Phytoremediation

Phytoremediation /ˌfaɪtəʊrɪˌmiːdɪˈeɪʃən/ (from Ancient Greek φυτό (phyto), meaning 'plant', and Latin remedium, meaning 'restoring balance') refers to the technologies that use living plants to clean up soil, air, and water contaminated with hazardous contaminants.[1] It is defined as "the use of green plants and the associated microorganisms, along with proper soil amendments and agronomic techniques to either contain, remove or render toxic environmental contaminants harmless".[2]

Phytoremediation is a cost-effective plant-based approach of remediation that takes advantage of the ability of plants to concentrate elements and compounds from the environment and to metabolize various molecules in their tissues. It refers to the natural ability of certain plants called hyperaccumulators to bioaccumulate, degrade, or render harmless contaminants in soils, water, or air. Toxic heavy metals and organic pollutants are the major targets for phytoremediation. Knowledge of the physiological and molecular mechanisms of phytoremediation began to emerge in recent years together with biological and engineering strategies designed to optimize and improve phytoremediation. In addition, several field trials confirmed the feasibility of using plants for environmental cleanup.[3]

Application

Phytoremediation may be applied wherever the soil or static water environment has become polluted or is suffering ongoing chronic pollution. Examples where phytoremediation has been used successfully include the restoration of abandoned metal mine workings, and sites where polychlorinated biphenyls have been dumped during manufacture and mitigation of ongoing coal mine discharges reducing the impact of contaminants in soils, water, or air. Contaminants such as metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives,[4] and crude oil and its derivatives, have been mitigated in phytoremediation projects worldwide. Many plants such as mustard plants, alpine pennycress, hemp, and pigweed have proven to be successful at hyperaccumulating contaminants at toxic waste sites.

Not all plants are able to accumulate heavy metals or organics pollutants due to differences in the physiology of the plant.[5] Even cultivars within the same species have varying abilities to accumulate pollutants.[5]

Over the past 20 years, this technology has become increasingly popular and has been employed at sites with soils contaminated with lead, uranium, and arsenic. While it has the advantage that environmental concerns may be treated in situ, one major disadvantage of phytoremediation is that it requires a long-term commitment, as the process is dependent on a plant's ability to grow and thrive in an environment that is not ideal for normal plant growth.

Advantages and limitations

  • Advantages:
    • the cost of the phytoremediation is lower than that of traditional processes both in situ and ex situ
    • the plants can be easily monitored
    • the possibility of the recovery and re-use of valuable metals (by companies specializing in "phyto mining")
    • it is potentially the least harmful method because it uses naturally occurring organisms and preserves the environment in a more natural state.
    • it preserves the topsoil, maintaining the fertility of the soil[6]
    • Increase soil health, yield, and plant phytochemicals [7]
    • the use of plants also reduces erosion and metal leaching in the soil[6]
  • Limitations:
    • phytoremediation is limited to the surface area and depth occupied by the roots.
    • slow growth and low biomass require a long-term commitment
    • with plant-based systems of remediation, it is not possible to completely prevent the leaching of contaminants into the groundwater (without the complete removal of the contaminated ground, which in itself does not resolve the problem of contamination)
    • the survival of the plants is affected by the toxicity of the contaminated land and the general condition of the soil.
    • bio-accumulation of contaminants, especially metals, into the plants which then pass into the food chain, from primary level consumers upwards or requires the safe disposal of the affected plant material.
    • when taking up heavy metals, sometimes the metal is bound to the soil organic matter, which makes it unavailable for the plant to extract[8]

Case studies

Heavy metal remediation with Ficus microcarpa Field Scale Experiment

Phytoremediation of efficiency of metal by Ficus microcarpa was evaluated through a real scale experiment.[9] The root biomass production of the species varied significantly from 3.68 to 5.43 g because of the spatial heterogeneity of different metals. According to the study it could take 4–93 years to purify excess Cd on the experimental site. Mercury was unable to be premeditated by F. microcarpa. The species of plant was moved to unpolluted soil. When transplanted Cd and CU were transferred to the rhizosphere soil. Pb and Hg were not released.[9]

Kaltag School oil seep (Alaska)

The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) has been monitoring fuel oil spills at the Kaltag School in Kaltag, Alaska, since 1991. The community has been working with ADEC to use a phytoremediation plan drafted by scientists at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The ADEC continues to keep the public informed of the progress on their website.[10]

Processes

Phytoremediation Process - svg
Phytoremediation process

A range of processes mediated by plants or algae are useful in treating environmental problems:

Phytoextraction

Phytoremediation by Phytoextraction
Some heavy metals such as copper and zinc are removed from the soil by moving up into the plant roots.

