Philippine peso

The Philippine peso, also referred to by its Filipino name piso (Philippine English: /ˈpɛsoʊ/, /ˈpiː-/, plural pesos; Filipino: piso [ˈpiso, pɪˈso]; sign: ₱; code: PHP), is the official currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos or sentimos in Filipino. As a former colony of the United States, the country used English on its currency, with the word "peso" appearing on notes and coinage until 1967. Since the adoption of the usage of the Filipino language on banknotes and coins, the term "piso" is now used.[4]

The peso is usually denoted by the symbol "₱". Other ways of writing the Philippine peso sign are "PHP", "PhP", "Php", or just "P". The "₱" symbol was added to the Unicode standard in version 3.2 and is assigned U+20B1 (). The symbol can be accessed through some word processors by typing in "20b1" and then pressing the Alt and X buttons simultaneously.[5] This symbol is unique to the Philippines as the symbol used for the peso in countries like Mexico and other former colonies of Spain in the Americas is "$".[6]

Banknotes and coins of the Philippines are minted and printed at the Security Plant Complex of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines) in Quezon City.[7][8]

Philippine peso
Piso ng Pilipinas (Filipino)
Philippine twenty peso notePhilippine fifty peso notePhilippine one hundred peso notePhilippine two hundred peso notePhilippine five hundred peso notePhilippine one thousand peso notePhilippine one centavo coinPhilippine five centavo coinPhilippine twenty-five centavo coinPhilippine one peso coinPhilippine five peso coinPhilippine ten peso coinNGC PH money.png
ISO 4217
 ​1100Sentimo or centavo
 Freq. used₱20, ₱50, ₱100, ₱500, ₱1000
 Rarely used₱200
 Freq. used₱1, ₱5, ₱10
 Rarely used, , 10¢, 25¢
User(s) Philippines
Central bankBangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
PrinterThe Security Plant Complex
MintThe Security Plant Complex
 SourceBangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, October 2018


The Philippine peso is ultimately derived from the Spanish peso or pieces of eight brought over in large quantities by the Manila galleons of the 16th to 19th centuries. From the same Spanish peso or dollar is derived the various pesos of Latin America, the dollars of the US and Hong Kong, as well as the Chinese yuan and the Japanese yen. References: [9].[10] [11]

Pre-colonial coinage

Manila Mint Museum, PI Piloncitos
Piloncitos, a type of coin used by the pre-colonial peoples of the archipelago.

The trade the pre-colonial tribes of what is now the Philippines did among themselves with its many types of pre-Hispanic kingdoms (kedatuans, rajahnates, wangdoms, lakanates and sultanates) and with traders from the neighboring islands was conducted through barter. The inconvenience of barter however later led to the use of some objects as a medium of exchange. Gold, which was plentiful in many parts of the islands, invariably found its way into these objects that included the Piloncitos, small bead-like gold bits considered by the local numismatists as the earliest coin of the ancient peoples of the Philippines, and gold barter rings.[12] The original silver currency unit was the rupee or rupiah (known locally as salapi), brought over by trade with India and Indonesia.

Spanish colonial period

Philip V Coin silver, 8 Reales Mexico
Silver columnario peso imported from Spanish Latin America 1726-1770.
Spanish gold onza or 8 escudo coin imported from Spanish Latin America and valued at 16 silver pesos.
PHL - 50 centimos alfonso xii
Silver 50-centimo coin issued 1864 until the 1890s

The Spanish silver peso worth eight reales was first introduced by the Magellan expedition of 1521 and brought in large quantities after the 1565 conquest of the Philippines by Miguel López de Legazpi. See Spanish dollar. The local salapi continued under Spanish rule as a toston or half-peso coin. Additionally, Spanish gold onzas or eight-escudo coins were also introduced with identical weight to the Spanish dollar but valued at 16 silver pesos.

The earliest silver coins brought in by the galleons from Mexico and other Spanish colonies were in the form of roughly-cut cobs or macuquinas. These coins usually bore a cross on one side and the Spanish royal coat-of-arms on the other. These crudely-made coins were subsequently replaced by machine-minted coins called Columnarios (pillar dollars) or “dos mundos (two worlds)” in 1732 containing 27.07 grams of 0.917 fine silver (revised to 0.903 fine in 1771).

