Philippines–United States relations (Filipino: Ugnayang Pilipinas – Estados Unidos) are bilateral relations between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America. The relationship between the United States and the Philippines has historically been strong and has been described as a Special Relationship. The current Philippine president Rodrigo Duterte, however, is supportive of a foreign policy that is less dependent on the United States, favoring one that prioritizes closer relations with China instead. The Philippines is one of the oldest Asian partners of the U.S. and a strategically major non-NATO ally. The United States was consistently ranked as one of the Philippines' favorite nations in the world, with 90% of Filipinos viewing the U.S. and 91% viewing Americans favorably in 2002, 90% of Filipinos viewing U.S. influence positively in 2011, 85% of Filipinos viewing the U.S. and Americans favorably in 2013, and 92% of Filipinos viewing the U.S. favorably in 2015, and 94% having confidence in former United States president Barack Obama, making the Philippines the most pro-American country in the world.
This article discusses Philippine–American relations after Philippine independence from the United States in 1946, while the article History of the Philippines (1898–1946) describes the history of the Philippines during American colonial rule.
|Philippines–United States relations|
|Philippine Embassy, Washington, D.C.||United States Embassy, Manila|
|Ambassador Jose Manuel G. Romualdez||Ambassador Sung Kim|
Leaders of the two states (1936–1972)
Leaders of the two states (1972–present)
A 1947 Military Bases Agreement gave the United States a 99-year lease on a number of Philippine military and naval bases in which U.S. authorities had virtual territorial rights. In August 1951, a mutual defense treaty (MDT) was signed between representatives of the Philippines and the United States. The overall accord contained eight articles and dictated that both nations would support each other if either the Philippines or the United States were to be attacked by an external party. An amendment to the bases agreement in 1966 reduced its 99-year term to 25 years. In 1979, after two years of negotiation, the bases agreement was renewed with some amendments.
Pursuant to the bases agreement, the United States maintained and operated major facilities at Clark Air Base until November 1991, and at Subic Bay Naval Complex and several small subsidiary installations in the Philippines until November 1992. In July 1991, negotiators from the two countries reached agreement on a draft treaty providing for the clean-up and turn over of Clark to the Philippine government in 1992, and for the lease of Subic Bay Naval Base by the U.S. for ten years. By 1991, operations at Clark had already been scaled back because of the end of the Cold War, with the last combat aircraft leaving in 1990, before the base was heavily damaged by the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo.
On September 16, 1991, the Philippine Senate rejected renewal of the bases agreement by a slim margin, and despite further efforts to salvage the situation, the two sides could not reach an agreement. As a result, the Philippine Government informed the U.S. on December 6, 1991, that it would have one year to complete withdrawal. That withdrawal went smoothly and was completed ahead of schedule, with the last U.S. forces departing on November 24, 1992. On departure, the U.S. Government turned over assets worth more than $1.3 billion to the Philippines, including an airport and ship-repair facility. Agencies formed by the Philippine Government have converted the former military bases for civilian commercial use, with Subic Bay serving as a flagship for that effort. The Philippine government on July 16, 2015 announced that it will revive a US-built deep-water naval base in Subic Bay The vote resulted in 11 senators in favor of extending the treaty, and 12 senators in favor of suppressing it. The list of senators who voted for the bases treaty are as follows:
|Voted to extend||Voted against extending|
The post-U.S. bases era has seen U.S.-Philippine relations improved and broadened, with a prominent focus on economic and commercial ties while maintaining the importance of the security dimension. U.S. investment continues to play an important role in the Philippine economy, while a strong security relationship rests on the Mutual Defense Treaty of 1951. In February 1998, U.S. and Philippine negotiators concluded the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA), paving the way for increased military cooperation under the MDT. The agreement was approved by the Philippine Senate in May 1999 and entered into force on June 1, 1999. Under the VFA, the U.S. has conducted ship visits to Philippine ports and has resumed large combined military exercises with Philippine forces. Key events in the bilateral relationship include the July 4, 1996 declaration by President Ramos of Philippine-American Friendship Day in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of Philippine independence. Ramos visited the U.S. in April 1998, and then-President Estrada visited in July 2000. President Arroyo met with President Bush in an official working visit in November 2001 and made a state visit in Washington on May 19, 2003. President Bush made a state visit to the Philippines on October 18, 2003, during which he addressed a joint session of the Philippine Congress—the first American President to do so since Dwight D. Eisenhower. There are regular U.S. cabinet-level and congressional visits to the Philippines as well.