Phytoextraction (or phytoaccumulation or phytosequestration) uses plants or algae to remove contaminants from soil or water into harvestable plant biomass. The roots take up substances from the soil or water and concentrate it above ground in the plant biomass[6] Organisms that can uptake extremely high amounts of contaminants from the soil are called hyperaccumulators.[11] Phytoextraction can also be performed by plants (e.g. Populus and Salix) that take up lower levels of pollutants, but due to their high growth rate and biomass production, may remove a considerable amount of contaminants from the soil.[12] Phytoextraction has been growing rapidly in popularity worldwide for the last twenty years or so. Typically, phytoextraction is used for heavy metals or other inorganics.[13] At the time of disposal, contaminants are typically concentrated in the much smaller volume of the plant matter than in the initially contaminated soil or sediment. After harvest, a lower level of the contaminant will remain in the soil, so the growth/harvest cycle must usually be repeated through several crops to achieve a significant cleanup. After the process, the cleaned soil can support other vegetation. Mining of these extracted metals through phytomining, is also being experimented with as a way of recovering the material.[8] Hyperaccumulators are plants that can naturally take up the contaminants in soil unassisted. In many cases these are metallophyte plants that can tolerate and incorporate high levels of toxic metals. Induced or assisted phytoextraction is a process where a conditioning fluid containing a chelator or another agent is added to soil to increase metal solubility or mobilization so that the plants can absorb them more easily.[14] While this leads to increased metal uptake by plants, it can also lead to large amounts of available metals in the soil beyond what the plants are able to translocate, causing potential leaching into the subsoil or groundwater.[14]

Examples of plants that are known to accumulate the following contaminants:

Phytostabilization

Phytostabilization reduces the mobility of substances in the environment, for example, by limiting the leaching of substances from the soil.[5] It focuses on the long term stabilization and containment of the pollutant. The plant immobilizes the pollutants by binding them to soil particles making them less available for plant or human uptake.[8] Unlike phytoextraction, phytostabilization focuses mainly on sequestering pollutants in soil near the roots but not in plant tissues. Pollutants become less bioavailable, resulting in reduced exposure. The plants can also excrete a substance that produces a chemical reaction, converting the heavy metal pollutant into a less toxic form.[6] Stabilization results in reduced erosion, runoff, leaching, in addition to reducing the bioavailability of the contaminant.[13] An example application of phytostabilization is using a vegetative cap to stabilize and contain mine tailings.[20]

Phytodegradation

Phytoremediation by Degradation
The roots secrete enzymes that degrade (breakdown) organic pollutants in the soil.

Phytodegradation (also called phytotransformation) uses plants or microorganisms to degrade organic pollutants in the soil or within the body of the plant. The organic compounds are broken down by enzymes that the plant roots secrete and these molecules are then taken up by the plant and released through transpiration.[21] This process works best with organic contaminants like herbicides, trichloroethylene, and methyl tert-butyl ether.[13]

Phytotransformation results in the chemical modification of environmental substances as a direct result of plant metabolism, often resulting in their inactivation, degradation (phytodegradation), or immobilization (phytostabilization). In the case of organic pollutants, such as pesticides, explosives, solvents, industrial chemicals, and other xenobiotic substances, certain plants, such as Cannas, render these substances non-toxic by their metabolism.[22] In other cases, microorganisms living in association with plant roots may metabolize these substances in soil or water. These complex and recalcitrant compounds cannot be broken down to basic molecules (water, carbon-dioxide, etc.) by plant molecules, and, hence, the term phytotransformation represents a change in chemical structure without complete breakdown of the compound. The term "Green Liver" is used to describe phytotransformation,[23] as plants behave analogously to the human liver when dealing with these xenobiotic compounds (foreign compound/pollutant).[24][25] After uptake of the xenobiotics, plant enzymes increase the polarity of the xenobiotics by adding functional groups such as hydroxyl groups (-OH).