Fractional currency was supplied by cutting the Spanish dollar coin, most commonly into eight wedges each worth one Spanish real. Locally produced crude copper or bronze coins called cuartos or barrillas were also struck in the Philippines by order of the Spanish government, with 20 cuartos being equal to one real (hence, 160 cuartos to a peso). The absence of officially minted cuartos in the 19th century was alleviated in part by counterfeit two-cuarto coins made by Igorot copper miners in the Cordilleras.

A currency system derived from coins imported from Spain, China and neighboring countries was fraught with various difficulties. Money came in different coinages, and fractional currency in addition to the real and the cuarto also existed. Money has nearly always been scarce in Manila, and when it was abundant it was shipped to the provinces. An 1857 decree requiring the keeping of accounts in pesos and centimos (worth 1/100th of a peso) was of little help to the situation given the existence of copper cuartos worth 160 to a peso.

Philippine Gold / Silver Bimetallic Standard in the 19th Century

The Spanish gold onza (or 8-escudo coin) was of identical weight to the Spanish dollar but was officially valued at 16 silver pesos, thus putting the peso on a bimetallic standard with a gold/silver ratio of 16. Its divergence with the value of gold in international trade featured prominently in the continued monetary crises of the 19th century. In the 1850's the low price of gold in the international markets triggered the outflow of silver coins. In 1875 the adoption of the gold standard in Europe triggered a rise in the international price of gold and the replacement of gold coins with silver pesos. While the Philippines stayed officially bimetallic until 1898 with the peso worth either one silver Mexican peso (weighing 27.07 grams 0.903 fine, or 0.786 troy ounce XAG) or 1/16th the gold onza (weighing 1.6915 gram 0.875 fine, or 0.0476 troy ounce XAU), in reality the gold peso has increased in value to approx. two silver pesos.

Concurrent with these events is the establishment of the Casa de Moneda de Manila in the Philippines in 1857, the mintage starting 1861 of gold 1, 2 and 4 peso coins according to Spanish standards (the 4-peso coin being 6.766 grams of 0.875 gold), and the mintage starting 1864 of fractional 50, 20 and 10 centimo silver coins also according to Spanish standards (with 100 centimos containing 25.98 grams of 0.900 silver; later lowered to 0.835 silver in 1881). The Spanish-Filipino peso remained in circulation and were legal tender in the islands until 1904, when the American authorities demonetized them in favor of the new US-Philippine peso.

The first paper money circulated in the Philippines was the Philippine peso fuerte issued in 1851 by the country’s first bank, the El Banco Español Filipino de Isabel II. Convertible to either silver pesos or gold onzas, its volume of 1,800,000 pesos was small relative to about 40,000,000 silver pesos in circulation at the end of the 19th century.

Revolutionary Period

Asserting its independence after the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12, 1898, the República Filipina (Philippine Republic) under General Emilio Aguinaldo issued its own coins and paper currency backed by the country’s natural resources. The coins were the first to use the name centavo for the subdivision of the peso. The island of Panay also issued revolutionary coinage. After Aguinaldo's capture by American forces in Palanan, Isabela on March 23, 1901, the revolutionary peso ceased to exist.

American Colonial Period

Filipinas (PI) 50 Centavos Silver Coin 1918 (s)
United States Administration 50 centavos silver coin minted in San Francisco in 1918.

After the United States took control of the Philippines, the United States Congress passed the Philippine Coinage Act of 1903, established the unit of currency to be a theoretical gold peso (not coined) consisting of 12.9 grains of gold 0.900 fine (0.026875 XAU), equivalent to ₱2,933.07 modern pesos of as of 22 December 2010.[13] This unit was equivalent to exactly half the value of a U.S. dollar.[14] Its peg to gold was maintained until the gold content of the US dollar was reduced in 1934. Its peg of ₱2 to the US dollar was maintained until independence in 1946.

The act provided for the coinage and issuance of Philippine silver pesos substantially of the weight and fineness as the Mexican peso, which should be of the value of 50 cents gold and redeemable in gold at the insular treasury, and which was intended to be the sole circulating medium among the people. The act also provided for the coinage of subsidiary and minor coins and for the issuance of silver certificates in denominations of not less than 2 nor more than 10 pesos (maximum denomination increased to 500 pesos in 1906).

