Piacenza

Piacenza (Italian pronunciation: [pjaˈtʃɛntsa] (listen); Piacentino: Piaṡëinsa [pi.aˈzəi̯sɐ]; Latin: Placentia) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, the capital of the eponymous province. The etymology is long-standing, tracing an origin from the Latin verb placēre, "to please."[4] In French, and occasionally in English, it is called Plaisance. The name means a "pleasant abode", or as James Boswell reported some of the etymologists of his time to have translated it, "comely".[5] This was a name "of good omen."[6]

Piacenza is located at a major crossroads at the intersection of Route E35/A1 between Bologna and Milan, and Route E70/A21 between Brescia and Turin. Piacenza is also at the confluence of the Trebbia, draining the northern Apennine Mountains, and the Po, draining to the east. Piacenza also hosts two universities, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore and Polytechnic University of Milan.

Piacenza
Comune di Piacenza
Francesco Mochi's 1615 equestrian statue of Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma, in the city’s main square, Piazza dei cavalli.
Francesco Mochi's 1615 equestrian statue of Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma, in the city’s main square, Piazza dei cavalli.
Location of Piacenza
Piacenza is located in Italy
Piacenza
Piacenza
Location of Piacenza in Italy
Piacenza is located in Emilia-Romagna
Piacenza
Piacenza
Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna)
Coordinates: 45°2′52″N 9°42′2″E / 45.04778°N 9.70056°ECoordinates: 45°2′52″N 9°42′2″E / 45.04778°N 9.70056°E
CountryItaly
RegionEmilia-Romagna
ProvincePiacenza (PC)
FrazioniVallera, San Bonico, Pittolo, La Verza, Mucinasso, I Vaccari, Roncaglia, Montale, Borghetto, Le Mose, Mortizza, Gerbido
Government
 • MayorPatrizia Barbieri (Independent member of the local centre-right coalition)
Area
 • Total118.24 km2 (45.65 sq mi)
Elevation
61 m (200 ft)
Population
 (2018-01-01)[2]
 • Total103,082
 • Density870/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Piacentini
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
29121-29122
Dialing code0523
Patron saintAntonino of Piacenza (4 July),
Giustina
WebsiteOfficial website

History

Ancient history

Pre-Roman era

Before its settlement by the Romans, the area was populated by other peoples; specifically, most recently to the Roman settlement, the region on the right bank of the Po between the Trebbia and the Taro had been occupied by the Ananes or Anamari, a tribe of Cisalpine Gauls.[7] Before then, says Polybius,[8] "These plains were anciently inhabited by Etruscans" before the Gauls took the entire Po Valley from them.

Roman age

Piacenza and Cremona were founded as Roman military colonies in May 218 BC. The Romans had planned to construct them after the successful conclusion of the latest war with the Gauls ending in 219 BC. In the spring of 218 BC, after declaring war on Carthage, the Senate decided to accelerate the foundation and gave the colonists 30 days to appear on the sites to receive their lands. They were each to be settled by 6,000 Roman citizens, but the cities were to receive Latin Rights;[9] that is, they were to have the same legal status as the many colonies that had been co-founded by Rome and towns of Latium.

The reaction of the region's Gauls was swift; they drove the colonists off the lands. Taking refuge in Mutina, the latter sent for military assistance. A small force under Lucius Manlius was prevented from reaching the area. The Senate then sent two legions under Gaius Atelius. Collecting Manlius and the colonists, they descended on Piacenza and Cremona and successfully placed castra there of 480 square metres (0.12 acres) to support the building of the city. Piacenza must have been walled immediately, as the walls were in place when the Battle of the Trebia was fought around the city in December. There is no evidence either textual or archaeological of a prior settlement at that exact location; however, the site would have been obliterated by construction. Piacenza was the 53rd colony to be placed by Rome since its foundation.[10] It was the first among the Gauls of the Po valley.

It had to be supplied by boat after the Battle of Trebbia, when Hannibal controlled the countryside, for which purpose a port (Emporium) was constructed. In 209 BC, Hasdrubal Barca crossed the Alps and laid siege to the city, but he was unable to take it and withdrew.[11] In 200 BC, the Gauls sacked and burned it, selling the population into slavery.[12] Subsequently, the victorious Romans restored the city and managed to recover 2000 citizens. In 198 BC, a combined force of Gauls and Ligurians plundered the whole region. As the people had never recovered from being sold into slavery, in 190 BC they complained to Senate of underpopulation; in response the Senate sent 3000 new settlers.[13] The construction of the Via Aemilia in the 180's made the city easily accessible from the Adriatic ports, which improved trade and the prospects for timely defense.

The Liver of Piacenza, a bronze model of a sheep's liver for the purposes of haruspicy discovered in 1877 at Gossolengo just to the south of Piacenza, bears witness to the survival of the disciplina Etrusca well after the Roman conquest.