This is known as Phase I metabolism, similar to the way that the human liver increases the polarity of drugs and foreign compounds (drug metabolism). Whereas in the human liver enzymes such as cytochrome P450s are responsible for the initial reactions, in plants enzymes such as peroxidases, phenoloxidases, esterases and nitroreductases carry out the same role.[22]

In the second stage of phytotransformation, known as Phase II metabolism, plant biomolecules such as glucose and amino acids are added to the polarized xenobiotic to further increase the polarity (known as conjugation). This is again similar to the processes occurring in the human liver where glucuronidation (addition of glucose molecules by the UGT class of enzymes, e.g. UGT1A1) and glutathione addition reactions occur on reactive centres of the xenobiotic.

Phase I and II reactions serve to increase the polarity and reduce the toxicity of the compounds, although many exceptions to the rule are seen. The increased polarity also allows for easy transport of the xenobiotic along aqueous channels.

In the final stage of phytotransformation (Phase III metabolism), a sequestration of the xenobiotic occurs within the plant. The xenobiotics polymerize in a lignin-like manner and develop a complex structure that is sequestered in the plant. This ensures that the xenobiotic is safely stored, and does not affect the functioning of the plant. However, preliminary studies have shown that these plants can be toxic to small animals (such as snails), and, hence, plants involved in phytotransformation may need to be maintained in a closed enclosure.

Hence, the plants reduce toxicity (with exceptions) and sequester the xenobiotics in phytotransformation. Trinitrotoluene phytotransformation has been extensively researched and a transformation pathway has been proposed.[26]

Phytostimulation

Phytostimulation (or rhizodegradation) is the enhancement of soil microbial activity for the degradation of organic contaminants, typically by organisms that associate with roots.[21] This process occurs within the rhizosphere, which is the layer of soil that surrounds the roots.[21] Plants release carbohydrates and acids that stimulate microorganism activity which results in the biodegradation of the organic contaminants.[27] This means that the microorganisms are able to digest and break down the toxic substances into harmless form.[21] Phytostimulation has been shown to be effective in degrading petroleum hydrocarbons, PCBs, and PAHs.[13] Phytostimulation can also involve aquatic plants supporting active populations of microbial degraders, as in the stimulation of atrazine degradation by hornwort.[28]

Phytovolatilization

Phytoremediation by Phytovolatilization
Contaminates are then broken down and the fragments are then subsequently transformed and volatilized into the atmosphere.

Phytovolatilization is the removal of substances from soil or water with release into the air, sometimes as a result of phytotransformation to more volatile and/or less polluting substances. In this process, contaminants are taken up by the plant and through transpiration, evaporate into the atmosphere.[21] This is the most studied form of phytovolatilization, where volatilization occurs at the stem and leaves of the plant, however indirect phytovolatilization occurs when contaminants are volatilized from the root zone.[29] Selenium (Se) and Mercury (Hg) are often removed from soil through phytovolatilization.[5] Poplar trees are one of the most successful plants for removing VOCs through this process due to its high transpiration rate.[13]

Rhizofiltration

Rhizofiltration is a process that filters water through a mass of roots to remove toxic substances or excess nutrients. The pollutants remain absorbed in or adsorbed to the roots.[21] This process is often used to clean up contaminated groundwater through planting directly in the contaminated site or through removing the contaminated water and providing it to these plants in an off-site location.[21] In either case though, typically plants are first grown in a greenhouse under precise conditions.[30]

Biological hydraulic containment

Biological hydraulic containment occurs when some plants, like poplars, draw water upwards through the soil into the roots and out through the plant, which decreases the movement of soluble contaminants downwards, deeper into the site and into the groundwater.[31]

Phytodesalination

Phytodesalination uses halophytes (plants adapted to saline soil) to extract salt from the soil to improve its fertility[6]

Role of genetics

Breeding programs and genetic engineering are powerful methods for enhancing natural phytoremediation capabilities, or for introducing new capabilities into plants. Genes for phytoremediation may originate from a micro-organism or may be transferred from one plant to another variety better adapted to the environmental conditions at the cleanup site. For example, genes encoding a nitroreductase from a bacterium were inserted into tobacco and showed faster removal of TNT and enhanced resistance to the toxic effects of TNT.[32] Researchers have also discovered a mechanism in plants that allows them to grow even when the pollution concentration in the soil is lethal for non-treated plants. Some natural, biodegradable compounds, such as exogenous polyamines, allow the plants to tolerate concentrations of pollutants 500 times higher than untreated plants, and to absorb more pollutants.

