Philocles (Greek: Φιλοκλῆς), was an Athenian tragic poet during the 5th century BC. Through his mother, Philopatho (Greek: Φιλοπαθώ), he had three famous uncles: Aeschylus, the famous poet, Cynaegirus, hero of the battle of Marathon, and Ameinias, hero of the battle of Salamis. The Suda claims that Philocles was the father of the tragic playwright Morsimus, who was in turn the father of the tragedian Astydamas
|Born||5th century BC|
|Died||5th century BC|
According to the Suda, Philocles wrote 100 tragedies. Philocles is best known for winning first prize in the competition against Sophocles' Oedipus Rex. Philocles also wrote a play on the subject of Tereus, which was parodied in Aristophanes' The Birds along with Sophocles' treatment of the same subject. A scholiast has noted that Philocles' Tereus was part of his Pandionis tetralogy. An extant fragment shows that Philocles wrote a play covering the story of Hermione, Neoptolemus and Orestes, a story also addressed by Euripides in his play Andromache and by Sophocles in his Hermione. In Pholocles' version of the Hermione myth, Hermione is betrothed to Neoptolemus by her father Menelaus while she is pregnant with Orestes' child. Philocles also wrote plays entitled Oedipus and Philoctetes. The Suda also names the following as plays of Philocles: Erigone, Nauplius, Oineus, Priam, and Penelope.
Aeschylus (UK: , ; Greek: Αἰσχύλος Aiskhylos, pronounced [ai̯s.kʰý.los]; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian. He is often described as the father of tragedy. Academics' knowledge of the genre begins with his work, and understanding of earlier tragedies is largely based on inferences from his surviving plays. According to Aristotle, he expanded the number of characters in the theater and allowed conflict among them; characters previously had interacted only with the chorus.Only seven of his estimated seventy to ninety plays have survived, and there is a long-standing debate regarding his authorship of one of these plays, Prometheus Bound, which some believe his son Euphorion actually wrote. Fragments of some other plays have survived in quotations and more continue to be discovered on Egyptian papyrus, often giving further insights into his work. He was probably the first dramatist to present plays as a trilogy; his Oresteia is the only ancient example of the form to have survived. At least one of his plays was influenced by the Persians' second invasion of Greece (480–479 BC). This work, The Persians, is the only surviving classical Greek tragedy concerned with contemporary events (very few of that kind were ever written), and a useful source of information about its period. The significance of war in Ancient Greek culture was so great that Aeschylus' epitaph commemorates his participation in the Greek victory at Marathon while making no mention of his success as a playwright. Despite this, Aeschylus's work – particularly the Oresteia – is generally acclaimed by modern critics and scholars.Ameinias of Athens
Ameinias or Aminias (Ancient Greek: Ἀμεινίας) was a younger brother of the playwright Aeschylus and of a hero of the battle of Marathon named Cynaegirus. He also had a sister, named Philopatho, who was the mother of the Athenian tragic poet Philocles. His father was Euphorion. Ameinias was from the Attica deme of Pallene according to Herodotus, or of that of Decelea according to Plutarch. He distinguished himself at the battle of Salamis as a trireme commander. His brother Aeschylus, also fought at the battle.According to Diodorus Siculus, Ameinias was the first to ram the flagship of the Persians, sinking it and killing the admiral. Herodotus writes that Athenians said that Ameinias charged one of the enemy vessels and his ship was entangled in combat and his men were not being able to get away, so the other Greek ships joined in the fight to assist Ameinias and this is how the battle started, but the Aeginetans say that one of their ships was the first to attack the Persian fleet.
He also pursued the ship of Artemisia, and she rammed and sunk the ship of Damasithymos who was her ally to escape. When Ameinias saw that he thought that her ship was Greek and he changed the direction of his Trireme to chase other Persian ships.
Herodotus believed that Ameinias didn't know that Artemisia was on the ship because otherwise he would not have ceased his pursuit until either he had captured her or had been captured himself because orders had been given to the Athenian captains. Moreover, a prize had been offered of ten thousand drachmas for the man who should take her alive, since they thought it intolerable that a woman should lead an expedition against Athens.In addition, according to Plutarch, Ameinias and the Socles of Pallene were the men who killed Ariamenes (Herodotus says that his name was Ariabignes), brother of Xerxes and admiral of the Persian navy. When Ariamenes attempted to board their ship, they hit him with their spears and thrust him into the sea.Ameinias and Eumenes of Anagyrus (Anagyrus is the modern Vari) were judged to have been the bravest on this occasion among all the Athenians. Aelian mentions that Ameinias prevented the condemnation of his brother Aeschylus by the Areopagus.Ardices (artist)
Ardices of Corinth was (along with a "Telephanes of Sicyon") according to Pliny the Elder the first artist who practiced the form of "monogram", or drawing in outline with an indication also of the parts within the external outline, but without color, as in the designs of the artists John Flaxman and Moritz Retzsch.