It also provided for the creation of a gold-standard fund to maintain the parity of the coins so authorized to be issued and authorized the insular government to issue temporary certificates of indebtedness bearing interest at a rate not to exceed 4 per cent per annum, payable not more than one year from date of issue, to an amount which should not at any one time exceed 10 million dollars or 20 million pesos.

Commonwealth Period

1944 Philippines five-centavo coin of the Commonwealth period.
10 Philippine centavos (2)
1945 ten-centavo coin of the Commonwealth period.

When Philippines became a U.S. Commonwealth in 1935, the coat of arms of the Philippine Commonwealth were adopted and replaced the arms of the US Territories on the reverse of coins while the obverse remained unchanged. This seal is composed of a much smaller eagle with its wings pointed up, perched over a shield with peaked corners, above a scroll reading "Commonwealth of the Philippines". It is a much busier pattern, and widely considered less attractive.

World War II

In 1942, the Japanese occupiers introduced fiat notes for use in the Philippines. Emergency circulating notes (also termed "guerrilla pesos") were also issued by banks and local governments, using crude inks and materials, which were redeemable in silver pesos after the end of the war. The puppet state under José P. Laurel outlawed possession of guerrilla currency and declared a monopoly on the issuance of money and anyone found to possess guerrilla notes could be arrested or even executed. Because of the fiat nature of the currency, the Philippine economy felt the effects of hyperinflation.

Combined U.S. and Philippine Commonwealth military forces including recognized guerrilla units continued printing Philippine pesos, so that, from October 1944 to September 1945, all earlier issues except for the emergency guerrilla notes were considered illegal and were no longer legal tender.

Independence and the Central Bank of the Philippines, 1949-1993

50 Centavos (Philippines)
50 Philippine Centavo coin of the English series (1964).

Republic Act No. 265 created the Central Bank of the Philippines (now the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas) on January 3, 1949, in which was vested the power of administering the banking and credit system of the country. Under the act, all powers in the printing and mintage of Philippine currency was vested in the CBP, taking away the rights of the banks such as Bank of the Philippine Islands and the Philippine National Bank to issue currency.[15]

The Philippines faced various post-war problems due to the slow recovery of agricultural production, trade deficits due to the need to import needed goods, and high inflation due to the lack of goods. The CBP embarked on a fixed exchange system during the 1950s where the peso’s convertibility was maintained at ₱2 per US$1 by various measures to control and conserve the country’s international reserves. [16]

This system, combined with other “Filipino First” efforts to curtail importations, helped reshape the country’s import patterns and improve the balance of payments. Such restrictions, however, gave rise to a black market where dollars routinely traded for above ₱3/$. The CBP’s allocation system which rations a limited supply of dollars at ₱2/$ to purchase priority imports was exploited by parties with political connections. Higher black market exchange rates drove remittances and foreign investments away from official channels.

By 1962 the task of maintaining the old ₱2/$ parity while defending available reserves has become untenable under the new Diosdado Macapagal administration, opening up a new decontrol era from 1962-1970 where foreign exchange restrictions were dismantled and a new free-market exchange rate of ₱3.90/$ was adopted since 1965. This move helped balance foreign exchange supply versus demand and greatly boosted foreign investment inflows and international reserves. However, a weak manufacturing base that can’t capture market share in (mostly imported) consumer goods meant that devaluation only fueled inflation, and by the time the decontrol era ended in 1970 another devaluation to ₱6.43/$ was needed.

In 1967, coinage adopted Filipino language terminology instead of English, banknotes following suit in 1969. Consecutively, the currency terminologies as appearing on coinage and banknotes changed from the English centavo and peso to the Filipino sentimo and piso. However, centavo is more commonly used by Filipinos in everyday speech.

The CBP’s final era from 1970 until the BSP’s reestablishment in 1993 involved a managed float system with no more fixed parity commitments versus the dollar. The CBP only committed to maintain orderly foreign exchange market conditions and to reduce short-term volatility. Difficulties continued throughout the 1970s and 1980s in managing inflation and keeping exchange rates stable, and was complicated further by the CBP lacking independence in government especially when the latter incurs fiscal shortfalls. The worst episode occurred when a confidence crisis in the Ferdinand Marcos administration triggered a capital flight among investors between August 1983 to February 1986, nearly doubling the exchange rate from ₱11/$ to ₱20/$ and also doubling the prices of goods.