Hyperaccumulators and biotic interactions

A plant is said to be a hyperaccumulator if it can concentrate the pollutants in a minimum percentage which varies according to the pollutant involved (for example: more than 1000 mg/kg of dry weight for nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium or lead; or more than 10,000 mg/kg for zinc or manganese).[33] This capacity for accumulation is due to hypertolerance, or phytotolerance: the result of adaptative evolution from the plants to hostile environments through many generations. A number of interactions may be affected by metal hyperaccumulation, including protection, interferences with neighbour plants of different species, mutualism (including mycorrhizae, pollen and seed dispersal), commensalism, and biofilm.

Tables of hyperaccumulators

Phytoscreening

As plants are able to translocate and accumulate particular types of contaminants, plants can be used as biosensors of subsurface contamination, thereby allowing investigators to quickly delineate contaminant plumes.[34][35] Chlorinated solvents, such as trichloroethylene, have been observed in tree trunks at concentrations related to groundwater concentrations.[36] To ease field implementation of phytoscreening, standard methods have been developed to extract a section of the tree trunk for later laboratory analysis, often by using an increment borer.[37] Phytoscreening may lead to more optimized site investigations and reduce contaminated site cleanup costs.

See also

References

  1. ^ Reichenauer TG, Germida JJ (2008). "Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in soil and groundwater". ChemSusChem. 1 (8–9): 708–17. doi:10.1002/cssc.200800125. PMID 18698569.
  2. ^ Das, Pratyush Kumar (April 2018). "Phytoremediation and Nanoremediation : Emerging Techniques for Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage Water". Defence Life Science Journal. 3 (2): 190–196. doi:10.14429/dlsj.3.11346 – via Crossref.
  3. ^ Salt DE, Smith RD, Raskin I (1998). "PHYTOREMEDIATION". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 49: 643–668. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.49.1.643. PMID 15012249.
  4. ^ Phytoremediation of soils using Ralstonia eutropha, Pseudomas tolaasi, Burkholderia fungorum reported by Sofie Thijs Archived 2012-03-26 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b c d Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; He, Zhen-li; Stoffella, Peter J.; Yang, Xiao-e (2008-03-01). "Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives". Journal of Zhejiang University Science B. 9 (3): 210–220. doi:10.1631/jzus.B0710633. ISSN 1673-1581. PMC 2266886. PMID 18357623.
  6. ^ a b c d e Ali, Hazrat; Khan, Ezzat; Sajad, Muhammad Anwar (2013). "Phytoremediation of heavy metals—Concepts and applications". Chemosphere. 91 (7): 869–881. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.01.075. PMID 23466085.
  7. ^ Yahia A. Othman & Daniel Leskovar (2018): Organic soil amendments influence soil health, yield, and phytochemicals of globe artichoke heads, Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, DOI: 10.1080/01448765.2018.1463292 https://doi.org/10.1080/01448765.2018.1463292
  8. ^ a b c Sarma, Hemen (2011). "Metal Hyperaccumulation in Plants: A Review Focusing on Phytoremediation Technology". Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 4 (2): 118–138. doi:10.3923/jest.2011.118.138.
  9. ^ a b Luo, Jie; Cai, Limei; Qi, Shihua; Wu, Jian; Gu, Xiaowen Sophie (February 2018). "Heavy metal remediation with Ficus microcarpa through transplantation and its environmental risks through field scale experiment". Chemosphere. 193: 244–250. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.024. ISSN 0045-6535. PMID 29136571.
  10. ^ Alaska, Division of Spill Prevention and Response, Department of Environmental Conservation, State of. "Division of Spill Prevention and Response". dec.alaska.gov. Retrieved 2018-05-27.
  11. ^ Rascio, Nicoletta; Navari-Izzo, Flavia (2011). "Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: How and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting?". Plant Science. 180 (2): 169–181. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2010.08.016. PMID 21421358.
  12. ^ Guidi Nissim W., Palm E., Mancuso S., Azzarello E. (2018) "Trace element phytoextraction from contaminated soil: a case study under Mediterranean climate". Environmental Science and Pollution Research https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1197-x
  13. ^ a b c d e Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth (2005-04-29). "Phytoremediation". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 56 (1): 15–39. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.56.032604.144214. ISSN 1543-5008. PMID 15862088.
  14. ^ a b {{Cite journal|last=Doumett|first=S.|last2=Lamperi|first2=L.|last3=Checchini|first3=L.|last4=Azzarello|first4=E.|last5=Mugnai|first5=S.|last6=Mancuso|first6=S.|last7=Petruzzelli|first7=G.|last8=Bubba|first8=M. Del|title=Heavy metal distribution between contaminated soil and Paulownia tomentosa, in a pilot-scale assisted phytoremediation study: Influence of different complexing agents|journal=Chemosphere|volume=72|issue=10|pages=1481–1490|doi=10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.04.083|pmid=18558420|year=2008|hdl=2158/318589}}