President Arroyo repeatedly stressed the close friendship between the Philippines and the U.S. and her desire to expand bilateral ties further. Both governments tried to revitalize and strengthen their partnership by working toward greater security, prosperity, and service to Filipinos and Americans alike. Inaugurated into office on the same day as President Bush, President Arroyo lent strong support to the Global War on Terrorism. In October 2003, the U.S. designated the Philippines as a Major non-NATO ally. That same month, the Philippines joined the select group of countries to have ratified all 12 UN counterterrorism conventions.
The annual Balikatan (Shoulder-to-Shoulder) bilateral military exercises contribute directly to the Philippine armed forces' efforts to root out Abu Sayyaf and Jemaah Islamiyah terrorists and bring development to formerly terrorist-plagued areas, notably Basilan and Jolo. They include not only combined military training but also civil-military affairs and humanitarian projects. The International Military Education and Training (IMET) program is the largest in the Pacific and the third-largest in the world, and a Mutual Logistics Support Agreement (MLSA) was signed in November 2002. Similarly, law enforcement cooperation has reached new levels: U.S. and Philippine agencies have cooperated to bring charges against numerous terrorists, to implement the countries' extradition treaty, and to train thousands of Filipino law enforcement officers. There is a Senior Law Enforcement Advisor helping the Philippine National Police with its Transformation Program.
The U.S. works closely with the Philippines to reduce poverty and increase prosperity. The U.S. fully supports Philippine efforts to root out corruption, to open economic opportunity, and to invest in health and education. USAID programs support the 'Philippines' war on poverty as well as the government's reform agenda in critical areas, including anti-money laundering, rule of law, tax collection, and trade and investment. Other USAID programs have bolstered the government's efforts to heal divisions in Philippine society through a focus on conflict resolution, livelihood enhancement for former combatants, and economic development in Mindanao and the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, among the poorest areas in the country. Meanwhile, important programs continue in modern family planning, infectious disease control, environmental protection, rural electrification, and provision of basic services—as well as PL 480 food aid programs and others, which together totaled $211.3 million. In 2006, the Millennium Challenge Corporation granted $21 million to the Philippines for a threshold program addressing corruption in revenue administration.
Nearly 400,000 Americans visit the Philippines each year. Providing government services to U.S. and other citizens, therefore, constitutes an important aspect of the bilateral relationship. Those services include veterans' affairs, social security, and consular operations. Benefits to Filipinos from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and the Social Security Administration totaled $297,389,415 in 2006. Many people-to-people programs exist between the U.S. and the Philippines, including Fulbright, International Visitors, and Aquino Fellowship exchange programs, as well as the U.S. Peace Corps.
The Agreement on Enhanced Defense Cooperation is a ten-page document containing a preamble and 12 articles, that was signed on April 28, 2014. It is a framework agreement that raises the scope of the 1951 MDT.
The Preamble to the EDCA refers to the obligations of the Philippines and the United States, under both the Charter of the United Nations and the MDT, to settle international disputes by peaceful means, not to endanger international peace and security, and to refrain from the threat or use of force “in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.”
Importantly, the Preamble notes that both parties “share an understanding for the United States not to establish a permanent military presence or base in the territory of the Philippines.” The Preamble later concludes, “all United States access to and use of facilities and areas will be at the invitation of the Philippines and with full respect for the Philippines Constitution and Philippine laws.
Two-way U.S. merchandise trade with the Philippines amounted to $17.3 billion in 2006 (U.S. Department of Commerce data). According to Philippine Government data, 16% of the Philippines' imports in 2006 came from the U.S., and about 18% of its exports were bound for America. The Philippines ranks as the 26th-largest export market and the 30th-largest supplier of the United States. Key exports to the U.S. are semiconductor devices and computer peripherals, automobile parts, electric machinery, textiles and garments, wheat and animal feeds, and coconut oil. In addition to other goods, the Philippines imports raw and semi-processed materials for the manufacture of semiconductors, electronics and electrical machinery, transport equipment, and cereals and cereal preparations.