Pliny, after stating that the invention of the earliest form of drawing, namely, the external outline, as marked by the edge of the shadow (umbra hominis lineis circumducta, or pictura linearis), was claimed by the ancient Egyptians, the Corinthians, and the Sicyonians, adds that it was said to have been invented by Philocles, an Egyptian, or by Cleanthes, a Corinthian, and that the next step was made by Ardices and Telephanes, who first added the inner lines of the figure (spargentes lineas intus).Battle of Aegospotami
The Battle of Aegospotami ( ee-gəs-POT-ə-my) was a naval confrontation that took place in 405 BC and was the last major battle of the Peloponnesian War. In the battle, a Spartan fleet under Lysander destroyed the Athenian navy. This effectively ended the war, since Athens could not import grain or communicate with its empire without control of the sea.Dinarchus
Dinarchus or Dinarch (Greek: Δείναρχος; Corinth, c. 361 – c. 291 BC) was a logographer (speechwriter) in Ancient Greece. He was the last of the ten Attic orators included in the "Alexandrian Canon" compiled by Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus of Samothrace in the third century BC.
A son of Sostratus (or, according to the Suda, Socrates), Dinarchus settled at Athens early in life, and when not more than twenty-five was already active as a logographer—a writer of speeches for the law courts. As a metic, he was unable to take part in the debates. He had been the pupil both of Theophrastus and of Demetrius Phalereus, and had early acquired a certain fluency and versatility of style.In 324 the Areopagus, after inquiry, reported that nine men had taken bribes from Harpalus, the fugitive treasurer of Alexander. Ten public prosecutors were appointed. Dinarchus wrote, for one or more of these prosecutors, the three speeches which are still extant: Against Demosthenes, Against Aristogeiton, and Against Philocles.The sympathies of Dinarchus were in favor of an Athenian oligarchy under Macedonian control; but it should be remembered that he was not an Athenian citizen. Aeschines and Demades had no such excuse. In the Harpalus affair, Demosthenes as well as the others accused, were probably innocent. Yet Hypereides, the most fiery of the patriots, was on the same side as Dinarchus.Under the regency of his old master, Demetrius Phalereus, Dinarchus exercised much political influence. The years 317–307 were the most prosperous of his life. On the fall of Demetrius Phalereus and the restoration of the democracy by Demetrius Poliorcetes, Dinarchus was condemned to death and withdrew into exile at Chalcis in Euboea.About 292, thanks to his friend Theophrastus, he was able to return to Attica, and took up his abode in the country with a former associate, Proxenus. He afterwards brought an action against Proxenus on the ground that he had robbed him of some money and plate. Dinarchus died at Athens about 291.Diptilon
Diptilon is a genus of moths in the subfamily Arctiinae.Diptilon philocles
Diptilon philocles is a moth of the subfamily Arctiinae. It was described by Druce in 1896. It is found in Panama and Brazil (São Paulo).Eponymous archon
In ancient Greece the chief magistrate in various Greek city states was called eponymous archon (ἐπώνυμος ἄρχων, epōnymos archōn). Archon (ἄρχων, pl. ἄρχοντες, archontes) means "ruler" or "lord", frequently used as the title of a specific public office, while "eponymous" means that he gave his name to the year in which he held office, much like the Roman dating by consular years.
In Classical Athens, a system of nine concurrent archons evolved, led by three respective remits over the civic, military, and religious affairs of the state: the three office holders were known as the eponymous archon, the polemarch (πολέμαρχος, "war ruler"), and the archon basileus (ἄρχων βασιλεύς, "king ruler"). The six others were the thesmothetai, judicial officers. Originally these offices were filled from the wealthier classes by elections every ten years. During this period the eponymous archon was the chief magistrate, the polemarch was the head of the armed forces, and the archon basileus was responsible for some civic religious arrangements, and for the supervision of some major trials in the law courts. After 683 BC the offices were held for only a single year, and the year was named after the eponymous archon.François-Joseph Regnier
François-Joseph-Philoclès Regnier de La Brière called Regnier (1 April 1807, in Paris – 27 April 1885, in Paris) was a 19th-century French actor and playwright. The comedian Alcide Tousez was his uncle.List of Ancient Greek poets
This list of Ancient Greek poets covers poets writing in the Ancient Greek language, regardless of location or nationality of the poet. For a list of modern-day Greek poets, see List of Greek poets.Michael Mohun
Michael Mohun (1616?—buried 11 October 1684) was a leading English actor both before and after the 1642—60 closing of the theatres.
