gniezno, pursued territorial conquests and was officially crowned in 1025 as the first king of Poland. The first Piast monarchy collapsed with the death of Mieszko II Lambert in 1034, followed by its restoration under Casimir I in 1042. In the process, the royal dignity for Polish rulers was forfeited, and the state reverted to the status of a duchy. Duke Casimir's son Bolesław II the Bold revived the military assertiveness of Bolesław I, but became fatally involved in a conflict with Bishop Stanislaus of Szczepanów and was expelled from the country.Bolesław III, the last duke of the early period, succeeded in defending his country and recovering territories previously lost. Upon his death in 1138, Poland was divided among his sons. The resulting internal fragmentation eroded the initial Piast monarchical structure in the 12th and 13th centuries and caused fundamental and lasting changes.

Konrad I of Masovia invited the Teutonic Knights to help him fight the Baltic Prussian pagans, which led to centuries of Poland's warfare with the Knights and the German Prussian state.In 1320, the kingdom was restored under Władysław I the Elbow-high, then strengthened and expanded by his son Casimir III the Great. The western provinces of Silesia and Pomerania were lost after the fragmentation, and Poland began expanding to the east. The period ended with the reigns of two members of the Capetian House of Anjou between 1370 and 1384. The consolidation in the 14th century laid the base for the new powerful kingdom of Poland that was to follow.

Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)

The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie [kruˈlɛstfɔ ˈpɔlskʲɛ]; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.

List of Polish consorts

The Polish royal consorts were the spouses of the reigning monarchs of the Kingdom of Poland. All of them are women who held the position of queen consort; although there were two female monarchs of Poland, husbands of those queens regnant were iure uxoris monarchs and not consorts. Poland is no longer a kingdom, so the throne of Queen of Poland no longer exists.

Little is known about queens whose husbands reigned prior to 1000. The Queen consorts of Poland also held the title of Duchess of the Polans, High Duchess of Poland, and other similar titles. The Ducal title was much more common in the Piast Dynasty since over 300 years of this family's rule only three were Kings of Poland and only two of these had wife's that were alive in their reign. But by the end of the first Piast dynasty, the title Duchess of Poland began to disappear and even though Christina and Hedwig of Sagan, wives of Casmir III, who were never crowned, they were referred to as Queens rather than Duchesses.

Nabram coat of arms

Nabram is a Polish coat of arms. It was used by a number of szlachta (noble) families in 1292-1386 under Poland's Piast Dynasty. The Nabram coat of arms is also known as Abram, Nabra, Kłobuk, Stańcowie, Waldorff, and Wendorf.

Piast the Wheelwright

Piast Kołodziej (Polish pronunciation: [ˈpʲiast kɔˈwɔd͡ʑɛj], Piast the Wheelwright; 740/1 – 861) was a semi-legendary figure in medieval Poland (9th century AD), the founder of the Piast dynasty that would rule the future Kingdom of Poland.

Samborides

The Samborides (German: Samboriden) or House of Sobiesław (Polish: Sobiesławice) were a ruling dynasty in the historic region of Pomerelia. They were first documented about 1155 as governors (princeps) in the Eastern Pomeranian lands serving the royal Piast dynasty of Poland, and from 1227 ruled as autonomous princes until 1294, at which time the dynasty died out. The subsequent war for succession between the Polish Piast dynasty, the Imperial Margraviate of Brandenburg and the State of the Teutonic Order resulted in the Teutonic takeover of Gdańsk (Danzig) in 1308.

Siemomysł

Siemomysł or Ziemomysł (died c. 950–960) was the third duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty, and the father of Poland's first Christian ruler, Mieszko I. He was listed by Gallus Anonymous in his Gesta principum Polonorum and was the son of Lestek, the second known Duke of the Polans. According to Gallus' account and historical research, Siemomysł has been credited with leaving the lands of Polans, Goplans and Masovians to his son Mieszko I, who further expanded them during his reign.According to modern Polish historian Henryk Łowmiański, Siemomysł aided the Ukrani uprising against the Germans in 954 AD.

He supposedly reigned from around 930 (although some historians believe that he reigned from around 950). Siemomysł united the lands of Polanie, Goplanie, and Mazowszanie (however, some historians think that perhaps his father did it first). His burial place is unknown.

Siemomysł's wife (or wives) is unknown. There is a theory that Włodzisław's (prince of the Lędzianie tribe) daughter could have been Siemomysł's wife, but there is no historical evidence to support this. Formerly it was thought that his wife was named Gorka, but Oswald Balzer refuted this view in 1895.

Siemowit

Siemowit (Polish pronunciation: [ɕɛˈmɔvit], also Ziemowit [ʑɛˈmɔvit]) was, according to the chronicles of Gallus Anonymus, the son of Piast the Wheelwright and Rzepicha. He is considered to be the first ruler of the Piast dynasty.He became the Duke of the Polans in the 9th century after his father, Piast the Wheelwright, son of Chościsko, refused to take the place of legendary Duke Popiel. Siemowit was elected as new duke by the wiec. According to a popular legend, Popiel was then eaten by mice in his tower on Gopło lake.The only mention of Siemowit, along with his son, Lestek, and grandson, Siemomysł, comes in the medieval chronicle of Gallus Anonymus.Siemowit's great grandson, Mieszko I, was the first Christian ruler of Poland.

Silesian Piasts

The Silesian Piasts were the elder of four lines of the Polish Piast dynasty beginning with Władysław II the Exile (1105–1159), eldest son of Duke Bolesław III of Poland. By Bolesław's testament, Władysław was granted Silesia as his hereditary province and also the Lesser Polish Seniorate Province at Kraków according to the principle of agnatic seniority.

Slavery in Poland

Slavery in Poland existed on the territory of Kingdom of Poland during the times of the Piast dynasty in the Middle Ages. It continued in various forms until late in the 14th century and was supplanted by the institution of serfdom, which has often been considered a form of modified slavery.

Treaty of Kępno

The Treaty of Kępno (Polish: Umowa kępińska, Układ w Kępnie) was an agreement between the High Duke of Poland and Wielkopolska Przemysł II and the Duke of Pomerania Mestwin II (sometimes rendered as "Mściwój") signed on February 15, 1282, which transferred the suzerainty over Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomeralia) to Przemysł. As a result of the treaty Przemysł adopted the title dux Polonie et Pomeranie (Duke of Poland and Pomerania).

Piast dynasty
Fragmentation
period
Přemyslid dynasty
Restored Piast dynasty
Capet-Anjou dynasty
Jagiellonian dynasty
Elective monarchy
Royal houses of Europe

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