Although sacked and devastated several times, the city always recovered and by the 6th century Procopius was calling it "the principal city in the country of Aemilia".[14]

The first Bishop of Piacenza (322–357), San Vittorio, declared Saint Antoninus of Piacenza, a soldier of the Theban Legion (and not to be confused with the sixth-century Antoninus of Piacenza), the patron saint of Piacenza and had the first basilica constructed in his honor in 324. The basilica was restored in 903 and rebuilt in 1101,[15] again in 1562, and is still a church today. The remains of the bishop and the soldier-saint are in urns under the altar. The theme of Antoninus, protector of Piacenza, is well known in art.

Middle Ages

Antico Stemma Piacenza
Mosaic of the old city Coat of Arms

Piacenza was sacked during the course of the Gothic War (535–554). After a short period of being reconquered by the Roman emperor Justinian I, it was conquered by the Lombards, who made it a duchy seat. After its conquest by Francia in the ninth century, the city began to recover, aided by its location along the Via Francigena that later connected the Holy Roman Empire with Rome. Its population and importance grew further after the year 1000. That period marked a gradual transfer of governing powers from the feudal lords to a new enterprising class, as well to the feudal class of the countryside.

In 1095, the city was the site of the Council of Piacenza, in which the First Crusade was proclaimed. From 1126, Piacenza was a free commune and an important member of the Lombard League. In this role, it took part in the war against Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, and in the subsequent battle of Legnano (1176). It also successfully fought the neighbouring communes of Cremona, Pavia and Parma, expanding its possessions. Piacenza also captured control of the trading routes with Genoa, where the first Piacentini bankers had already settled, from the Malaspina counts and the bishop of Bobbio.

In the 13th century, despite unsuccessful wars against Frederick I, Piacenza managed to gain strongholds on the Lombardy shore of the Po. The primilaries of the Peace of Constance were signed in 1183 in the Saint Antoninus church. Agriculture and trade flourished in these centuries, and Piacenza became one of the richest cities in Europe. This is reflected in the construction of many important buildings and in the general revision of the urban plan. Struggles for control were commonplace in the second half of the 13th century, not unlike the large majority of Medieval Italian communes. The Scotti family, Pallavicini family and Alberto Scoto (1290–1313) held power in that order during the period. Scoto's government ended when the House of Visconti of Milan captured Piacenza, which they would hold until 1447. Duke Gian Galeazzo Visconti rewrote Piacenza's statutes and relocated the University of Pavia to the city. Piacenza then became a possession of the House of Sforza until 1499.

Modern era

Italian States-Piacenza 1626 2 Doppie
Two gold Doppie (1626) depicting Odoardo Farnese (obv) and Placentia floret ("Piacenza flourishes")(rev).

A coin from the 16th century features the motto: Placentia floret ("Piacenza flourishes") on one of its sides. The city was progressing economically, chiefly due to the expansion of agriculture in the countryside surrounding the city. Also in the course of that century a new city wall was erected. Piacenza was ruled by France until 1521, and briefly, under Pope Leo X, it became part of the Papal States. In 1545, it became part of the newly created Duchy of Parma, which was ruled by the House of Farnese.

Piacenza was the capital city of the duchy until Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma (1547–1586), moved it to Parma. The city underwent some of its most difficult years during the rule of Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma (1622–1646), when between 6000 and 13,000 Piacentini out of a total population of 30,000 died from famine and plague. The city and its countryside were also ravaged by bandits and French soldiers.

I Francesi passano il Po a Piacenza Bagetti
The French Pass the River Po at Piacenza, by Giuseppe Pietro Bagetti, 1803.

Between 1732 and 1859, Parma and Piacenza were ruled by the House of Bourbon. In the 18th century, several edifices which belonged to noble families such as Scotti, Landi and Fogliani were built in Piacenza.

In 1802, Napoleon's army annexed Piacenza to the French Empire. Young Piacentini recruits were sent to fight in Russia, Spain and Germany, while the city was plundered of a great number of artworks which are currently exhibited in many French museums.

The Habsburg government of Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma (1816–1847), is remembered fondly as one of the best in the history of Piacenza; the duchess drained many lands, built several bridges across the Trebbia and the Nure and created educational and artistic activities.

Union with Italy

PontePo
Piacenza railway bridge over Po river in a 19th-century image.

Austrian troops occupied Piacenza until, in 1860, a plebiscite marked the entrance of the city into the Kingdom of Sardinia. 37,089 voters out of 37,585 voted for the annexation. Piacenza was therefore declared Primogenita dell'Unità di Italia ("First-born of the Unification of Italy") by the monarch. The Piacentini enrolled en masse in the Giuseppe Garibaldi's army in the Expedition of the Thousand.