Mohun began his stage career as a boy player filling female roles; he was part of Christopher Beeston's theatrical establishment at the Cockpit Theatre, "eventually becoming a key member of Queen Henrietta's Men."For the period from 1642 to 1659, Mohun was an officer in military units loyal to the House of Stuart; he served in England, Ireland, and the Low Countries, and rose to the rank of major. He was seriously wounded at Dublin, and was a prisoner of war for two extended periods.At the end of the English Interregnum, Mohun was one of the men — George Jolly and John Rhodes were others — who attempted to restart dramatic performance. In 1659 Mohun performed with other pre-Commonwealth actors in an unlicensed troupe at the Red Bull Theatre. As the manager of the troupe, Mohun came to an agreement with the Master of the Revels to pay fees for the privilege of performing; but eventually, like Jolly and Rhodes, he was out-manoeuvered by Thomas Killigrew and Sir William Davenant. After a complex power struggle for the two company patents issued by Charles II at the Restoration of the monarchy, Mohun became a full sharer in Killigrew's King's Company. Along with Charles Hart, the other leading male actor, Mohun was in a position of some authority, often signing official papers on behalf of the sharing actors. He remained a member of the King's Company until he left the stage on account of age and ill-health in the late 1670s.
Mohun regularly acted leading and major roles, mostly villains. His interpretations of Iago and of the title role in Ben Jonson's Volpone were famous, and he brought a sinister edge to the part of Pinchwife in William Wycherley's The Country Wife. Mohun repeatedly seconded Charles Hart's leads, playing Iago to Hart's Othello, and Cassius to Hart's Brutus.
Mohun compiled a long list of noteworthy other roles in his career. He played Bellamente in Shirley's Love's Cruelty both before 1642 and after 1660, and he acted in other revivals besides those named above. He played:
Face in The Alchemist
Truewit in Epicene
Leontius in The Humorous Lieutenant
Don Leon in Rule a Wife and Have a Wife
Melantius in The Maid's Tragedy
Mardonius in A King and No King
Aubrey in Rollo Duke of Normandy.He took roles in contemporary Restoration dramas, by John Dryden —
Maximin in Tyrannick Love
Ventidius in All for Love
Rhodophil in Marriage à la mode
the Old Emperor in Aureng-zebe
Beaumont in Amboyna
Philocles in The Maiden Queen
Belamy in An Evening's Love
the Emperor in The Indian Emperour
the Duke of Mantua in The Assignation— and by other playwrights:
Pinchwife in Wycherly's The Country Wife
Clytus in Nathaniel Lee's The Rival Queens
Britanniucs in Lee's The Tragedy of Nero
Hannibal in Lee's Sophonisba, or Hannibal's Overthrow
Mythridates in Lee's Mythridates, King of Pontus
Lord Burleigh in John Banks's The Unhappy Favourite
Matthias in John Crowne's The Destruction of Jerusalem
Breakbond in Edward Howard's The Man of Newmarket
King Edward III in The Black Prince by Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery.Mohun retired from the stage in 1682, when the King's Company joined with the Duke's Company to form the United Company. He had trouble obtaining his pension; his petition to King Charles II on the subject is valuable for the amount of autobiographical material it contains.Paideia
In the culture of ancient Greece, the term paideia (also spelled paedeia) (; Greek: παιδεία, paideía) referred to the rearing and education of the ideal member of the polis. It incorporated both practical, subject-based schooling and a focus upon the socialization of individuals within the aristocratic order of the polis. The practical aspects of this education included subjects subsumed under the modern designation of the liberal arts (rhetoric, grammar, and philosophy are examples), as well as scientific disciplines like arithmetic and medicine. An ideal and successful member of the polis would possess intellectual, moral and physical refinement, so training in gymnastics and wrestling was valued for its effect on the body alongside the moral education which the Greeks believed was imparted by the study of music, poetry, and philosophy. This approach to the rearing of a well-rounded Greek male was common to the Greek-speaking world, with the exception of Sparta where a rigid and militaristic form of education known as the agoge was practiced.Philocles, King of Sidon
Philocles (Greek: Φιλοκλής, romanized: Philokles) was King of the Sidonians and a senior commander under the Ptolemaic dynasty in the late 4th and early 3rd century BC, and one of the architects of Ptolemaic imperialism in the coasts of Asia Minor and the Aegean Sea.
