Philosophy of motion is a branch of philosophy concerned with exploring questions on the existence and nature of motion. The central questions of this study concern the epistemology and ontology of motion, whether motion exists as we perceive it, what is it, and, if it exists, how does it occur. The philosophy of motion is important in the study of theories of change in natural systems and is closely connected to studies of space and time in philosophy.
The philosophy of motion was of central concern to Ancient Greek and Roman philosophers, particularly the pre-Socratic philosophers such as Parmenides, Zeno of Elea, Heraclitus and Democritus. As such, it was influential in the development of the philosophy of science in general.
The concept of motion is closely related to the idea of change, and it is arguments about what made change possible that led the early Greek philosophers to pioneer naturalistic explanations for phenomena.
Heraclitus had famously declared that "all is motion".
Parmenides professed that from our human point of view there are two aspects to the study of the universe of which we must be aware, on the one hand how we see it, and on the other how it must really be. Motion is a fact from our point of view, but Parmenides argues that as far as things must really be, it is logically impossible that motion could exist as we perceive it.
Zeno of Elea, a pupil of Parmenides, formulated the Arguments against motion, more commonly referred to as the paradoxes, in order to support his masters theories of the One and of the consequent impossibility of motion at the fundamental level. The rigorous denial of even the possibility of motion forced a more thorough response from philosophers engaged on the same theoretical project.
In response, Democritus expounded the atomic theory, in which indivisible bits of matter are in constant motion through the void. In the absence of something to perturb them they fall evenly through space.
Motion conceived in this way led naturally to questions of free will and determinism. In response to this, Epicurus appears to have included the concept of the clinamen, or atomic swerve. This tiny random motion serves to bring atoms into contact and begin the cascade that leads to the organisation of matter as we see it now., it also introduced an element of uncertainty which appears to have been an important concept in Epicurus' insistence on the existence of individual choice.
Aristotle, in his physics, defines motion as the actuality of a potentiality.
Further east, in China, the Sanlun school of Mahayana Buddhism developed a sophisticated philosophy of motion under the philosopher Sengzhao. His treatise called The Immutability of Things, deals with motion explicitly.
Aztec metaphysics gave priority to motion over substance in its cosmological ontology. In other words, process was seen to be fundamental and objects or substances as ephemeral. Change therefore was naturally conceived of as motion, and this motion was divided into three forms, out of which all change occurs. These were named olin (bouncing, oscillating) malinalli (spinning, twisting, spiralling) and, the most important, nepantla (weaving, intersecting, joining, balancing).
Achieving a coherent understanding of motion has been, and continues to be, of importance in understanding the nature of space and time in modern science. The main philosophical debate has been between absolute and relational conceptions of motion.
Motion in complex systems such as protein folding.
Morphogenesis of animal bodies and change on large and small scales. Niche construction.
The work of Nottale.
Questions of the nature of motion continue to arise in modern physics, with many of the issues of concern to early thinkers arising in different form. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the clinamen of the Epicureans.
Philosophical schools of thought and philosophical movements.Natural philosophy
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. It is considered to be the precursor of natural science.
From the ancient world, starting with Aristotle, to the 19th century, natural philosophy was the common term for the practice of studying nature. It was in the 19th century that the concept of "science" received its modern shape with new titles emerging such as "biology" and "biologist", "physics" and "physicist" among other technical fields and titles; institutions and communities were founded, and unprecedented applications to and interactions with other aspects of society and culture occurred. Isaac Newton's book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), whose title translates to "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", reflects the then-current use of the words "natural philosophy", akin to "systematic study of nature". Even in the 19th century, a treatise by Lord Kelvin and Peter Guthrie Tait, which helped define much of modern physics, was titled Treatise on Natural Philosophy (1867).
In the German tradition, Naturphilosophie (philosophy of nature) persisted into the 18th and 19th century as an attempt to achieve a speculative unity of nature and spirit. Some of the greatest names in German philosophy are associated with this movement, including Goethe, Hegel and Schelling. Naturphilosophie was associated with Romanticism and a view that regarded the natural world as a kind of giant organism, as opposed to the philosophical approach of figures such as John Locke and Isaac Newton who espoused a more mechanical view of the world, regarding it as being like a machine.Noël Carroll
Noël Carroll (born 1947) is an American philosopher considered to be one of the leading figures in contemporary philosophy of art. Although Carroll is best known for his work in the philosophy of film (he is a proponent of cognitive film theory), he has also published journalism, works on philosophy of art generally, theory of media, and also philosophy of history. As of 2012, he is a distinguished professor of philosophy at the CUNY Graduate Center.Philosophy of film
The philosophy of film is a branch of aesthetics within the discipline of philosophy that seeks to understand the most basic questions regarding film. Philosophy of film has significant overlap with film theory, a branch of film studies.