  15. ^ Marchiol, L.; Fellet, G.; Perosa, D.; Zerbi, G. (2007), "Removal of trace metals by Sorghum bicolor and Helianthus annuus in a site polluted by industrial wastes: A field experience", Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 45 (5): 379–87, doi:10.1016/j.plaphy.2007.03.018, PMID 17507235
  16. ^ Wang, J.; Zhao, FJ; Meharg, AA; Raab, A; Feldmann, J; McGrath, SP (2002), "Mechanisms of Arsenic Hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata. Uptake Kinetics, Interactions with Phosphate, and Arsenic Speciation", Plant Physiology, 130 (3): 1552–61, doi:10.1104/pp.008185, PMC 166674, PMID 12428020
  17. ^ Greger, M. & Landberg, T. (1999), "Using of Willow in Phytoextraction", International Journal of Phytoremediation, 1 (2): 115–123, doi:10.1080/15226519908500010.
  18. ^ Adler, Tina (July 20, 1996). "Botanical cleanup crews: using plants to tackle polluted water and soil". Science News. Retrieved 2010-09-03.
  19. ^ Meagher, RB (2000), "Phytoremediation of toxic elemental and organic pollutants", Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 3 (2): 153–162, doi:10.1016/S1369-5266(99)00054-0, PMID 10712958.
  20. ^ Mendez MO, Maier RM (2008), "Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings in Arid and Semiarid Environments—An Emerging Remediation Technology", Environ Health Perspect, 116 (3): 278–83, doi:10.1289/ehp.10608, PMC 2265025, PMID 18335091, archived from the original on 2008-10-24.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g "Phytoremediation Processes". www.unep.or.jp. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
  22. ^ a b Kvesitadze, G.; et al. (2006), Biochemical Mechanisms of Detoxification in Higher Plants, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-28996-8
  23. ^ Sanderman, H. (1994), "Higher plant metabolism of xenobiotics: the "green liver" concept", Pharmacogenetics, 4 (5): 225–241, doi:10.1097/00008571-199410000-00001.
  24. ^ Burken, J.G. (2004), "2. Uptake and Metabolism of Organic Compounds: Green-Liver Model", in McCutcheon, S.C.; Schnoor, J.L. (eds.), Phytoremediation: Transformation and Control of Contaminants, A Wiley-Interscience Series of Texts and Monographs, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, pp. 59–84, doi:10.1002/047127304X.ch2, ISBN 978-0-471-39435-8
  25. ^ Ramel, F., Sulmon, C., Serra, A.A., Gouesbet, G., Couée I. (2012), “Xenobiotic sensing and signalling in higher plants”, Journal of Experimental Botany, 63(11):3999-4014, doi: 10.1093/jxb/ers102, PMID 22493519
  26. ^ Subramanian, Murali; Oliver, David J. & Shanks, Jacqueline V. (2006), "TNT Phytotransformation Pathway Characteristics in Arabidopsis: Role of Aromatic Hydroxylamines", Biotechnol. Prog., 22 (1): 208–216, doi:10.1021/bp050241g, PMID 16454512.
  27. ^ Dzantor, E. Kudjo (2007-03-01). "Phytoremediation: the state of rhizosphere 'engineering' for accelerated rhizodegradation of xenobiotic contaminants". Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology. 82 (3): 228–232. doi:10.1002/jctb.1662. ISSN 1097-4660.
  28. ^ Rupassara, S. I.; Larson, R. A.; Sims, G. K. & Marley, K. A. (2002), "Degradation of Atrazine by Hornwort in Aquatic Systems", Bioremediation Journal, 6 (3): 217–224, doi:10.1080/10889860290777576.
  29. ^ Limmer, Matt; Burken, Joel (2016-07-05). "Phytovolatilization of Organic Contaminants". Environmental Science & Technology. 50 (13): 6632–6643. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b04113. ISSN 0013-936X.
  30. ^ Surriya, Orooj; Saleem, Sayeda Sarah; Waqar, Kinza; Kazi, Alvina Gul (2015). Soil Remediation and Plants. pp. 1–36. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-799937-1.00001-2. ISBN 9780127999371.
  31. ^ Evans, Gareth M.; Furlong, Judith C. (2010-01-01). Phytotechnology and Photosynthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 145–174. doi:10.1002/9780470975152.ch7. ISBN 9780470975152.
  32. ^ Hannink, N.; Rosser, S. J.; French, C. E.; Basran, A.; Murray, J. A.; Nicklin, S.; Bruce, N. C. (2001), "Phytodetoxification of TNT by transgenic plants expressing a bacterial nitroreductase", Nature Biotechnology, 19 (12): 1168–72, doi:10.1038/nbt1201-1168, PMID 11731787.
  33. ^ Baker, A. J. M.; Brooks, R. R. (1989), "Terrestrial higher plants which hyperaccumulate metallic elements – A review of their distribution, ecology and phytochemistry", Biorecovery, 1 (2): 81–126.
  34. ^ Burken, J.; Vroblesky, D.; Balouet, J.C. (2011), "Phytoforensics, Dendrochemistry, and Phytoscreening: New Green Tools for Delineating Contaminants from Past and Present", Environmental Science & Technology, 45 (15): 6218–6226, doi:10.1021/es2005286, PMID 21749088.
  35. ^ Sorek, A.; Atzmon, N.; Dahan, O.; Gerstl, Z.; Kushisin, L.; Laor, Y.; Mingelgrin, U.; Nasser, A.; Ronen, D.; Tsechansky, L.; Weisbrod, N.; Graber, E.R. (2008), ""Phytoscreening": The Use of Trees for Discovering Subsurface Contamination by VOCs", Environmental Science & Technology, 42 (2): 536–542, doi:10.1021/es072014b.
  36. ^ Vroblesky, D.; Nietch, C.; Morris, J. (1998), "Chlorinated Ethenes from Groundwater in Tree Trunks", Environmental Science & Technology, 33 (3): 510–515, doi:10.1021/es980848b.
  37. ^ Vroblesky, D. (2008). "User's Guide to the Collection and Analysis of Tree Cores to Assess the Distribution of Subsurface Volatile Organic Compounds".