In 1858 the geologist Karl Mayer-Eymar named the Piacenzian Age of the Pliocene Epoch based on deposits close to Piacenza.

In June 1865, the first railway bridge over Po river in northern Italy was inaugurated (in southern Italy a railroad bridge had already been built in 1839). In 1891, the first Chamber of Workers was created in Piacenza.

World War II

During World War II, the city was heavily bombed by the Allies. The important railway and road bridges across the Trebbia and the Po and the railway yards were destroyed. The historic centre of city itself also suffered collateral damage. In 1944, the bridges over the Po became vital for the supply from Austria of Field Marshal Albert Kesselring's Gothic Line, which protected the withdrawal of Kesselring's troops from Italy. Foremost among these were the railway and road bridges at Piacenza, along with supply depots and railway yards. In Operation Mallory Major, July 12–15, allied medium bombers from Corsica flew 300 sorties a day, knocking out 21 bridges east of Piacenza, and then continued to the west for a total of 90 by July 20. Fighter-bombers prevented reconstruction and cut roads and rail lines. By August 4, all the cities of northern Italy were isolated and had suffered heavy bombing, especially Piacenza. Transport to Genoa to the south or through Turin to the north was impossible; nevertheless, Kesselring continued to supply his men.[16]

On the hills and the Apennine Mountains, partisans were active. On April 25, 1945, a general partisan insurrection by the Italian resistance movement broke out and on 29 April, troops of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force entered the city. In 1996, president Oscar Luigi Scalfaro honoured Piacenza with the Gold Medal for Valour in Battle.

There was a prisoner of war (POW) camp located here, Veano Camp PG 29, Piacenza.

Geography

Climate

Climate in this area is humid subtropical with no dry season, constantly moist. Summers are hot and sultry. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfa" (Humid subtropical climate).[17]

Main sights

Piacenza boasts a great number of historical palaces, often characterized by splendid gardens.

Gotico facciata-500
Piazza Cavalli and the façade of Palazzo Comunale il Gotico.
Piacenza0001
Façade of the Cathedral.
11 Piacenza, Italy - ショッピング イタリア
Via XX Settembre shopping street.
Piacenza-chiesa di san Sisto
The Renaissance church of San Sisto.
Teatro Piacenza
Teatro Municipale (Piacenza)

Palaces

  • Palazzo Comunale, also known as il Gotico, was built in 1281 as the town hall. It is a prototypic Broletto of Lombardy. Of the original design, only the northern side was completed, with its typical Ghibelline merlons, the arcaded frame, the central bell tower with two lesser ones at the sides. The façade, with five arcades, is in pink marble in the lower part and in brickwork (decorated with geometrical figures) in the upper part. The main hall has frescoes, and is used for meetings, lectures and conferences.
  • Palazzo Farnese, begun in 1568 by Ottavio Farnese and his wife, Margaret of Parma. The initial project was devised by Francesco Paciotto, from Urbino, and works were entrusted to Giovanni Bernardo Della Valle, Giovanni Lavezzari and Bernardo Panizzari (Caramosino). The design was modified in 1568 by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, better known as "Vignola".
  • Palazzo Landi, built in the Middle Ages but renovated in the late 15th century.
  • Palazzo Costa.
  • Palazzo Somaglia.
  • Palazzo Baldini, on Via San Siro.
  • Palazzo Scotti (also known as Palazzo della Prefettura) housing the Museum of Natural History.
  • Palazzo dei Mercanti (17th century), the current Town Hall.