The U.S. traditionally has been the Philippines' largest foreign investor, with about $6.6 billion in estimated investment as of end-2005 (U.S. Department of Commerce data). Since the late 1980s, the Philippines has committed itself to reforms that encourage foreign investment as a basis for economic development, subject to certain guidelines and restrictions in specified areas. Under President Ramos, the Philippines expanded reforms, opening the power generation and telecommunications sectors to foreign investment, as well as securing ratification of the Uruguay Round agreement and membership in the World Trade Organization. As noted earlier, President Arroyo's administration has generally continued such reforms despite opposition from vested interests and "nationalist" blocs. A major obstacle has been and will continue to be constitutional restrictions on, among others, foreign ownership of land and public utilities, which limits maximum ownership to 40%.
Over the last two decades, the relatively closed Philippine economy has been opened significantly by foreign exchange deregulation, foreign investment and banking liberalization, tariff and market barrier reduction, and foreign entry into the retail trade sector. The Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001 opened opportunities for U.S. firms to participate in the power industry in the Philippines. Information and communications technologies, backroom operations such as call centers, and regional facilities or shared-service centers are likewise leading investment opportunities.
During the visit by President Benigno Aquino III to Washington DC, on July 7, 2012, the US-Philippine Society was launched. It is a non-profit independent organisation tasked for generating awareness about the Philippines in the US. The last board meeting was conducted by the society on January 24, 2013.
In its 2013 Special 301 Report, the Office of the United States Trade Representatives wrote "The United States looks to the Philippines to take important steps to address piracy over the internet, in particular with respect to notorious online markets". It is speculated that pressure from the United States contributed to the complaint filed by Philippine Association of the Record Industry against the torrent website KickassTorrents, resulting in its seizure by Philippine authorities on June 13, 2013.
U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Kurt M. Campbell said in January 2011 that the United States will help boost the capacity of the Philippines to patrol their own waters, including the Spratly islands.
The 1951 mutual-defense treaty was reaffirmed with the November 2011 Manila Declaration. United States Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Jonathan Greenert suggested that LCS or surveillance aircraft may be deployed to the Philippines. And the Philippines is considering the proposal. These "rotational deployments" will help replace some of the American presence in the area that was given up when the permanent American bases in the Philippines were closed under President Bush.
In 2012 the Philippines and the United States conducted joint military exercises. As of 2012, a U.S. military contingent of 600, including Navy Seals and Seabees are stationed "indefinitely" in the Southern Philippines, in a declared non-combatant role to assist the Armed Forces of the Philippines in operations against the al-Quaida-linked Abu Sayyaf terrorist group primarily on the island of Basilan in western Mindanao and the Sulu islands, in particular Jolo, a long-time stronghold of Abu Sayyaf.
The Scarborough Shoal standoff with China and the ongoing Spratly islands dispute has caused the Philippines to consider stronger military ties with the United States. In 2012, a senior Philippine defense official said that as long as they have prior clearance from the Philippine government, American troops, warships and aircraft could once again use their former naval and air facilities of Subic Bay Naval Base and Clark Air Base. In 2013, Foreign Secretary, Albert del Rosario clarified that, due to constitutional constraints, establishment of a US military facility could only be allowed if it would be under the control of the Philippine military. The deal will reportedly include shared access to Philippines military but not civilian facilities.
During a 2013 visit to the Philippines, Defense Secretary, Ashton Carter said that the main security issues that the USA was working with the Philippines were:
In April 2014, a ten-year pact (EDCA – Enhanced Defence Co-operation Agreement) was signed between the U.S. President, Barack Obama and the Philippine President, Benigno Aquino III, allowing United States to increase military presence in the Philippines.
The Joint US Military Assistance Group (JUSMAG) handed over weapons to the Philippine Marine Corps.The equipment includes 300 M4 carbines, 200 Glock 21 pistols, 4 M134D Gatling-style machine guns, and 100 M203 grenade launchers, the US embassy in Manila said in a 5 June statement. The JUSMAG also delivered 25 new Combat Rubber Raiding Craft with outboard motors to PMC headquarters in Taguig, where PMC commandant Major General Emmanuel Salamat formally accepted delivery of the weapons during a transfer ceremony on 5 June.The equipment was delivered amidst the Marawi Crisis.
