Phineus

In Greek mythology, Phineus[1] (/ˈfɪniəs, ˈfɪn.juːs/; Ancient Greek: Φινεύς, Ancient Greek: [pʰiː.neǔs]) was a king of Salmydessus in Thrace[2][3] and seer who appears in accounts of the Argonauts' voyage.[4] Some accounts, make him a king in Paphlagonia[2][5][6][7] or in Arcadia.[8]

Phineus Boreads Louvre G364 n2
Phineus with the Boreads.

Family

Several different versions of Phineus's parentage were presented in ancient texts. According to Apollonius of Rhodes, he was a son of Agenor[9], but the Bibliotheca says that other authors named his father as Poseidon (who is the father of Agenor).[3] The Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, on the other hand, reported that Phineus was the son of Phoenix and Cassiopeia.[10][11][12]

His first wife was Cleopatra, daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia, by whom he had a pair of sons, named either Plexippus and Pandion,[13] or Gerymbas and Aspondus[14], or Polydector (Polydectus) and Polydorus[15], or Parthenius and Crambis[16][17], or Oryithus (Oarthus) and Crambis. His second wife, Idaea, daughter of the Scythian king Dardanus[18][19][20] (less commonly Dia[11], Eidothea, sister of Cadmus,[21] or Eurytia[22]), deceived him into blinding these sons, a fate Phineus himself would suffer.[11][23]

By his second wife, or by a Scythian concubine[24], Phineus had two more sons, Mariandynus and Thynus.[16] According to some sources, he also had two daughters, Eraseia and Harpyreia[25][26] while another daughter Olizone was called the wife of Dardanus, who was the son of Zeus and Electra, and became the mother of Erichthonius.[27]

Comparative table of Phineus' family
Relation Names Source
Homer Hesiod Sophocles Apollon. Diodo. Ovid Valer. Apollod. Dictys Nonnus Tzetzes Unknown
Sch. Ody. Ehoiai Sch. Anti. Argo. Sch. Sch. Ibis
Parentage Phoenix and Cassiopeia
Agenor
Poseidon
Wife Cleopatra (1st wife)
Idaea
Eurytia
Eidothea
Dia
First wife
Children Gerymbas
Aspondus
Parthenius
Crambis
Mariandynus
Thynus
Polydector (Polydectus)
Polydorus
Plexippus
Pandion
Olizone
Eraseia
Harpyreia
Oryithus (Oarthus)
Crambis

Mythology

Phineus's own blinding was variously attributed to the outrage against his sons,[28] his giving Phrixus directions on his journey,[29] or because he preferred long life to sight,[30] or, as reported in the Argonautica (thus the best-known version), for revealing the future to mankind.[31] For this reason he was also tormented by the Harpies, who stole or defiled whatever food he had at hand or, according to the Catalogue of Women, drove Phineus himself to the corners of the world.[32] According to scholia on the Odyssey, when asked by Zeus if he preferred to die or lose sight as punishment for having his sons killed by their stepmother, Phineus chose the latter saying he would rather never see the sun, and consequently it was the scorned Helios who sent the Harpies against him.[22] However the Harpies plagued him, deliverance from this curse motivated Phineus's involvement in the voyage of the Argo.[33] Those accounts in which Phineus is stated to have blinded his sons, add that they had their sight restored to them by the sons of Boreas[34], or by Asclepius[35].

When the ship landed by his Thracian home, Phineus described his torment to the crew and told them that his brothers-in-law, the wing-footed Boreads, both Argonauts, were fated to deliver him from the Harpies.[36] Zetes demurred, fearing the wrath of the gods should they deliver Phineus from divine punishment, but the old seer assured him that he and his brother Calais would face no retribution.[37] A trap was set: Phineus sat down to a meal with the Boreads standing guard, and as soon as he touched his food the Harpies swept down, devoured the food and flew off.[38] The Boreads gave chase, pursuing the Harpies as far as the "Floating Islands" before Iris stopped them lest they kill the Harpies against the will of the gods.[39] She swore an oath by the Styx that the Harpies would no longer harass Phineus, and the Boreads then turned back to return to the Argonauts. It is for this reason, according to Apollonius, that the "Floating Islands" are now called the Strophades, the "Turning Islands".[40] Phineus then revealed to the Argonauts the path their journey would take and informed them how to pass the Symplegades safely, thus partially filling the same role for Jason that Circe did for Odysseus in the Odyssey.[33]