Other places of interest

  • Piazza Cavalli is the main square of the town. It is named ("Cavalli" means "horses") for the two bronze equestrian monuments of Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma (r. 1586-), nephew and valiant general of Philip II of Spain) and his son Ranuccio I Farnese, Duke of Parma, who succeeded him. The statues are masterpieces of Francesco Mochi, a Mannerist sculptor.
  • Piacenza Cathedral: This is the Catholic cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Piacenza-Bobbio, built from 1122 to 1233 and is a valuable examples of a Northern-Italian Romanesque architecture. The façade, in Veronese pink marble and gilted stone, is horizontally parted by a gallery that dominates the three gates, decorated with capitals and Romanic statues. The interior has a nave and two aisles, divided by 25 large pillars. It has noteworthy frescoes, made in the 14th-16th centuries by Camillo Procaccini and Ludovico Carracci, while those of the dome are by Morazzone and Guercino. The presbytery as a wooden sculpture from 1479, a wooden choir by Giangiacomo da Genova (1471) and statues of Lombard school from the 15th century. The crypt, on the Greek cross plan, has 108 Romanesque small columns and is home to the relics of Saint Justine, to which the first cathedral (crumbled down in the 1117 Verona earthquake) was dedicated.
  • San Francesco Church: Located centrally in Piazza Cavalli, this 12th-century Romanesque/Gothic edifice assumed the role of civic sanctuary in the Middle Ages. Part of the medieval cloisters remains. The main portal is surmounted by a 15th-century lunette depicting the Ecstasy of St. Francis. The nave and two aisles, are divided by low and sturdy brick pillars that support high gothic arches. The church has a Latin cross layout. The nave, taller than the aisles, has a pentahedric apse in which the aisle apses meet; decorations include 15th-16th centuries frescoes. In 1848, the annexion of Piacenza to the Kingdom of Sardinia was announced from here.
  • Basilica of Sant'Antonino: This is an example of Romanesque architecture, characterized by a large octagonal tower. It was commissioned by St. Victor, first bishop of the city, in 350 CE, and completed in 375. It contains the relics of the eponymous saint, martyred near Travo, in the Val Trebbia. In 1183 the delegates of Frederick Barbarossa and of the Lombard League met here for the preliminaries of peace of Constance. The church was renovated after damage created by the barbarian invasion, and has a 15th-century cloister. In the interior, the main artworks are the frescoes by Camillo Gervasetti (1622).
  • Basilica of San Savino: this church was dedicated to St. Victor's successor, was begun in 903 but consecrated only in 1107. The façade and the portico are from the 17th-18th centuries. The presbytery and the crypts contain 12th century polychrome mosaics. The interior is in Lombard-Gothic style, with anthropomorphic capitals of the columns. Over the high altar is a 12th-century wooden crucifix by an unknown artist.
  • San Giovanni in Canale was founded by the Dominicans in 1220, and enlarged in the mid-16th century.
  • Santa Maria in Campagna: This Renaissance church, faces Piazzale delle Crociate ("Crusades Square"), so called because Pope Urban II summoned the First Crusade here in 1095. The church was built in 1522–1528 to house a miraculous wooden sculpture of the Madonna. The layout was originally in a central Greek-cross plan, but later altered into a Latin cross type. Il Pordenone frescoed the dome and in two chapels on the left side.
  • St Sixtus is a Renaissance church with a choir designed by Gio Pietro Pambianco da Colorno and Bartolomeo da Busseto (1512-1514). It was begun in the 15th century over a temple built in 874 by Empress Angilberga. Also by Alessio Tramello is the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. In 1513, the monks of St. Sixtus commissioned Raphael to produce the altarpiece known as the Sistine Madonna. They sold it in 1754 to Augustus III of Poland. It is now on display in Dresden.
  • The Piacenza's Archaeological Museum, part of the Civic Museums of Palazzo Farnese, houses the pre-Roman bronze Liver of Piacenza, an Etruscan bronze model of a sheep's liver dating from the end of the 2nd century to the beginning of the 1st century BCE. It was discovered in 1877 in Ciavernasco di Settima, near Gossolengo in the Piacenza hinterland. Containing writing on its surface delineating the various parts of the liver and their significance, it was likely used as an educational tool for students studying haruspicy, or divination.
  • Palazzo Landi, built in the Middle Ages but rebuilt in the current form in the 15th century by Lombard craftsmen. It has a Renaissance marble portal. It is now seat of the local Tribunal.
  • Galleria d'arte moderna Ricci Oddi is an art museum dedicated mainly to modern Italian painters.

Dialect

Many inhabitants of Piacenza and the surrounding province still use Piacentino, which is a variety of the Emilian dialect the Emilian-Romagnol language. Emilian-Romagnol is a member of a different Romance subfamily (Gallo-Italic) than Standard Italian (which is an Italo-Dalmatian language) and its distinct grammar and phonology make it mutually unintelligible with that language.

Although there have been a number of notable poets and writers using Piacentino, it has experienced a steady decline during the 20th century due to the growing standardization of the Italian language in the national educational system.

Sport

Piacenza Calcio 1919 was the main and most supported football team and played in Serie A for 8 seasons. The team ceased to exist in 2012 after its bankruptcy. Currently there are two football teams playing in Serie D: S.S.D. Piacenza Calcio 1919, which acquired Piacenza Football Club coat of arms following the bankruptcy, and Pro Piacenza 1919.

Pallavolo Piacenza is the main man volleyball team and currently plays in serie A1; its palmares entails a championship, a national cup, a national supercup and two European cups. River Volley is the main female volleball team and won the national championship twice.

Rugby is relatively popular compared with Italian standards and Piacenza has a number of rugby teams: Piacenza Rugby Club and Rugby Lyons Piacenza are the most important.

Cuisine

Piacenza and its province are known for the production of seasoned and salted pork products. The main specialities are pancetta (rolled seasoned pork belly, salted and spiced), coppa (seasoned pork neck, containing less fat than pancetta, matured at least for six months) and salame (chopped pork meat flavoured with spices and wine, and made into sausages).