In February 2019, US state secretary Pompeo affirmed US commitments under the 1951 Mutual Defense Treaty (MDT) during a meeting with counterparts in the Philippines. Pompeo in a speech added, "as the South China Sea is part of the Pacific, any armed attack on Philippine forces, aircraft or public vessels will trigger mutual defense obligations". The US assured that they will "back the Philippines" if confrontation between the Philippines and China occurs in the South China Sea. The move came after years of American reluctance to affirm commitments, which led to numerous Filipino politicians to push for review of the 68-year-old security pact between the Philippines and the US. The Filipino foreign affairs secretary welcomed the US committment, adding that there is "no need to review" the pact anymore.
The U.S. maintains an embassy in Manila and a consulate in Cebu. The American Business Center, which houses the Foreign Commercial Service and the Foreign Agricultural Service, is located in Makati City. The Philippine government maintains an embassy in Washington, D.C. as well as several consulates throughout the United States.
After President Rodrigo Duterte formally assumed the office on June 30, 2016, the US-Philippine relations began to sour. The drift between the Duterte and Obama relationship began when the U.S. President expressed his concern over human rights issues on President Duterte's “War on Criminality and Drugs”. According to a statement issued by the White House, Obama commended the country for its "vibrant democracy." But he also highlighted "enduring values" that underpinned their "longstanding ties," including "shared commitments to democracy, human rights and rule of law." This intervention and President Duterte's choice of words while speaking about President Obama during a press conference, where he infamously called him “a son of a whore” resulted in a canceled meeting between the two leaders during the 2016 ASEAN summit held in Laos.
A few weeks after, Duterte suggested American special forces to cease its operations and leave Mindanao. He cited the killings of Muslim Filipinos during a U.S. pacification campaign in the early 1900s, which he said were at the root of the long restiveness by minority Muslims in the largely Catholic nation's south. It was only during his official visit to Vietnam last September 28, 2016 when he explicitly expressed that he wants an end to the Philippines' joint military exercises with the United States, saying the upcoming scheduled war games will be the last under his term, while adding that he will continue to uphold the Philippines' treaties with the US.
As of October 2016, despite Duterte's shift of foreign policy to China from US, Filipinos still had low approval and trust rate in China compared to the US which continued to hold high trust and approval ratings. On former president's Fidel Ramos' resignation as special envoy to China, he stated that he didn't like Duterte's treatment of US President Obama.
Duterte later said following the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election that he will stop quarrels with the US following President Donald Trump's victory. Trump has planned to continue to aid the country during his Presidency.
This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://2009-2017.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2794.htm#relations.2016 U.S. Embassy protest in Manila
A protest that occurred in front of the U.S. embassy in Manila, Philippines led to a violent dispersal on October 19, 2016.Balikatan
Balikatan is the name for the annual military exercises between the Philippines and the United States. It is a Tagalog word meaning "shoulder-to-shoulder". The April 2016 10-day exercises is the 32nd iteration of the Balikatan exercises. The exercises have been the cornerstone of Philippines–United States military relations since the U.S. bases in the Philippines closed.Australian armed forces have participated in Balikatan exercises annually since 2014. Australia has a visiting forces agreement, a type of a status of forces agreement, with the Philippines called Philippines–Australia Status of Visiting Forces Agreement. The Philippines is open to other countries participating provided that they too have a similar forces agreement.Bell Trade Act
The Bell Trade Act of 1946, also known as the Philippine Trade Act, was an act passed by the United States Congress specifying policy governing trade between the Philippines and the United States following independence of the Philippines from the United States. The United States Congress offered $800 million for post World War II rebuilding funds if the Bell Trade Act was ratified by the Philippine Congress. The specifics of the act required the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines be amended. The Philippine Congress approved the measure on July 2, two days before independence from the United States of America, and on September 18, 1946 approved a plebiscite to amend the Constitution of the Philippines.