A now lost play about Phineus, Phineus, was written by Aeschylus and was the first play in the trilogy that included The Persians, produced in 472 B.C.[41]

Notes

  1. ^ The name is occasionally rendered "Phineas" in popular culture, as in the film Jason and the Argonauts. "Phineus" may be associated with the ancient city of Phinea (or Phineopolis) on the Thracian Bosphorus.
  2. ^ a b Scholia on Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 2.178, 237; Scholia ad eund 2.177
  3. ^ a b Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1.9.21
  4. ^ Bremmer (1996), Dräger (2007).
  5. ^ Eustathius ad Homer, Iliad 2.851, ad Dionysius Periegetes, 787
  6. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Constantine Porphyrogennetos, De thematibus 1.7
  7. ^ William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, sv Paphlagonia
  8. ^ Servius, Commentary on Virgil's Aeneid 3.209
  9. ^ Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 2.236–7
  10. ^ Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 138 (Merkelbach & West 1967)
  11. ^ a b c Scholia on Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 2.178
  12. ^ Phineus was the grandson of Agenor as the son of Phoenix according to Pherecydes and Antimachus as cited in George W. Mooney, Commentary on Apollonius: Argonautica vs Phineus
  13. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.15.3
  14. ^ Scholia on Sophocles, Antigone 977 ed. Brunck
  15. ^ Scholia on Ovid, Ibis 273
  16. ^ a b Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2.140
  17. ^ Dräger (2007)
  18. ^ Tripp, s.v. Dardanus (2) p. 190
  19. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.43.3–4
  20. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.15.3
  21. ^ Scholia on Sophocles, Antigone 989
  22. ^ a b Scholia on Homer, Odyssey 12.69
  23. ^ Sophocles, Antigone 966–76
  24. ^ Idaea and the Scythian concubine might be the same.
  25. ^ Tzetzes, Chiliades 1.220
  26. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, Alexandra 166
  27. ^ Dictys Cretensis, Trojan War Chronicle 3.5 & 4.22
  28. ^ Sophocles fr. 704 Radt
  29. ^ Megalai Ehoiai fr. 254 (Merkelbach & West 1967).
  30. ^ Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 157 (Merkelbach & West 1967)
  31. ^ Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 2.178–86
  32. ^ Phineus' food: Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 2.187–201; his wandering torment: Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 157 (Merkelbach & West 1967)
  33. ^ a b Dräger (2007).
  34. ^ Orphic Argonautica, 674
  35. ^ Scholia ad Pindar, Pythian Odes 13.96
  36. ^ Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 2.234–9
  37. ^ Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 2.244–61
  38. ^ Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 2.263–72
  39. ^ Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 2.282–7
  40. ^ Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 2.288–97
  41. ^ Thomson, G. (1973). Aeschylus and Athens (4 ed.). Lawrence & Wishart. p. 279.

References

Further reading

  • Bremmer, J.N. (1996), "Phineus", in S. Hornblower & A. Spawforth (eds.) (eds.), Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd rev. ed.), Oxford, ISBN 978-0-19-866172-6CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link).
  • Dräger, P. (1993), Argo Pasimelousa. Der Argonautenmythos in der griechischen und römischen Literatur. Teil 1: Theos aitios, Stuttgart, ISBN 978-3-515-05974-9.
  • Dräger, P. (2007), "Phineus", in H. Cancik & H. Schneider (eds.) (eds.), Brill's New Pauly: Antiquity, 11 (Phi–Prok), ISBN 978-90-04-14216-9CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link).
  • Merkelbach, R.; West, M.L. (1967), Fragmenta Hesiodea, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-814171-8.
  • Tripp, Edward, Crowell's Handbook of Classical Mythology, Ty Crowell Co; First edition (June 1970). ISBN 069022608X
  • West, M.L. (1985), The Hesiodic Catalogue of Women: Its Nature, Structure, and Origins, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-814034-7.