Bortellina (salted pancakes made with flour, salt, and water or milk) and chisulén (torta fritta in Standard Italian; made with flour, milk, and animal fats mixed together and then fried in hot strutto, or clarified pork fat) are the perfect coupling of pancetta, coppa, and salame, but they are also good with cheeses, particularly Gorgonzola and Robiola.

Pisarei e fasö is a mixture of handmade pasta and borlotti beans.

Among the culinary specialties of the Piacenza region (although also enjoyed in nearby Cremona) is mostarda di frutta, consisting of preserved fruits in a sugary syrup strongly flavored with mustard. Turtlìt (tortelli dolci in standard Italian), or fruit dumplings, are filled with mostarda di frutta, mashed chestnuts, and other ingredients, and are served at Easter. Turtlìt are also popular in the Ferrara area. Turtéi, a similarly named Piacentine specialty, is a kind of pasta filled with spinaches and ricotta cheese, or filled with calabash.

Piacentine staple foods include corn (generally cooked as polenta) and rice (usually cooked as risotto), both of which are very common across northern Italy. There are also locally produced cheeses, such as Grana Padano, though nearby Parma is more famous for its dairy products.

The hills surrounding Piacenza are known for their vineyards. The wine produced in this area is qualified with a denominazione di origine controllata called "Colli Piacentini" ("Hills of Piacenza"). The main wines are Gutturnio (red wines, both sparkling and still), Bonarda (a red wine, often sparkling and foamy, made from Croatina grapes), Ortrugo (a dry white wine) and Malvasia (a sweet white wine).[21]

People

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Piacenza is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. ^ Data from Istat
  4. ^ Charnock, Richard Stephen (1859). Local Etymology: A Derivative Dictionary of Geographical Names. London: Houlston and Wright. p. 209.
  5. ^ Pottle, Marion S.; Claude Colleer Abbott; Frederick A. Pottle (1993). Catalogue of the Papers of James Boswell at Yale University. I (Research ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-7486-0399-2.
  6. ^ Taylor, Isaac (1882). Words and Places: Or, Etymological Illustrations of History, Ethnology and Geography. London: Macmillan and Co. p. 322.
  7. ^ Smith, William (1854). "Ananes". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, illustrated by numerous engravings on wood. London: Walton and Maberly; John Murray. Smith cites Polybius, Histories, Book II, sections 17 and 32.
  8. ^ Histories II.17.
  9. ^ Polybius III.40, Livy XXI.25.
  10. ^ Potter, T. W. (1990). Roman Italy. 1 (reprint ed.). University of California Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-0-520-06975-6.
  11. ^ Livy History of Rome XXVII.39, 43.
  12. ^ Livy History of Rome XXXI.10.
  13. ^ Livy History of Rome XXXVII.46-47.
  14. ^ Procopius History of the Wars Book VII chapter XIII.
  15. ^ Townsend, George Henry (1877). The manual of dates: a dictionary of reference to all the most important events in the history of mankind to be found in authentic records (5 ed.). London: Frederick Warne. p. 752.
  16. ^ Craven, Wesley Frank; James Lea Cate, eds. (1983). The Army Air Forces in World War II. DIANE Publishing. pp. 404–407. ISBN 9780912799032.
  17. ^ "Piacenza Climate & Temperature".
  18. ^ "Piacenza/S.Damiano (PC)" (PDF). Atlante climatico. Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
  19. ^ "Piacenza San Damiano: Record mensili dal 1951" (in Italian). Servizio Meteorologico dell’Aeronautica Militare. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
  20. ^ "Piacenza Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
  21. ^ "Local Cuisine". Municipality of Piacenza. Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2009.

External links

103rd Infantry Division Piacenza

The 103rd Infantry Division Piacenza was a auto-transportable Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II. The Division was formed in 1942, and was in the Italian Fourth Army's XXII Corps that was part of the occupying Italian army in France, located in the Toulon area. At the end of August 1943, the Italian High Command decided to move the 4th Army from southern France back to Italy, where it was destroyed fighting the Germans after the Italian Surrender in September 1943.

A.S. Pro Piacenza 1919

Associazione Sportiva Pro Piacenza 1919 S.r.l. or simply Pro Piacenza is an Italian association football club, based in Piacenza, Emilia-Romagna. The club played in Serie C, the third tier of Italian football, until 18 February 2019 when they were excluded from the division.The most recent re-foundation of the club, was a merger of A.C.D. Pro Piacenza 1919 and A.S.D. Atletico B.P. Pro Piacenza in June 2013.

Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma

Alexander Farnese (Italian: Alessandro Farnese, Spanish: Alejandro Farnesio) (27 August 1545 – 3 December 1592) was an Italian noble and condottiero who was Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1586 to 1592, as well as Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592. He is best known for his successful campaign 1578-1592 against the Dutch Revolt, in which he captured the main cities in the south (now Belgium) and returned them to the control of Catholic Spain. During the French Wars of Religion he relieved Paris for the Catholics. His talents as a field commander, strategist and organizer earned him the regard of his contemporaries and military historians as the first captain of his age.

Duchy of Parma

The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, which was conquered by the Papal States in 1512. These territories, centered on the city of Parma, were given as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese.

In 1556, the second Duke, Ottavio Farnese, was given the city of Piacenza, becoming thus also Duke of Piacenza, and so the state was thereafter properly known as the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza (Italian: Ducato di Parma e Piacenza).

The Farnese family continued to rule until their extinction in 1731, when the duchy was inherited by the young son of the King of Spain, Don Charles, whose mother Elizabeth Farnese was the Farnese heiress. He ruled until 1735 during the War of the Polish Succession, when Parma was ceded to Emperor Charles VI in exchange for the Two Sicilies.

The Habsburgs only ruled until the conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, when it was ceded back to the Bourbons in the person of Don Philip, Don Charles's younger brother, who received also the little Duchy of Guastalla. As Duke Philip, he became the founder of the House of Bourbon-Parma reigning over the Duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla (Italian: Ducato di Parma, Piacenza e Guastalla).

In 1796, the duchy was occupied by French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte, and the political situation of the State became extremely confused. Duke Ferdinand maintained his throne under French military governors until the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1801, when a general agreement between the House of Bourbon and Napoleon formally decided the cession of the duchy to France in exchange for Tuscany, but the Duke lasted in Parma until he died in 1802. Napoleon was undecided about the future of the duchy, aspiring to a total engagement of the Bourbons in the European wars as his allies. Even as French laws and administration were gradually introduced, the formal annexation to the French Empire was declared only in 1808 after the outbreak of the conflict against Bourbonic Spain. The duchy was reformed as the département of Taro.

In 1814, the duchies were given to Napoleon's Habsburg wife, Marie-Louise, styled Maria-Luigia, who ruled them for the rest of her life. After Maria-Luigia's death in 1847, the Duchy was restored to the Bourbon-Parma line, which had been ruling the tiny Duchy of Lucca. Guastalla was ceded to Modena. The Bourbons ruled until 1859, when they were driven out by a revolution following the French and Sardinian victory in the war against Austria (called Austrian War in France and Second War of Independence in Italy).

The Duchy of Parma and Piacenza joined with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Modena to form the United Provinces of Central Italy in December 1859, and merged with the Kingdom of Sardinia into the Kingdom of Italy in March 1860 after holding a referendum.

The House of Bourbon continues to claim the title of duke of Parma to this day. Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Parma has held the title since 2010.

Duke of Parma

The Duke of Parma (Italian: duca di Parma) was the ruler of the Duchy of Parma, a small historical state which existed between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1859.

The Duke of Parma was also Duke of Piacenza, except for the first years of the rule of Ottavio Farnese (1549–1556), and the time of the Napoleonic wars, when the two were established as separate positions held by two different individuals. The Duke of Parma also usually held the title of Duke of Guastalla from 1746 (when Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor occupied the Duchy of Guastalla after the last Gonzaga duke died childless) until 1847 (when the territory was ceded to Modena), except for the Napoleonic era, when Napoleon's sister Pauline was briefly Duchess of Guastalla and of Varella. The last duke, Robert I, was driven from power in a revolution following France and Sardinia's victory over Austria. Its territory was merged into Sardinia in 1860.

The position is currently claimed by a member of the Bourbon family, which also holds the Spanish throne. Therefore, the current claimant to the Duchy of Parma is a legitimate (though not prime) claimant to the Kingdom of Spain. The recent pretender to the Parmese throne, the late Carlos-Hugo, was also a pretender to the Spanish throne in the 1970s (see Carlism).

Emilia-Romagna

Emilia-Romagna (UK: , US: , both also , Italian: [eˈmiːlja roˈmaɲɲa]; Emilian and Romagnol: Emélia-Rumâgna) is an administrative region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna. Its capital is Bologna. It has an area of 22,446 km2 (8,666 sq mi), and about 4.4 million inhabitants.

Emilia-Romagna is one of the wealthiest and most developed regions in Europe, with the third highest GDP per capita in Italy. Bologna, its capital, has one of Italy's highest quality of life indices and advanced social services. Emilia-Romagna is also a cultural and tourist centre, being the home of the University of Bologna, the oldest university in the world, containing Romanesque and Renaissance cities (such as Modena, Parma and Ferrara), a former Eastern Roman Empire capital such as Ravenna, encompassing eleven UNESCO heritage sites, being a centre for food and automobile production (home of automotive companies such as Ferrari, Lamborghini, Maserati, Pagani, De Tomaso and Ducati) and having popular coastal resorts such as Cervia, Cesenatico, Rimini and Riccione.