Bibliography

External links

Ambrosia artemisiifolia

Ambrosia artemisiifolia, with the common names common ragweed, annual ragweed, and low ragweed, is a species of the genus Ambrosia native to regions of the Americas.

Arborloo

An arborloo is a simple type of composting toilet in which feces are collected in a shallow pit and a fruiting tree is later planted in the fertile soil of the full pit. Arborloos have a pit like a pit latrine but less deep, a concrete slab, superstructure (toilet house or outhouse) to provide privacy and possibly a ring beam to protect the pit from collapsing.The arborloo works by temporarily putting the slab and superstructure above a shallow pit while this pit fills. When the pit is nearly full, the superstructure and slab is moved to a newly dug pit and the old pit is covered with the earth got by digging the new pit and left to compost. The old pit serves as a bed for a fruit tree or some other useful vegetation, which is preferably planted during the rainy season.The arborloo is a type of dry toilet. In using the nutrient-rich soil of a retired pit, the arborloo, in effect, treats feces as a resource rather than a waste product. Arborloos are used in rural areas of many developing countries, for example in Zimbabwe, Malawi and Ethiopia.

Bioremediation

Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants. In many cases, bioremediation is less expensive and more sustainable than other remediation alternatives. Biological treatment is a similar approach used to treat wastes including wastewater, industrial waste and solid waste.