Reorganization to the new Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas in 1993

The one-peso coin of the BSP series.
The New Generation Currency 5-peso coin (2017).

Positive political and economic developments in the 1990s paved the way for further economic liberalization and an opportunity to unburden the central bank of objectives that are inconsistent with keeping inflation stable. The New Central Bank Act (Republic Act No 7653) of 14 June 1993 replaces the old CBP with a new Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas mandated explicitly to maintain price stability, and enjoying fiscal and administrative autonomy to insulate it from government interference. This, along with the further liberalization of various foreign exchange regulations, puts the Philippine peso on a fully floating exchange rate system. The market decides on the level in which the peso trades versus foreign currencies based on the BSP’s ability to maintain a stable inflation rate on goods and services as well as sufficient international reserves to fund exports. Black market exchange rates as seen in the past are now nonexistent since official markets now reflect underlying supply and demand. [17]

The Philippine peso has since traded versus the US dollar in a range of ₱24-46 from 1993-99, ₱40-56 from 2000-2009, and ₱40-54 from 2010-2019. The previous 1903-1934 definition of a peso as 12.9 grains of pure gold (or 0.026875 XAU) is now worth ₱1,391 based on gold prices as of September 2015. [18]

Names for different denominations

The smallest currency unit is called centavo in English (from Spanish centavo). Following the adoption of the "Pilipino series" in 1967, it became officially known as sentimo in Filipino (from Spanish céntimo).[19] However, "centavo" and its local spellings, síntabo and sentabo, are still used as synonyms in Tagalog. It is the most widespread preferred term over sentimo in other Philippine languages, including Abaknon,[20] Bikol,[21] Cebuano,[22][23] Cuyonon,[24] Ilocano,[25] and Waray,[20] In Chavacano, centavos are referred to as céns (also spelled séns).[26]


Limited Edition One Philippine Peso Coin showing José Rizal
A limited-edition one-peso coin issued to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the birth of José Rizal.

The American government deemed it more economical and convenient to mint silver coins in the Philippines, hence, the re-opening of the Manila Mint in 1920, which produced coins until the Commonwealth Era.

In 1937, coin designs were changed to reflect the establishment of the Commonwealth. During the Second World War, no coins were minted from 1942 to 1943 due to the Japanese Occupation. Minting resumed in 1944, including production of 50-centavo coins. Due to the large number of coins issued between 1944 and 1947, coins were not minted again until 1958.

In 1958, new coinage entirely of base metal was introduced, consisting of bronze 1 centavo, brass 5 centavos and nickel-brass 10, 25 and 50 centavos. In 1967, the coinage was altered to reflect the use of Filipino names for the currency units. One-peso coins were introduced in 1972. In 1975, the Ang Bagong Lipunan Series was introduced with a new 5-peso coin included. Aluminium replaced bronze, and cupro-nickel replaced nickel-brass that year. The Flora and Fauna series was introduced in 1983 which included 2-peso coins. The sizes of the coins were reduced in 1991, with production of 50-centavo and 2-peso coins ceasing in 1994. The next series of coins was introduced in 1995, with 10-peso coins added in 2000. The current series, all struck on nickel-plated steel, and omitting the 10-centavo denomination, was introduced in 2017 with the 5-peso coin and in 2018 with the other five denominations.

Denominations below 1 peso are still issued but have been increasingly regarded as a nuisance. Proposals to retire and demonetize all coins less than one peso in value have been rejected by the government and the BSP.[27]


Php bill 5 front
Philippine five-peso bill before being replaced by coins.

In 1949, the Central Bank of the Philippines took over paper money issue. Its first notes were overprints on the Victory Treasury Certificates. These were followed in 1951 by regular issues in denominations of 5, 10, 20 and 50 centavos, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 pesos. The centavo notes (except for the 50-centavo note, which would be later known as the half-peso note) were discontinued in 1958 when the English Series coins were first minted.

