Philomelus /ˌfɪləˈmiːləs/ (Greek: Φιλόμηλος, romanizedPhilómēlos) or Philomenus /fɪˈlɒmɪnəs/ was a minor Greek demi-god, patron of Husbandry, Tillage/Ploughing and Agriculture, the son of Demeter and Iasion, and the brother of Plutus. Plutus was very wealthy, but would share none of his riches to his brother. Out of necessity, Philomenus bought two oxen, invented the wagon or plough, and supported himself by ploughing his fields and cultivating crops. His mother, admiring him for this, put him in the heavens as the constellation Boötes, his wagon or plough being the constellation Ursa Major.

Philomelus's son Parias gave his name to the Parians and the city of Parion (a town in Mysia on the Hellespont).[1]


  1. ^ Hyginus. Astronomica, 2.4

External links

  • William Smith, ed. (1870). "Philomelus" . Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

Aceso (Greek: Ἀκεσώ) was the Greek goddess of the healing process.


Achlys (Ancient Greek: Ἀχλύς "mist" or "darkness") is an ancient Greek goddess, symbol mist of death; in Greek mythology, according to some ancient cosmogonies, is the eternal Night before Chaos. If Achlys was a daughter of Nyx (Night) then she may have been numbered amongst the Keres.


Aglaea () or Aglaïa (; Greek: Ἀγλαΐα "splendor, brilliant, shining one") is the name of several figures in Greek mythology, the best known of which is one of the three Charites or Graces.


Apollonis (; Ancient Greek: Ἀπoλλωνίς means "of Apollo") was one of the three younger Mousai Apollonides (Muses) in Greek mythology and daughters of Apollo who were worshipped in Delphi where the Temple of Apollo and the Oracle were located. The three sisters, Cephisso, Apollonis, and Borysthenis, are also known as Nētē, Mesē, and Hypatē where their names are synonymous with those of the lowest, middle, and highest chords of a lyre, further characterizing the Muses as the daughters of Apollo.


In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter (; Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr, pronounced [dɛːmɛ́ːtɛːr]; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth. Her cult titles include Sito (Σιτώ), "she of the Grain", as the giver of food or grain, and Thesmophoros (θεσμός, thesmos: divine order, unwritten law; φόρος, phoros: bringer, bearer), "Law-Bringer", as a mark of the civilized existence of agricultural society.Though Demeter is often described simply as the goddess of the harvest, she presided also over the sacred law, and the cycle of life and death. She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries, a religious tradition that predated the Olympian pantheon, and which may have its roots in the Mycenaean period c. 1400–1200 BC. Demeter was often considered to be the same figure as the Anatolian goddess Cybele, and in Rome she was identified as the Latin goddess Ceres.

Dolos (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Dolos or Dolus (Ancient Greek: Δόλος "Deception") is the spirit of trickery and guile. He is also a master at cunning deception, craftiness, and treachery. He was the son of Gaia (Earth) and Aether (Hyginus, Fabulae Theogony 3) or Erebus and Nyx (Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.17).Dolos is an apprentice of the Titan Prometheus and a companion of the Pseudologi (Lies). His female counterpart is Apate, who is the goddess of fraud and deception. His Roman equivalent is Mendacius. There are even some stories of Dolos tricking gods into lies.


In Greek mythology, Erebus , also Erebos (Ancient Greek: Ἔρεβος, Érebos, "deep darkness, shadow" or "covered"), was often conceived as a primordial deity, representing the personification of darkness; for instance, Hesiod's Theogony identifies him as one of the first five beings in existence, born of Chaos.


In Greek mythology Hemera (; Ancient Greek: Ἡμέρα [hɛːméra] "Day") was the personification of day and one of the Greek primordial deities. She is the goddess of the daytime and, according to Hesiod, the daughter of Erebus and Nyx (the goddess of night).


In Greek mythology, Iasion (Ancient Greek: Ἰασίων, Iasíōn) or Iasus (Ἴασος, Íasos), also called Eetion (Ἠετίων, Ēetíōn), was usually the son of the nymph Electra and Zeus and brother of Dardanus, although other possible parentage included Zeus and Hemera or Corythus and Electra.

Iasion founded the mystic rites on the island of Samothrace. With Demeter, he was the father of twin sons named Ploutos and Philomelus, and another son named Corybas.

At the marriage of Cadmus and Harmonia, Iasion was lured by Demeter away from the other revelers. They had intercourse as Demeter lay on her back in a freshly plowed furrow. When they rejoined the celebration, Zeus guessed what had happened because of the mud on Demeter's backside, and out of envy killed Iasion with a thunderbolt. However, some say Demeter pled so eloquently that Zeus granted his son immortality, ranking him among the lesser deities.

Some versions of this myth conclude with Iasion and the agricultural hero Triptolemus then becoming the Gemini constellation.