External links

  • Media related to Phineus at Wikimedia Commons
Achiroe

Achiroë or Anchirrhoë (Ancient Greek: Ἀχιρ(ρ)όη), or according to the Bibliotheca Anchinoë (Ἀγχινόη), which is perhaps a mistake for Anchiroë, was in Greek mythology a naiad, a daughter of the river-god Nilus. She was also the wife of Belus, by whom she became the mother of Aegyptus and Danaus, and, according to some accounts, Cepheus, and Phineus. Otherwise, the possible mother of this children and spouse of Belus was called Side, eponym of Sidon in Phoenicia.

Agenor

Agenor (; Ancient Greek: Ἀγήνωρ Agēnor; English translation: 'heroic, manly') was in Greek mythology and history a Phoenician king of Tyre. Herodotus estimates that Agenor lived sometime before the year 2000 BC.

Ampyx

In Greek mythology, Ampyx (Ancient Greek: Ἄμπυξ) or Ampycus (Greek: Ἄμπυκος Ampykos means "woman's diadem, frontlet") was the name of the following figures:

Ampyx, also called Ampycus or Ampyce was a seer, the son of Elatus and possibly of Hippeia from Titaresia. He fathered Mopsus with the nymph Chloris or Aregonis. His son Mopsus joined the Argonauts after he was slain.

Ampyx, father of the seer Idmon in some texts. Otherwise, Idmon was called the son of Abas or the god Apollo by Antianeira. Not to be confused with the above-mentioned Ampyx who was the father of another seer, Mopsus.

Ampyx or Ampycus, a Ethiopian priest of Demeter (Ceres). He appears in Ovid's Metamorphoses and was slain by Phineus during a fight between Phineus and Perseus (see Boast of Cassiopeia), just before Phineus was turned to stone.

Ampyx or Amycus, son of Opinion, was one of the Lapiths who fought the centaurs at Pirithous's wedding. Appears in Ovid's Metamorphoses.

Ampyx, an ancestor of Patreas, the founder of Patrae through his grandson, Agenor who became the grandfather of Patreas.

Argonauts

The Argonauts (; Ancient Greek: Ἀργοναῦται Argonautai) were a band of heroes in Greek mythology, who in the years before the Trojan War, around 1300 BC, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece. Their name comes from their ship, Argo, named after its builder, Argus. "Argonauts" literally means "Argo sailors". They were sometimes called Minyans, after a prehistoric tribe in the area.

Chalkidian pottery

Chalcidian pottery is an important style of black-figure Greek vase painting.

The style's name is derived from the occasional presence of mythological inscriptions on the vases, which are executed in the Chalcidian alphabet. Andreas Rumpf and Adolf Kirchhoff, who coined the term, as well as other archaeologists initially assumed the pottery to originate from Euboea. Nowadays, it is believed to have been produced in Rhegion, perhaps also in Caere. The question has not yet been conclusively resolved. An argument against a South Italian origin is the fact that some vases bear trade marks not otherwise used in that part of Magna Graecia. The Chalkidian alphabet was not only used in Chalkis, but also elsewhere in Euboea and in Etruria. The possibility of an Etrurian origin is contradicted by the fact that Etruscan pottery was not usually exported to the South of Italy. The painting style has no recognisable Euboean characteristics and is thus unlikely to originate from there. Chalcidian vase painting shows influences from Attic, Corinthian and Ionian vase painting. The vases were found mainly in Italian sites such as Caere, Vulci and Rhegion, but also in Ampurias (Spain], Izmir, Massalia and Skyros. The style was succeeded by Pseudo-Chalkidian vase painting.