In 1967, the CBP adopted the Filipino language on its currency, using the name Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, and in 1969 introduced the "Pilipino Series" of notes in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 pesos. The "Ang Bagong Lipunan Series" was introduced in 1973 and included 2-peso notes. A radical change occurred in 1985, when the CBP issued the "New Design Series" with 500-peso notes introduced in 1987, 1,000-peso notes (for the first time) in 1991 and 200-peso notes in 2002.

The "New Design Series" was the name used to refer to Philippine banknotes issued from 1985 to 1993. It was then renamed into the "BSP Series" due to the re-establishment of Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas from 1993 to 2010. It was succeeded by the "New Generation Currency" series issued on December 16, 2010.

The New Design/BSP Series banknotes were still in print until 2013. Existing banknotes remained legal tender until the start of the demonetization process on January 1, 2015. The bills were originally to be demonetized by January 1, 2017,[28][29][30][31][32][33] but the deadline for exchanging the old banknotes was extended twice, on June 30, 2017 and December 29, 2017. After that date, all NDS/BSP banknotes were demonetized and are no longer a liability of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.[34][35]

New Generation Currency (current)

In 2009, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) announced that it has launched a massive redesign for current banknotes and coins to further enhance security features and improve durability.[36] The members of the numismatic committee include BSP Deputy Governor Diwa Guinigundo and Ambeth Ocampo, Chairman of the National Historical Institute. The new banknote designs feature famous Filipinos and iconic natural wonders. Philippine national symbols will be depicted on coins. The BSP started releasing the initial batch of new banknotes in December 2010.

Several, albeit disputable, errors have been discovered on banknotes of the New Generation series and have become the subject of ridicule over social media sites. Among these are the exclusion of Batanes from the Philippine map on the reverse of all denominations, the mislocation of the Puerto Princesa Subterranean Underground River on the reverse of the 500-peso bill and the Tubbataha Reef on the 1000-peso bill, and the incorrect coloring on the beak and feathers of the blue-naped parrot on the 500-peso bill,[37][38] but these were eventually realized to be due to the color limitations of intaglio printing.[39] The scientific names of the animals featured on the reverse sides of all banknotes were incorrectly rendered as well.[40]

By February 2016, the BSP started to circulate new 100-peso bills which were modified to have a stronger mauve or violet color. This was “in response to suggestions from the public to make it easier to distinguish from the 1000-peso bank note.” The public could still use the New Generation Currency 100-peso bills with fainter colors as they are still acceptable.[41]

Exchange rates

Historical exchange rate

The official exchange rate was ₱2 against the U.S. dollar from 1946-62, devalued to ₱3.90/$ in 1962, and devalued again to ₱6.43/$ in 1970. Black market exchange rates during these periods, however, were nearly always higher than official rates.

Several depreciations followed, with the peso trading at ₱18/$ in 1984 from the dirty float at ₱11.25/$ in 1983  [42] and ₱21/$ in 1986. In the early 1990s, the peso depreciated again to ₱28/$. Due to the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the peso depreciated from ₱26/$ in July 1997 to ₱46.50/$ in 1998 and to about ₱50/$ in 2001. Black market exchange rates as seen in the past are now nonexistent since official exchange rates now reflect underlying supply and demand rather than political considerations.

Current exchange rate

Current PHP exchange rates

Recent issues

Errors in currency

In 2005, About 78 million 100-peso notes with President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo’s surname misspelt as "Arrovo" were printed and planned to be circulated. The error was only found out after 2 million of the notes were circulated and the BSP had ordered an investigation.[43][44][45]

The incorrect manner in which scientific names were printed in the 2010 New Generation Currency Series were addressed in 2017 revisions.

In December 2017, a 100 peso banknote which had no face of Manuel A. Roxas and no electrotype 100 was issued. The Facebook post was shared over 24,000 times. The BSP said that the banknotes are due to a rare misprint.[46][47]

1-peso coin fraud

Slightly offset U.S. quarter on top of a Philippine one-peso coin for size comparison

By August 2006, it became publicly known that the 1-peso coin has the same size as the 1 United Arab Emirates dirham coin.[48] As of 2010, 1-peso is only worth 7 fils (0.07 dirham), leading to vending machine fraud in the UAE. Similar frauds have also occurred in the US, as the 1-peso coin is roughly the same size as the quarter but as of 2017 is worth slightly less than 2 U.S. cents. Newer digital parking meters are not affected by the fraud, though most vending machines will accept them as quarters.