In 2018, the Lonely Planet guide named Emilia Romagna as the best place to see in Europe.

List of mayors of Piacenza

The Mayor of Piacenza is an elected politician who, along with the Piacenza's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Piacenza in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. The current Mayor is Patrizia Barbieri, a centre-right independent, who took office on 27 June 2017.

List of railway stations in Emilia-Romagna

This is the list of the railway stations in Emilia-Romagna, owned by:

Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (RFI), a branch of the Italian state company Ferrovie dello Stato;

Ferrovie Emilia Romagna (FER).

Liver of Piacenza

The Liver of Piacenza is an Etruscan artifact found in a field on September 26, 1877, near Gossolengo, in the province of Piacenza, Italy, now kept in the Municipal Museum of Piacenza, in the Palazzo Farnese.

It is a life-sized bronze model of a sheep's liver covered in Etruscan inscriptions (TLE 719), measuring 126 mm by 76 mm by 60 mm and dated to the late 2nd century BC, i.e. a time when the Piacenza region would already have been Latin-dominated (Piacenza was founded in 218 BC as a Roman garrison town in Cisalpine Gaul).

Mauro Piacenza

Mauro Piacenza JCD (born 15 September 1944) is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church. A cardinal since 2010, he has served as Penitentiary Major of the Apostolic Penitentiary since his appointment by Pope Francis on 21 September 2013. He was Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy from 7 October 2010 to 21 September 2013. where he had been Secretary since 2007. At that Congregation, Pope Benedict XVI, according to one report, valued "his efficiency and in-depth knowledge of how the Congregation worked and its problems" and "his traditionalist ecclesiastical line of thought".

Patrizia Barbieri

Patrizia Barbieri (born 8 May 1960) is an Italian politician.She was born in Cremona, Italy, and she graduated at University of Parma. She has a law firm together with some partners in Piacenza, where she works as a civil lawyer and as a freelancer. She resides in Castelvetro Piacentino. She is married and has a two daughters. Barbieri has served as Mayor of Piacenza since 27 June 2017.

Piacenza Calcio 1919

Piacenza Calcio 1919, commonly referred to as Piacenza, is an Italian football club based in Piacenza, Emilia-Romagna. The club currently plays in Serie C.

Re-founded in 2012, Piacenza Calcio 1919 acquired the rights to use the brand of the original club Piacenza Calcio (also known as Piacenza F.C.) from Salva Piace.

Prince Carlos, Duke of Parma

Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Parma, Duke of Parma and Piacenza (born 27 January 1970) is the current head of the House of Bourbon-Parma, as well a member of the Dutch Royal Family. He is the uncontested traditional claimant to the defunct throne of the Duchy of Parma under the name Carlo V (English: Charles V). In addition, he is considered by some a contested pretender to the Carlist claim to the throne of Spain under the name Carlos Javier I (English: Charles Xavier I). In 2016 Carlos told the Spanish press that, while (like his father in 2005) he "does not abandon" his claim to the throne, it is "not a priority" in his life, and he "will not dispute" [no planteo pleito] the legitimacy of King Felipe VI.

Province of Piacenza

The province of Piacenza (Italian: provincia di Piacenza) is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Its provincial capital is the city Piacenza. As of 2016, it has a total population of 286,572 inhabitants over an area of 2,585.86 square kilometres (998.41 sq mi), giving it a population density of 111.38 inhabitants per square kilometre. The city Piacenza has a population of 102,269, as of 2015. The provincial president is Patrizia Barbieri and it contains 48 comuni (singular: comune). The province dates back to its founding by the Romans in 218 BCE.

Radja Nainggolan

Radja Nainggolan (born 4 May 1988) is a Belgian professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Italian club Inter Milan.

Nicknamed Il Ninja, he spent most of his professional career in Italy, representing Piacenza, Cagliari, Roma and Inter Milan and making over 300 Serie A appearances.

A Belgium international for eight years, Nainggolan played 30 times for his country (scoring six goals) and represented it at Euro 2016.

Sandro Puppo

Sandro Puppo (Italian pronunciation: [ˈsandro ˈpuppo]; 28 January 1918 – 16 October 1986) was an Italian football (soccer) player and manager born in Piacenza, who played as a midfielder.

Stadio Leonardo Garilli

The Stadio Leonardo Garilli is a multi-use stadium in Piacenza, Italy. It is currently used mostly for football matches and the home of Piacenza Calcio 1919 and from 2014 also those of Pro Piacenza 1919. The stadium was built in 1969 and was renovated in 1993 passing from 12,000 to the current 21,668 when the former Piacenza were promoted.