His life is known only through inscriptions and a single literary passage. Philocles' origin and early life are therefore unknown. The name of his father, Apollodorus, survives, but it is likely that despite the Greek names used in the Greek sources, both were Phoenicians, and most likely descendants or relatives of the royal line of Sidon.The date and circumstances of his acquiring of the royal title are unknown; after his capture of Sidon in 332 BC Alexander the Great installed one Abdalonymos as king, but nothing further is known of him. Philocles is first securely attested as "King of the Sidonians" in an Athenian inscription of 286/5 BC. Philocles however first appears much earlier, in a list of benefactors who donated money to rebuild the city of Thebes, which had been razed by Alexander. He is recorded twice in the list, as having donated the huge sum of 100 talents and as having donated an unspecified sum in Alexandrian talents. As the name is partially erased, it is unclear what title, if any, Philocles bore at the time. Since the list dates to the last decades of the 4th century—the reconstruction of Thebes was decreed by Cassander in 316 BC—and Sidon was under the control of Antigonus I Monophthalmus at the time, it has been suggested that Philocles was in Antigonid service originally, but his later career as a high-ranking and evidently trusted Ptolemaic official seems to argue against this. As Sidon itself did not come under the control of Ptolemy I Soter until 287 BC, therefore, Philocles either laid claim on the royal title as a claimant in exile, or he was originally simply a private citizen and a trusted agent of Ptolemy, and was only later elevated to the kingship. His donation of such a large amount of money to Thebes would then have to be considered as part of his role as a Ptolemaic agent, trying to curry favour with the Greek city-states.In his collection of stratagems, the 2nd-century author Polyaenus records that "Philocles, general of Ptolemy" took the city of Kaunos by treachery. It is likely that this Philocles is identical to the "King of the Sidonians", but the date is unclear: Kaunos was first captured by Ptolemy in 309 BC—thus confirming that Philocles was in Ptolemaic, rather than Antigonid, service at the time—but it then reverted to Antigonid rule until sometime after c. 286 BC, which coincides with the Athenian inscription mentioning him. A decree from Aspendos honouring mercenaries who, under Philocles and the Ptolemaic general Leonidas, saved the city from an unspecified attack, has variously been dated between 306 BC and 287 BC. Given that Leonidas is otherwise attested mostly for the period 310–306 BC, an earlier date in that range seems the more likely, indicating again that Philocles was never in Antigonid service.In the late 280s, Philocles is attested in a series of inscriptions from various Greek islands, which show him intervening in various disputes and issues of governance in the city-states under Ptolemaic control. His title is unspecified, but he was clearly senior to the nesiarchos of the Nesiotic League, and probably the overall commander of the Ptolemaic forces in the Aegean, perhaps with the title of nauarchos. The last inscriptions concerning him date to c. 280/279 BC, indicating that this was the end of his career in the region. According to Hans Hauben, this activity means that Philocles "should probably be considered the main architect, or at least one of the main architects, of early Ptolemaic expansion in the Mediterranean".Tereus
In Greek mythology, Tereus (; Ancient Greek: Τηρεύς means "watcher") was a Thracian king, the son of Ares and the naiad Bistonis. He was the brother of Dryas. Tereus was the husband of the Athenian princess Procne and the father of Itys.Tereus (play)
Tereus (Ancient Greek: Τηρεύς, Tēreus) is a Greek play by the Athenian poet Sophocles. Although the play has been lost, several fragments have been recovered. Although the date that the play was first produced is not known, it is known that it was produced before 414 BCE, because the Greek comedic playwright Aristophanes referenced Tereus in his play The Birds, which was first performed in 414. Thomas B. L. Webster dates the play to near but before 431 BCE, based on circumstantial evidence from a comment Thucydides made in 431 about the need to distinguish between Tereus and the King of Thrace, Teres, which Webster believes was made necessary by the popularity of Sophocles play around this time causing confusion between the two names. Based on references in The Birds it is also known that another Greek playwright, Philocles, had also written a play on the subject of Tereus, and there is evidence both from The Birds and from a scholiast that Sophocles' play came first.Some scholars believe that Sophocles' Tereus was influenced by Euripides' Medea, and thus must have been produced after 431. However, this is not certain and any influence may well have been in the opposite direction, with Sophocles' play influencing Euripides. Jenny Marsh believes that Euripides' Medea did come before Sophocles' Tereus, based primarily on a statement in Euripides' chorus "I have heard of only one woman, only one of all that have lived, who put her hand on her own children: Ino." Marsh takes this to imply that as of the time of Medea's production, the myth of Tereus had not yet incorporated the infanticide, as it did in Sophocles' play.The Dumb Knight