Most bioremediation processes involve oxidation-reduction reactions where either an electron acceptor (commonly oxygen) is added to stimulate oxidation of a reduced pollutant (e.g. hydrocarbons) or an electron donor (commonly an organic substrate) is added to reduce oxidized pollutants (nitrate, perchlorate, oxidized metals, chlorinated solvents, explosives and propellants). In both these approaches, additional nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and pH buffers may be added to optimize conditions for the microorganisms. In some cases, specialized microbial cultures are added (bioaugmentation) to further enhance biodegradation. Some examples of bioremediation related technologies are phytoremediation, mycoremediation, bioventing, bioleaching, landfarming, bioreactor, composting, bioaugmentation, rhizofiltration, and biostimulation.

Brassica juncea

Brassica juncea, commonly brown mustard, Chinese mustard, Indian mustard, leaf mustard, Oriental mustard and vegetable mustard, is a species of mustard plant. One subvariety is southern giant curled mustard, which resembles a headless cabbage such as kale, but with a distinct horseradish or mustard flavor. It is also known as green mustard cabbage.

Cannabis sativa

Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation. It has been cultivated throughout recorded history, used as a source of industrial fiber, seed oil, food, recreation, religious and spiritual moods and medicine. Each part of the plant is harvested differently, depending on the purpose of its use. The species was first classified by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. The word "sativa" means things that are cultivated.

Groundwater remediation

Groundwater remediation is the process that is used to treat polluted groundwater by removing the pollutants or converting them into harmless products. Groundwater is water present below the ground surface that saturates the pore space in the subsurface. Globally, between 25 per cent and 40 per cent of the world's drinking water is drawn from boreholes and dug wells. Groundwater is also used by farmers to irrigate crops and by industries to produce everyday goods. Most groundwater is clean, but groundwater can become polluted, or contaminated as a result of human activities or as a result of natural conditions.

The many and diverse activities of humans produce innumerable waste materials and by-products. Historically, the disposal of such waste have not been subject to many regulatory controls. Consequently, waste materials have often been disposed of or stored on land surfaces where they percolate into the underlying groundwater. As a result, the contaminated groundwater is unsuitable for use.

Current practices can still impact groundwater, such as the over application of fertilizer or pesticides, spills from industrial operations, infiltration from urban runoff, and leaking from landfills. Using contaminated groundwater causes hazards to public health through poisoning or the spread of disease, and the practice of groundwater remediation has been developed to address these issues. Contaminants found in groundwater cover a broad range of physical, inorganic chemical, organic chemical, bacteriological, and radioactive parameters. Pollutants and contaminants can be removed from groundwater by applying various techniques, thereby bringing the water to a standard that is commensurate with various intended uses.

Hydrilla

Hydrilla (Waterthyme) is a genus of aquatic plant, usually treated as containing just one species, Hydrilla verticillata, though some botanists divide it into several species. It is native to the cool and warm waters of the Old World in Asia, Africa and Australia, with a sparse, scattered distribution; in Australia from Northern Territory, Queensland, and New South Wales.The stems grow up to 1–2m long. The leaves are arranged in whorls of two to eight around the stem, each leaf 5–20 mm long and 0.7–2 mm broad, with serrations or small spines along the leaf margins; the leaf midrib is often reddish when fresh. It is monoecious (sometimes dioecious), with male and female flowers produced separately on a single plant; the flowers are small, with three sepals and three petals, the petals 3–5 mm long, transparent with red streaks. It reproduces primarily vegetatively by fragmentation and by rhizomes and turions (overwintering), and flowers are rarely seen. They have air spaces to keep them upright.

Hydrilla has a high resistance to salinity compared to many other freshwater associated aquatic plants.

Lemnoideae

Duckweeds, or water lenses, are flowering aquatic plants which float on or just beneath the surface of still or slow-moving bodies of fresh water and wetlands. Also known as "bayroot", they arose from within the arum or aroid family (Araceae), so often are classified as the subfamily Lemnoideae within the Araceae. Other classifications, particularly those created prior to the end of the 20th century, place them as a separate family, Lemnaceae.