The production of Chalcidian vases started suddenly around 560 BC. No predecessors have been recognised so far. It ended after about 50 years, around 510 BC. Today, about 600 vases are known; 15 painters or groups of painters can be recognised. Key characteristic of the vases the high quality of the pottery. The shiny slip that usually covers turned deep black after firing. The base clay was orange. Their painters made generous use of red and white paints, as well as incision for internal detail. The leading shape is the neck amphora, providing about a quarter of all known Chalcidian vases, followed by Eye-cups, oinochoai and hydriai; rarer shapes include kraters, skyphoi and pyxides. Lekanes and Etruscan-style cups occur exceptionally. The construction of the vases is straightforward and simple. A typical feature is the Chalcidian cup foot, sometimes imitated in Attic black-figure and (rarely) red-figure vases (Chalcidianising cups).

The most important among the recognised artists of the older generation is the Inscription Painter, among the later ones the Phineus Painter. The Inscription Painter had probably invented the style, whereas the Phineus Painter ran one of the most productive workshops, responsible for at least 170 of the known pieces. He may also have been the last representative of the style. The images are usually decorative, rather than narrative, in character. Horsemen, animal friezes, heraldic images or groups of humans occur. A large lotus-palmette cross is also often included. Mythological imagery is rare, but of outstanding quality when it occurs. Only 30 vases with mythological motifs are known. They depict the deeds of Herakles, scenes from the Trojan War, or the voyage of the Argo. Depictions of gods are rare, limited to two images of the return of Hephaistos to Mount Olympus. More common are nymphs, silenus or running gorgons. The figures appear elastic and lively. The most common ornaments are chains of buds and rosettes.

Chione (daughter of Boreas)

In Greek mythology, Chione (from Greek χιών – chiōn, "snow") was the daughter of Boreas, the god of the north wind, and Orithyia a daughter of Erechtheus, king of Athens. Chione was the sister of Cleopatra (wife of Phineus, king of Thrace) and the Argonauts, Calaïs and Zetes. According to a late, though generally accepted tradition, Chione was the mother of Poseidon's son Eumolpus whom she threw into the ocean for fear of her father's reaction; however, Eumolpus is rescued and raised by Poseidon.

Clytius

Clytius (Ancient Greek: Κλυτίος), also spelled Klythios, Klytios, Clytios, and Klytius, is the name of multiple people in Greek mythology:

Clytius, one of the Giants, sons of Gaia, killed by Hecate during the Gigantomachy, the battle of the Giants versus the Olympian gods.

Clytius, an alternate name for Clytoneus, the son of Naubolus of Argos and father of Nauplius II.

Clytius, son of Agriopas and grandson of Cyclops. He fought in the war between Eumolpus and Eleusis and fell alongside Eumolpus' son Immaradus and Egremus, son of Eurynomus.

Clytius, an Athenian, father of Pheno who married Lamedon. Ianiscus, descendant of this Clytius, became king in Sicyon after Adrastus.

Clytius, a man killed by Perseus in the battle against Phineus.

Clytius, a warrior in the army of Dionysus during the god's Indian campaign. He was killed by Corymbasus.

Clytius, an Argonaut and a Oechalian prince as son of King Eurytus and Antiope or Antioche, and thus brother to Iole, Toxeus, Deioneus, Molion, Didaeon and Iphitos. According to Hyginus, he was killed by Aeetes, if indeed the text is not corrupt; according to Diodorus Siculus, however, he was killed by Heracles during the latter's war against Eurytus.

Clytius, in a rare version of the myth, a son of Phineus and brother of Polymedes: the two brothers killed Phineus' second, Phrygian, wife (Idaea?) at the instigation of Cleopatra.

Clytius, son of Laomedon, brother of Priam, and an elder of Troy. By Laothoe, he was the father of Caletor, Procleia and Pronoe or Pronome, of whom the latter was the mother of Polydamas by Panthous.

Clytius, son of Alcmaeon and Arsinoe or Alphesiboea. He moved from Psophis to Elis in order to escape his mother's vengeful brothers. The Clytidae, a clan of soothsayers, claimed descent from him. According to Stephanus of Byzantium, his mother was Triphyle, the eponym of Triphylia.

Clytius, each of the three namesakes among the suitors of Penelope: one from Dulichium, another from Same, and the third from Zacynthus.