The Dumb Knight, The Dumbe Knight: A Historical Comedy, or The Dumbe Knight: A Pleasant Comedy, written by Lewis Machin and Gervase Markham in roughly 1601 was acted by the Children of the King's Revels likely in the Whitefriars Theatre, which was the acting group's primarily venue. The play was first published in 1608 by Nicholas Okes and where sold at John Bache's in Popes-head Palace near the Royal Exchange in London. The play takes place in Sicily and the main plot focus on the characters around the King of Cyprus, who has just conquered Sicily. A strange love between Philocles and Mariana form which nearly has Mariana executed. Out of revenge for the dishonour towards his sister Duke of Epire plans to remove Philocles and the King and make himself king promising that they “both shall tumble down”. While the subplot of Prate and Alphonso provide comic foolery and clash with the main plot at the end of the play. Although the title of the play is The Dumb Knight, Philocles, the “dumb knight” and the second in command to the King of Cyprus, is only mute for a couple of scenes in Act Two and Three. Philocles has an active voice throughout the play and his spell of speechlessness is used to advance the main plot but is not the plots focus.The Lovesick Court
The Lovesick Court, or the Ambitious Politique is a Caroline-era stage play, a tragicomedy written by Richard Brome, and first published in 1659.The Maiden Queen
Secret Love, or The Maiden Queen is a 1667 tragicomedy written by John Dryden. The play, commonly known by its more distinctive subtitle, was acted by the King's Company at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane (which had escaped the Great Fire of London the year before). The premiere occurred on 2 March, and was a popular success. King Charles II, his brother the Duke of York and future King James II, and Samuel Pepys were all in the audience on opening night.The Maiden Queen was noteworthy as a vehicle for Nell Gwyn, who played the heroine Florimel. Pepys raved about her performance in his Diary — "so great performance of a comical part was never, I believe, in the world before...." He returned to see the play eight more times. It was also a special favorite of the King, who reportedly called it "his play."
In addition to Nell Gwyn, the original cast included Nicholas Burt as Lysimantes, Michael Mohun as Philocles, and Charles Hart as Celadon; Anne Marshall as Candiope and her sister Rebecca Marshall as the Queen, Mary Knep as Asteria, and Katherine Corey as Melissa. A later production in 1672 was cast entirely by women. Thomas Killigrew, manager of the King's Company, had developed this practice of all-female casts, starting with a 1664 staging of his own play The Parson's Wedding, as a way to capitalize of the Restoration innovation of actresses on the English stage.
The Maiden Queen was first published in 1668 by Henry Herringman. Another edition followed in 1698.
Dryden composed his play in a mixture of rhymed verse, blank verse, and prose. Gerard Langbaine noted in the 1690s that Dryden drew plot materials from two prose fictions by Madeleine de Scudéry, Le Grand Cyrus (for the main plot) and Ibrahim, ou l'Illustre Bassa (for the subplot). (Dryden returned to Scudéry's Ibrahim for inspiration for another play, An Evening's Love, the following year, 1668 — though that venture proved much less successful.) Dryden also borrowed material from Shirley's Love in a Maze. By Dryden's own testimony, the unheroic Philocles was inspired by Magnus de la Garide, the royal favorite of Queen Christina of Sweden.
The drama was revived in an adapted form in 1707; Colley Cibber mixed it with materials from Marriage à la mode. The play remained in the repertory throughout the eighteenth century in various forms; a shortened version called Celadon and Florimel was acted as late as 1796. A London revival of The Maiden Queen occurred in 1886.Victor Dourlen
Victor-Charles-Paul Dourlen (born 3 November 1780 in Dunkerque – died 8 January 1864 in Paris) was a French composer and music teacher at the Conservatoire de Paris during the first half of the nineteenth century. He is primarily known as a theorist being his treatises on harmony, based on the methods of Charles Simon Catel, widely used as reference, especially his Traité d’harmonie (1838), and his Traité d’accompagnement pratique (1834), as well as his Méthode élémentaire pour le piano-forte (1820).