Authored by Missouri Congressman C. Jasper Bell, the Bell Trade Act required:
Preferential tariffs on US products imported into the Philippines;
A 2:1 fixed exchange rate between the Philippine peso and the United States dollar;
No restrictions on currency transfers from the Philippines to the United States;
"Parity rights" granting U.S. citizens and corporations rights to Philippine natural resources equal to (in parity with) those of Philippine citizens, contrary to Article XIII in the 1935 Philippine Constitution, necessitating a constitutional amendment.The Bell Act, particularly the parity clause, was seen by critics as an inexcusable surrender of national sovereignty. The pressure of the sugar barons, particularly those of President Roxas's home region of Western Visayas, and other landowner interests, however, was irresistible.In 1955, the Laurel–Langley Agreement revised the Bell Trade Act. This treaty abolished the United States authority to control the exchange rate of the peso, made parity privileges reciprocal, extended the sugar quota, and extended the time period for the reduction of other quotas and for the progressive application of tariffs on Philippine goods exported to the United States.Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs
In the United States Government, the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (EAP, originally the Office of Chinese Affairs) is part of the United States Department of State and is charged with advising the Secretary of State and Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs on matters of the Asia-Pacific region, as well as dealing with U.S. foreign policy and U.S. relations with countries in that area. It is headed by the Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, who reports to the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs.Death of Jennifer Laude
The death of Jennifer Laude occurred on October 11, 2014 in Olongapo, Philippines, when the 26-year-old Filipina trans woman was killed by 19-year-old Private First Class Joseph Scott Pemberton, who had been unaware that Laude was transgender.This is the second reported criminal case involving a United States Marine in the Philippines under the existing Philippines–United States Visiting Forces Agreement and the first since the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement. The murder spawned protests in the Philippines by transgender rights and other activists.Embassy of the Philippines, Washington, D.C.
The Embassy of the Philippines in Washington, D.C. (Filipino: Pasuguan ng Pilipinas sa Washington D.C) is the diplomatic mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United States. It is located at 1600 Massachusetts Avenue, Northwest, Washington, D.C. It predates the independence of the Philippines, and is the oldest Philippine legation overseas, though the distinction of the first Philippine embassy proper overseas, belongs to the Philippine Embassy in Tokyo.
The original chancery of the Philippine Embassy, a house built in 1917 for Daniel C. Stapleton on a design by local architect Clarke Waggaman, was purchased by the Office of the Resident Commissioner of the Philippines during the period of service of Joaquin Elizalde. During World War II, from May 1942 onwards, it became the headquarters of the government-in-exile of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and temporary capital of the Philippines until the Commonwealth government returned to the Philippines in October, 1944. On July 4, 1946, the embassy was formally established.
President Manuel L. Quezon sojourned at the Shoreham Hotel during the war and had plans to turn his room into a permanent official residence, but these plans were abandoned by Sergio Osmeña after he became President of the Philippines. The mansion at 2253 R Street NW, built in 1904 on a design by Waddy Butler Wood, was subsequently purchased in 1954 and has been the ambassador's residence since. That same building had hosted the legation of Czechoslovakia in 1928-29.
In 1991, construction of a new Chancery Building began on a trapezoidal island on Massachusetts Avenue, bordered by 17th Street, N Street, Bataan street, and Massachusetts Avenue, across from the old building. Completed in 1993, the present-day building is a four-story of beaux-arts design with a smooth-finish precast, blending nicely with the traditional limestone structures of Embassy Row.
The old chancery, meanwhile, was converted into the embassy's Consular section in the late 2016.Embassy of the United States, Manila
The Embassy of the United States of America to the Philippines is situated in the Chancery Building of the Manila American Embassy along Roxas Boulevard (formerly Dewey Boulevard) in Ermita, Manila. The Embassy has been representing the United States Government since the Philippines was granted independence on July 4, 1946.
The Manila mission is one of the Department of State's largest posts, employing close to 300 Americans and 1,000 Foreign Service national employees. The mission also hosts the only foreign office of the Department of Veterans Affairs, which caters to some 18,000 American and Filipino veterans and their widows in the Philippines (see also Filipino Veterans Fairness Act.)