Clytius, an attendant of Telemachus in Homer's Odyssey, the father of Telemachus' friend Peiraeus. Dolops, a Greek warrior killed by Hector in the Iliad, could also have been his son.

Clytius, one of the sons of Aeolus who followed Aeneas to Italy and was killed by Turnus.

Clytius, father of Euneus (one of those killed in the battle between Aeneas and Turnus).

Clytius, a young soldier in the army of Turnus who was loved by Cydon in Virgil's Aeneid, and was killed by Aeneas.

Clytius, father of Acmon and Menestheus from Lyrnessus, Phrygia.To these can be added several figures not mentioned in extant literary sources and only known from various vase paintings:

Clytius, a companion of Peleus present at the wrestling match between Peleus and Atalanta

Clytius, an arms-bearer of Tydeus present at the scene of murder of Ismene, on a vase from Corinth

Clytius, a barbarian-looking participant of a boar hunt, possibly the Calydonian hunt, on the Petersburg vase #1790

Clytius, a man standing in front of the enthroned Hygieia, on a vase by the Meidias Painter

Clytius, an epithet of Apollo, in an inscription

Erichthonius of Dardania

The mythical King Erichthonius (; Ancient Greek: Ἐριχθόνιος) of Dardania was the son of Dardanus, King of Dardania and Batea (in some legends, Olizone, daughter of Phineus) and thus brother of Ilus and Zacynthus. Erichthonius was said to have enjoyed a peaceful and prosperous reign.

Harpy

In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, a harpy (plural harpies, Greek: ἅρπυια, harpyia, pronounced [hárpyi̯a]; Latin: harpȳia) was a half-human and half-bird personification of storm winds, in Homeric poems.

Idaea of Thrace

In Greek mythology, Idaea or Idaia (Ancient Greek: Ἰδαία, 'she who comes from Ida' or 'she who lives on Ida') was, by some accounts, the daughter of the Scythian king Dardanus, and the second wife of Phineus, the king of Thrace. Idaea's false accusations against her stepsons, were responsible for her husbands misfortunes. She was sent back to Scythia, where she was condemned to death. Other ancient sources give other names for Phineus's second wife, including: Eidothea, sister of Cadmus, and Eurytia.

Painted apple moth

The painted apple moth (Orgyia anartoides) is a tussock moth native to Australia. It is notable as a pest in pine forests, and is classified as a pest in New Zealand.In New Zealand, controversy over an aerial spraying programme arose when an outbreak of the moth was identified in Auckland.

Phineas and Ferb

Phineas and Ferb is an American animated musical comedy television series. Originally broadcast as a one-episode preview on August 17, 2007 and again previewed on September 28, 2007, the series officially premiered on February 1, 2008 on Disney Channel, running until June 12, 2015. The program follows Phineas Flynn and his stepbrother Ferb Fletcher on summer vacation. Every day, the boys embark on some grand new project; these are usually unrealistic given the protagonists' ages (and are sometimes downright physically impossible), which annoys their controlling sister, Candace, who frequently tries to reveal their shenanigans to her and Phineas' mother, Linda Flynn-Fletcher, and less frequently to Ferb's father, Lawrence Fletcher. The series follows a standard plot system; running gags occur every episode, and the b-plot almost always features Phineas and Ferb's pet platypus Perry the Platypus working as a spy (named "Agent P") for OWCA (the Organization Without a Cool Acronym), to defeat the latest scheme of Dr. Heinz Doofenshmirtz, a mad scientist driven largely by a need to assert his evilness (although he is not especially evil and has a good heart in some situations.) The two plots intersect at the end to erase all traces of the boys' project just before Candace can show it to their mother. This usually leaves Candace very frustrated.

Creators Dan Povenmire and Jeff "Swampy" Marsh had previously worked together on Fox's The Simpsons and Nickelodeon's Rocko's Modern Life. The creators also voice two of the main B-plot characters: Major Monogram and Dr. Doofenshmirtz. Phineas and Ferb was conceived after Povenmire sketched a triangular boy – the prototype for Phineas – in a restaurant. Povenmire and Marsh developed the series concept together and pitched it to networks for 16 years before securing a run on Disney Channel.