These plants have a simple structure, lacking an obvious stem or leaves. The greater part of each plant is a small organized "thallus" or "frond" structure only a few cells thick, often with air pockets (aerenchyma) that allow it to float on or just under the water surface. Depending on the species, each plant may have no root or may have one or more simple rootlets.Reproduction is mostly by asexual budding (vegetative reproduction), which occurs from a meristem enclosed at the base of the frond. Occasionally, three tiny "flowers" consisting of two stamens and a pistil are produced, by which sexual reproduction occurs. Some view this "flower" as a pseudanthium, or reduced inflorescence, with three flowers that are distinctly either female or male and which are derived from the spadix in the Araceae. Evolution of the duckweed inflorescence remains ambiguous due to the considerable evolutionary reduction of these plants from their earlier relatives.

The flower of the duckweed genus Wolffia is the smallest known, measuring merely 0.3 mm long. The fruit produced through this occasional reproduction is a utricle, and a seed is produced in a bag containing air that facilitates flotation.

List of hyperaccumulators

This article covers known hyperaccumulators, accumulators or species tolerant to the following: Aluminium (Al), Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Beryllium (Be), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg), Molybdenum (Mo), Naphthalene, Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn).

See also:

Hyperaccumulators table – 2 : Nickel

Hyperaccumulators table – 3 : Cd, Cs, Co, Pu, Ra, Sr, U, radionuclides, hydrocarbons, organic solvents, etc.

Melilotus officinalis

Melilotus officinalis, known as yellow sweet clover, yellow melilot, ribbed melilot and common melilot is a species of legume native to Eurasia and introduced in North America, Africa and Australia.

Panicum virgatum

Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico. Switchgrass is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie and can be found in remnant prairies, in native grass pastures, and naturalized along roadsides. It is used primarily for soil conservation, forage production, game cover, as an ornamental grass, in phytoremediation projects, fiber, electricity, heat production, for biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and more recently as a biomass crop for ethanol and butanol.

Other common names for switchgrass include tall panic grass, Wobsqua grass, blackbent, tall prairiegrass, wild redtop, thatchgrass, and Virginia switchgrass.

Phalaris arundinacea

Phalaris arundinacea, sometimes known as reed canary grass, is a tall, perennial bunchgrass that commonly forms extensive single-species stands along the margins of lakes and streams and in wet open areas, with a wide distribution in Europe, Asia, northern Africa and North America. Other common names for the plant include gardener's-garters in English, alpiste roseau in French, rohrglanzgras in German, kusa-yoshi in Japanese, caniço-malhado in Portuguese, and hierba cinta and pasto cinto in Spanish.

Phragmites

Phragmites is a genus of four species of large perennial grasses found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, maintained by Kew Garden in London, accepts the following four species:

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. – cosmopolitan

Phragmites japonicus Steud. – Japan, Korea, Ryukyu Islands, Russian Far East

Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. – tropical Africa, southern Asia, Australia, some Pacific Islands

Phragmites mauritianus Kunth – central + southern Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius

Pistia

Pistia is a genus of aquatic plant in the arum family, Araceae. The single species it comprises, Pistia stratiotes, is often called water cabbage, water lettuce, Nile cabbage, or shellflower. Its native distribution is uncertain, but probably pantropical; it was first discovered from the Nile near Lake Victoria in Africa. It is now present, either naturally or through human introduction, in nearly all tropical and subtropical fresh waterways and considered an invasive species as well as a mosquito breeding habitat. The genus name is derived from the Greek word πιστός (pistos), meaning "water," and refers to the aquatic nature of the plants.

Polypogon

Polypogon is a nearly cosmopolitan genus of plants in the grass family, commonly known beard grass or rabbitsfoot grass.

Populus

Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. English names variously applied to different species include poplar , aspen, and cottonwood.

In the September 2006 issue of Science Magazine, the Joint Genome Institute announced that the western balsam poplar (P. trichocarpa) was the first tree whose full DNA code had been determined by DNA sequencing.

Salix babylonica

Salix babylonica (Babylon willow or weeping willow; Chinese: 垂柳; pinyin: chuí liǔ) is a species of willow native to dry areas of northern China, but cultivated for millennia elsewhere in Asia, being traded along the Silk Road to southwest Asia and Europe.

Salix viminalis

Salix viminalis, the basket willow, common osier or osier, is a species of willow native to Europe, Western Asia, and the Himalayas.

Treebog

A treebog is a type of low-tech compost toilet. It consists of a raised platform above a compost pile surrounded by densely planted willow trees or other nutrient-hungry vegetation. It can be considered an example of permaculture design, as it functions as a system for converting urine and feces to biomass, without the need to handle excreta.

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.