Manila's Regional Printing Center provides printing and distribution services for overseas and domestic publications. Smaller branches exist in Vienna, Austria and Washington, D.C. but Manila is the flagship facility.Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement
The Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement (EDCA) is an agreement between the United States and the Philippines intended to bolster the U.S.–Philippine alliance. The agreement allows the United States to rotate troops into the Philippines for extended stays and allows the U.S. to build and operate facilities on Philippine bases, for both American and Philippine forces. The US is not allowed to establish any permanent military bases. It also gives Philippine personnel access to American ships and planes.The EDCA is a supplemental agreement to the previous Visiting Forces Agreement. The agreement was signed by Philippine Defense Secretary Voltaire Gazmin and U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines Philip Goldberg in Manila on April 28, 2014. On January 12, 2016, the Philippine Supreme Court upheld the agreement's constitutionality in a 10–4 vote. On July 26, 2016, the Philippine Supreme Court ruled with finality that the agreement is constitutional.Evan Medeiros, the U.S. National Security Council’s senior director for Asian affairs was quoted in the Washington Post as saying, "This is the most significant defense agreement that we have concluded with the Philippines in decades."Evergreen Hotel explosion
On May 16, 2002 an explosion occurred at the Evergreen Hotel in Davao City, Philippines leaving American, Michael Meiring severely injured. The explosion was caused by a dynamite allegedly kept by Meiring inside his hotel room.Laurel–Langley Agreement
The Laurel–Langley Agreement was a trade agreement signed in 1955 between the United States and its former colony the Philippines. It expired in 1974. It was an amendment to the Bell Trade Act, which gave full parity rights to American citizens and businesses.List of ambassadors of the United States to the Philippines
The Ambassador of the United States of America to the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Embahador ng Estados Unidos sa Pilipinas) was established on July 4, 1946 after the Philippines gained its independence from the United States.
The Ambassador to the Philippines has also been accredited to the Republic of Palau since 1996. The Ambassador works at the Embassy of the United States in Manila along Roxas Boulevard and holds residence in Forbes Park in Makati City. The Ambassador also has a summer residence in Baguio, The American Residence.
The current Ambassador to the Philippines is Sung Kim since 2016.Major non-NATO ally
Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to close allies that have strategic working relationships with the US Armed Forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). While the status does not automatically include a mutual defense pact with the United States, it still confers a variety of military and financial advantages that otherwise are not obtainable by non-NATO countries.Nichols v. United States
Nichols v. United States, 578 U.S. ___ (2016), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) does not require an individual to update his registration after departing a state.OsRox Mission
The OsRox Mission (1931) was a campaign for self-government and United States recognition of the independence of the Philippines led by former Senate President Sergio Osmeña and House Speaker Manuel Roxas. The mission secured the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act, which was rejected by the Philippine Legislature and Manuel Quezon.Philippine Center
The Philippine Center is an agency of the Philippine Government tasked with the management of the building. It houses the offices of the Philippine Mission to the United Nations, the Philippine Consulate General, the Philippine Department of Trade and Industry, and the Philippine Department of Tourism. The Philippine Center Management (PCMB) manages the building and its properties. It is committed to "nurture, promote, and propagate Philippine culture, encourage foreign tourists to visit the Philippines, expand foreign markets of Philippine products, and enhance the image of the Philippines."Philippine Consulate General, San Francisco
The Philippine Consulate General in San Francisco is a diplomatic mission of the Republic of the Philippines in the United States, representing the country's interests in northern California. It is located in the San Francisco building of the Philippine Center at 447 Sutter Street in central San Francisco, a couple of blocks north of Union Square.Treaty of Manila (1946)
The Treaty of Manila of 1946, formally the Treaty of General Relations and Protocol, is a treaty of general relations signed on July 4, 1946 in Manila, the capital city of the Philippines. It relinquished U.S. sovereignty over the Philippines and recognized the independence of the Republic of the Philippines. The treaty was signed by High Commissioner Paul V. McNutt as a representative of the United States and President Manuel Roxas representing the Philippines.
It was signed by President Truman on August 14, 1946 after the U.S. Senate gave its advice and consent on July 31, 1946 by ratification of the treaty. It was ratified by the Philippines on September 30, 1946. The treaty entered into force on October 22, 1946, when ratifications were exchanged. The treaty was accompanied by a "provisional agreement concerning friendly relations and diplomatic and consular representation" (60 Stat. 1800, TIAS 1539, 6 UNTS 335) until the treaty was ratified.Tydings–McDuffie Act
The Tydings–McDuffie Act, officially the Philippine Independence Act (Pub.L. 73–127, 48 Stat. 456, enacted March 24, 1934), is a United States federal law that established the process for the Philippines, then an American colony, to become an independent country after a ten-year transition period. Under the act, the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines was written and the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established, with the first directly elected President of the Philippines. (Direct elections to the Philippine Legislature had been held since 1907.) It also established limitations on Filipino immigration to the United States.