Phineus (disambiguation)

Phineus is a Greek mythological king of Thrace, visited by Jason and the Argonauts.

Phineus may also refer to:

Phineus (son of Belus), turned to stone by Perseus

Phineus, one of the sons of Lycaon

Phineus (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Phineus (; Greek: Φινεύς, Ancient Greek: [pʰiː.neǔs]) was the name of the following figures:

Phineus, king of Thrace who was visited by Jason and the Argonauts.Phineus, son of Belus who was turned to stone by Perseus.

Phineus, one of the sons of Lycaon.

Phineus (son of Belus)

In Greek mythology, Phineus (/ˈfɪniəs, ˈfɪn.juːs/; Ancient Greek: Φινεύς, Ancient: [pʰiːněws]) was a son of Belus by Anchinoe and thus brother to Aegyptus, Danaus and Cepheus.

Phoenix of Phoenicia

In Greek mythology, Phoenix or Phoinix (Ancient Greek: Φοῖνιξ Phoinix, gen.: Φοίνικος means "sun-red") is the eponym of Phoenicia who together with his brothers were tasked to find their abducted sister Europa.

Plexippus

In Greek mythology, Plexippus or Plexippos (Ancient Greek: Πλήξιππος means "striking") is a name that refers to:

Plexippus, son of King Thestius of Pleuron and Eurythemis, daughter of Cleoboea. He was the brother of Althaea, Leda, Hypermnestra, Evippus, Eurypylus and Iphiclus. Together with his other brother Toxeus, Plexippus participated in the hunt for the Calydonian Boar. He was angry that the prize of the boar's hide had been given to a woman (Atalanta) by his nephew Meleager, who then killed him in the ensuing argument.

Plexippus, son of Phineus and Cleopatra, brother of Pandion. He and his brother were blinded by Phineus at the instigation of their stepmother Idaea.

Plexippus, one of the sons of Aegyptus. He married (and was killed by) Amphicomone, daughter of Danaus.

Plexippus, son of the Arcadian king Choricus, brother of Enetus and Palaestra.Plexippus (spider) is also a genus of jumping spiders.

Polydorus

In Greek mythology, Polydorus (; Ancient Greek: Πολύδωρος, i.e. "many-gift[ed]") or Polydoros referred to several different people.

Polydorus, son of Phineus and Cleopatra, and brother of Polydector (Polydectus). These two sons by his first wife were blinded by Phineus because of the instigation of their stepmother, Idaea who accused them of corrupting her virtue.

Prince Polydorus, son of the King Cadmus and goddess Harmonia, fathered Labdacus by his wife Nycteis.

Polydorus, an Argive, son of Hippomedon was called. Pausanias lists him as one of the Epigoni, who attacked Thebes in retaliation for the deaths of their fathers, the Seven Against Thebes, who died attempting the same thing.

Prince Polydorus, a Trojan, was the King Priam's youngest son.

Polydorus, a man from Zacynthos who was one of the suitors of Penelope, wife of Odysseus.

Polydorus, a Ceteian warrior killed by Odysseus using his sword (Ceteius is called a stream in Asia Minor).

Polydorus (son of Astyanax)In history, Polydorus was:

Polydorus of Sparta (reigned from c. 741 to c. 665 BC)In art, Polydorus was:

One of the three Rhodian sculptors who created the sculpture Laocoön and His Sons and signed the Sperlonga sculptures

Pylaemenes

In Greek mythology, Pylaemenes (Ancient Greek: Πυλαιμένεα) was the king of the Eneti tribe of Paphlagonia. He claimed to be related to Priam through Phineus, as the latter's daughter Olizone was married to Dardanus. He led his Paphlagonian forces to the Trojan War, as a Trojan ally. Pylaemenes was killed in battle by Menelaus of Sparta. He had a son named Harpalion who was killed by Meriones, son of Molus. Homer provided no parentage for Pylaemenes, but other mythographers name his father as Bilsates or Melius.

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