The Stadium used to be called 'Galleana' after the area of the city in which it is situated but currently named after Leonardo Garilli (died on 30 December 1996), to whom the city and fans are highly grateful because of his dedication and competence showed when he was the president of the former Piacenza.

Volley Piacenza

LPR Piacenza is a professional Italian volleyball team based in Piacenza, northern Italy. It plays in Italian Volleyball League.

Piacenza is ranked 17th (as of October 2016) in the Men's European clubs ranking. Although the club reached the Italian 1st division for the first time only in 2002, after have dominated the Italian 2nd division and winning also the Italian Cup, it has already played 9 finals in Italy, including 5 for the Italian Title(winning only in 2009 versus the strong Trento), 2 for the Italian Cup(won in 2013 and lost in 2006) and 2 for the Italian Supercup (beating Macerata 3-2 in 2009 and losing versus the same team in 2014 again after a tie-break). Piacenza played also a Champion's League final, lost 3-2 in Poland versus Russia's Zenit Kazan, 2 Cev Cup finals (again losing twice) and won 2 other European cups: in 2006 the Top Teams Cup, and in 2013 the Challenge Cup, defeating Ural Ufa from Russia with a 3-0 win in both first and second legs of final, achieving also an impressive 12-0 record, without losing a single set. It's among the strongest teams in Italy and also in Europe since 2003.

Zucchini

The zucchini (, American English) or courgette (, British English) is a summer squash which can reach nearly 1 metre (100 cm; 39 in) in length, but is usually harvested when still immature at about 15 to 25 cm (6 to 10 in). A zucchini is a thin-skinned cultivar of what in Britain and Ireland is referred to as a marrow. In South Africa, a zucchini is known as a baby marrow.

Along with certain other squashes and pumpkins, the zucchini belongs to the species Cucurbita pepo. It can be dark or light green. A related hybrid, the golden zucchini, is a deep yellow or orange color.In a culinary context, the zucchini is treated as a vegetable; it is usually cooked and presented as a savory dish or accompaniment. Botanically, zucchinis are fruits, a type of botanical berry called a "pepo", being the swollen ovary of the zucchini flower.

The zucchini, like all squash, has its ancestry in the Americas. However, the varieties of squash typically called "zucchini" were developed in northern Italy in the second half of the 19th century, many generations after the introduction of cucurbits from the Americas in the early 16th century.

Climate data for Piacenza (LIPS) 1971–2000, extremes 1951–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.8
(74.8)
24.6
(76.3)
28.0
(82.4)
29.4
(84.9)
34.2
(93.6)
37.2
(99.0)
39.4
(102.9)
40.4
(104.7)
34.0
(93.2)
30.4
(86.7)
22.2
(72.0)
19.6
(67.3)
40.0
(104.0)
Average high °C (°F) 5.4
(41.7)
8.0
(46.4)
13.4
(56.1)
17.1
(62.8)
22.0
(71.6)
26.2
(79.2)
29.2
(84.6)
28.6
(83.5)
24.0
(75.2)
17.2
(63.0)
9.9
(49.8)
6.1
(43.0)
17.3
(63.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
3.6
(38.5)
7.8
(46.0)
11.3
(52.3)
15.9
(60.6)
19.9
(67.8)
22.7
(72.9)
22.5
(72.5)
18.4
(65.1)
12.8
(55.0)
6.5
(43.7)
2.7
(36.9)
12.2
(54.0)
Average low °C (°F) −2.1
(28.2)
−0.9
(30.4)
2.2
(36.0)
5.5
(41.9)
9.8
(49.6)
13.6
(56.5)
16.3
(61.3)
16.4
(61.5)
12.8
(55.0)
8.5
(47.3)
3.0
(37.4)
−0.7
(30.7)
7.0
(44.6)
Record low °C (°F) −22.0
(−7.6)
−16.7
(1.9)
−12.6
(9.3)
−3.4
(25.9)
0.0
(32.0)
3.4
(38.1)
8.8
(47.8)
6.6
(43.9)
3.6
(38.5)
−5.2
(22.6)
−9.0
(15.8)
−14.0
(6.8)
−22.0
(−7.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 62.2
(2.45)
63.4
(2.50)
66.8
(2.63)
81.3
(3.20)
72.9
(2.87)
86.5
(3.41)
38.0
(1.50)
70.5
(2.78)
83.9
(3.30)
118.1
(4.65)
84.8
(3.34)
61.6
(2.43)
890.0
(35.04)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7.0 5.5 6.5 8.2 8.1 6.7 4.6 5.0 5.3 8.2 7.2 6.2 78.5
Average relative humidity (%) 86 83 75 78 76 75 73 75 78 85 88 89 80
Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico[18][19]
Source #2: NOAA (humidity, 1961–1990)[20]
Cities in Italy by population
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500,000+
200,000+
100,000+

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