The act was authored in the 73rd United States Congress by Senator Millard E. Tydings (Dem.) of Maryland and Representative John McDuffie (Dem.) of Alabama, and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.Visiting Forces Agreement (Philippines – United States)
The Philippines–United States Visiting Forces Agreement, sometimes the PH–US Visiting Forces Agreement, is a bilateral visiting forces agreement between the Philippines and the United States consisting of two separate documents. The first of these documents is commonly referred to as "the VFA" or "VFA-1",
and the second as "VFA-2" or "the Counterpart Agreement". A visiting forces agreement is a version of a status of forces agreement that only applies to troops temporarily in a country. The agreements came into force on May 27, 1999, upon ratification by the Senate of the Philippines.,  The United States government regards these documents to be executive agreements not requiring approval by the United States Senate.
|Official Name||Republic of the Philippines||United States of America|
|Coat of Arms|
|National Motto||Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa||In God We Trust|
|National Anthem||Lupang Hinirang||The Star-Spangled Banner|
|Area||343,448 km2 (132,606 sq mi)||9,820,630 km2 (3,791,770 sq mi)|
|Population Density||202/km2 (520/sq mi)||35/km2 (91/sq mi)|
|Capital||City of Manila||District of Columbia|
|Largest Cities|| Quezon City – 2,936,116
City of Manila – 1,780,148
City of Caloocan – 1,583,978
| New York City – 8,600,710|
City of Los Angeles – 3,999,759
City of Chicago – 2,716,450
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
|Party System||Multi-party system||Two-party system|
|Established|| 12 June 1898
4 July 1946 (Fully Recognized)
| 4 July 1776|
3 September 1783 (Fully Recognized)
|Predecessor States||Colonial Period (1565)–1946)
Spanish East Indies (1565–1898)
Republic of Biak-na-Bato (1897)
Military Government (1898–1902)
Philippine Republic (1899–1902)
Insular Government (1901–1935)
Commonwealth of the Philippines (1935–1946)
Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic (1943–1945)
Post–Colonial Period (1946–present)
Republic of the Philippines
|Colonial Period (1607–1783)|
British America and West Indies (1607–1783)
Viceroyalty of New Spain (1521–1821)
Colony of New France (1534–1763)
Colony of New Netherland (1614–1674)
Colony of New Sweden (1638–1655)
Russian America (1784–1867)
Kingdom of Hawaii (1795–1893)
Post–Colonial Period (1776–present)
United States of America
|First Leader||Emilio Aguinaldo||George Washington|
|Current Leader||President: Rodrigo Duterte (PDP-Laban)||President: Donald Trump (Republican)|
|Current Deputy||Vice President: Leni Robredo (Liberal)||Vice President: Mike Pence (Republican)|
|Upper house|| Senate
Senate President: Vicente Sotto III (NPC)
Senate President pro tempore: Ralph Recto (Nacionalista)
Majority Leader: Juan Miguel Zubiri (PDP-Laban)
Minority Leader: Franklin Drilon (Liberal)
Senate President: Mike Pence (Republican)
Senate President pro tempore: Chuck Grassley (Republican)
Majority Leader: Mitch McConnell (Republican)
Minority Leader: Chuck Schumer (Democrat)
|Lower house|| House of Representatives
Speaker: Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (PDP-Laban)
Majority Floor Leader: Fredenil Castro (NUP)
Minority Floor Leader: Danilo E. Suarez (Lakas)
| House of Representatives|
Speaker: Nancy Pelosi (Democrat)
Majority Leader: Steny Hoyer (Democrat)
Minority Leader: Kevin McCarthy (Republican)
|Judiciary|| Supreme Court
Chief Justice: Lucas Bersamin
| Supreme Court |
Chief Justice: John Roberts
|Military|| Armed Forces of the Philippines
||Armed Forces of the United States|
0.5% Indigenous Religions
|National language||Filipino (de jure)||English (de facto)|
|GDP (nominal)||US$311.687 billion ($7,846 per capita)||US$16.245 trillion ($51,704 per capita)|