Ledon (Ancient Greek: Λεδών or Λέδων) was a town of ancient Phocis in Greece, north of Tithorea, the birthplace of Philomelus, the commander of the Phocians in the Third Sacred War. During that war, it was taken by the forces of Philip II of Macedon in 346 BCE. In the time of Pausanias (2nd century) it was abandoned by the inhabitants, who settled upon the Cephissus, at the distance of 40 stadia from the town, but the ruins of the latter were seen by Pausanias.Its site is tentatively located near Modi, although alternate sites are proposed.


Limos (Greek: Λιμός; "starvation"), Roman Fames , was the goddess of starvation in ancient Greek religion. She was opposed by Demeter, goddess of grain and the harvest with whom Ovid wrote Limos could never meet, and Plutus, the god of wealth and the bounty of rich harvests.

List of agricultural gods

This is a list of agriculture gods and goddesses, gods whose tutelary specialty was agriculture, either of agriculture in general or of one or more specialties within the field. Each god's culture or religion of origin is listed; a god revered in multiple contexts are listed with the one in which he originated. Roman gods appear on a separate list.


Megaera (; Ancient Greek: Μέγαιρα, English translation: "the jealous one") is one of the Erinyes, Eumenides or "Furies" in Greek mythology. Lamprière's Classical Dictionary states "According to the most received opinions, they were three in number, Tisiphone, "Megaera ... daughter of Nox and Acheron", and Alecto".Megaera is the cause of jealousy and envy, and punishes people who commit crimes, especially marital infidelity. Like her sisters Alecto and Tisiphone, as well as the Melian Nymphs, she was born of the blood of Uranus when Cronus castrated him.In modern French (mégère), Portuguese (megera), Modern Greek (μέγαιρα), Italian (megera) and Russian (мегера), this name denotes a jealous or spiteful woman - Google translates all five as "shrew".

Neon (Phocis)

Neon (Ancient Greek: Νεών) was a town of ancient Phocis, said to have been built after the Trojan War, that was situated at the foot of Mount Tithorea, one of the peaks of Mount Parnassus.

Herodotus relates that, during the Greco-Persian Wars, when the Persian army under Xerxes I invaded Phocis, many of the Phocians took refuge in Tithorea near Neon, and that the latter city was destroyed by the Persians (480 BCE). It was, however, afterwards rebuilt; but was again destroyed, with the other Phocian towns, at the end of the Sacred War. In its neighbourhood, Philomelus, the Phocian general, was defeated, and perished in the flight by throwing himself down from a lofty rock. Neon now disappears from history, and in its place we read of a town Tithorea, which is described by Pausanias. This writer regards Tithorea as situated on the same site as Neon; and relates that Tithorea was the name anciently applied to the whole district, and that when the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages were collected in the city, the name of Tithorea was substituted for that of Neon. This, however, is not in accordance with the statement of Plutarch, according to whom Tithorea, in the time of the Mithridatic War, was a fortress surrounded by precipitous rocks, where the Phocians took refuge from Xerxes. He further states that it was not such a city as the one existing in his day. If the view of Plutarch is correct, that the fortress, the site of which was afterwards occupied by the city Tithorea, was the place where the Phocians took refuge from Xerxes, we may conclude that Tithorea and Neon were two different places.

Some modern writers have followed Pausanias in identifying Tithorea and Neon; but Heinrich Ulrichs, for the reasons which have been already stated, supposes them to have been different cities, and places Neon at the Hellenic ruins on the Cephissus, called Paleá Fiva, distant 3.5 miles (5.6 km) from modern Tithorea (formerly Velitsa, since renamed to reflect the association with the ancient town).


The Nesoi (Greek Nῆσοι "islands"), in ancient Greek religion, were the goddesses of islands. Each island was said to have its own personification. They were classified as one of the Protogenoi, otherwise known as ancient elemental Greek primordial deities. The Nesoi were thought to have been Ourea who were cast under the sea during one of Poseidon's rages.


Onomarchus (Ancient Greek: Ὀνόμαρχος) was general of the Phocians in the Third Sacred War, brother of Philomelus and son of Theotimus. After his brother's death he became commander of the Phocians and pursued a warmongering policy until his final defeat.

Parias (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Parias was a son of Philomelus and a grandson of Iasion. Parias gave his name to the Parians and the city of Parion (a town in Mysia on the Hellespont).

Perses (Titan)

Perses (; Ancient Greek: Πέρσης) was the son of the Titan Crius and Eurybia. His name is derived from the Ancient Greek word perthō (πέρθω – "to sack", "to ravage", "to destroy"), the fact of which may have given scholars the impression that Perses was perhaps the Titan god of destruction. He was wed to Asteria (daughter of Phoebe and Coeus). They had one child noted in mythology, Hecate, honoured by Zeus above all others as the goddess of magic, crossroads, and witchcraft.

Phocis (ancient region)

Phocis was an ancient region in the central part of Ancient Greece, which included Delphi. A modern administrative unit, also called Phocis, is named after the ancient region, although the modern region is substantially larger than the ancient one.

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