Non-existent currency

In 2017, a one-peso coin that was allegedly minted in 1971 was said to bear the design of the novel Noli Me Tángere by Jose Rizal at the back of the coin. The coin was allegedly sold for up to PHP 1,000,000. The holder of the said coin was interviewed by Kapuso Mo, Jessica Soho about this, but potential buyers made no serious offers to purchase the coin, and the BSP said that it did not release any coin of the said design. The BSP also mentioned that the coin is thinner than the circulating coin which gives the possibility that someone might have tampered it and replaced it with a different design.[49]

In June 2018, a Facebook page posted a 10,000-peso note with a portrait of President Ramon Magsaysay on the front and a water buffalo and Mount Pinatubo on the back. The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas did not issue this banknote and stressed that only 6 denominations are in current circulation (20-, 50-, 100-, 200-, 500- and 1000 pesos). The Facebook page of the BSP said that it was fake. The signature was also of former governor of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas Amando Tetangco Jr..[50]It was found out that the photo was from a different user who found a fake 10,000 peso banknote in a book at a library.

Peso drops past ₱52 amid market jitters

In September 2018, the value of the Philippine peso dropped from ₱54 to a dollar. This is the lowest it has been in almost 13 years due to an ongoing rout against emerging market currencies and a stubbornly high local inflation rate. On the foreign exchange market, the peso ended the trading session at ₱54.13. It has since recovered to ₱52 as of November 2018.[51]

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ From September 2017 to 2 August 2018, the ISO 4217 standard referred to the currency by the Filipino term "piso".[2] It has since been changed back to "peso".[3]
  5. ^ "[How-To] Type the Philippine Peso Currency Sign". Laboratory sandbox. Retrieved on 2013-10-01.
  6. ^ Shafer, Neil (1964). A Guide Book of Philippine Paper Money. Whitman Publishing. p. 19. ASIN B0007EJ9OC. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  7. ^ "Overview of the BSP". Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) Official Website. Retrieved on 2013-10-01.
  8. ^ "Compare currencies in South East Asia". Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  9. ^ "Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas: History of Philippine Money".
  10. ^ "Report of the Philippine commission to the President, January 31, 1900, page 142-149, Part IX: The Currency".
  11. ^ "The Silver Way explains how the Old Mexican Dollar changed the World".
  12. ^ Coinage of the Pre-Hispanic Era Evolution of Philippine Currency. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. Retrieved on 13 October 2013.
  13. ^ 0.026875 XAU = 2,933.07 PHP,
  14. ^ Edwin Walter Kemmerer (2008). "V. The Fundamental Laws of the Philippine Currency reform". Modern Currency Reforms; A History and Discussion of Recent Currency Reforms in India, Porto Rico, Philippine Islands, Straits Settlements and Mexico. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4086-8800-7.
  15. ^ "Republic Act No. 265". June 15, 1948. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  16. ^ "p 33 Appendix of "BSP Working Paper Series No. 2008-02 – Adjustments in the Face of Peso Volatility: Perspective from the Past and Policy Directions" (PDF).
  17. ^ "Chronology: Central Banking in the Philippines".
  18. ^ "XE Currency Converter; XAU to PHP". Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  19. ^ "History of Philippine Currency - Demonetized Coin Series". Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  20. ^ a b Voltaire Q. Oyzon & the National Network of Normal Schools. "Commerce". 3NS Corpora Project. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  21. ^ "Bulan ni Balagtas". Planet Naga. 5 April 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  22. ^ "sentabo"., English to Binisaya - Cebuano Dictionary and Thesaurus. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
  23. ^ Tom Marking (7 November 2005). "Cebuano Study Notes" (PDF). Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  24. ^ Ester Ponce De Leon Timbancaya Elphick & Virginia Howard Sohn. "Pagsorolaten i' Cuyonon". Bisarang Cuyonon: The Official Language of Palawan. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  25. ^ Precy Espiritu (1984). Let's Speak Ilokano. University of Hawaii Press. p. 224. ISBN 9780824808228.
  26. ^ John M. Lipski & Salvatore Santoro (2000). "Zamboangueño Creole Spanish" (PDF). Comparative Creole Syntax: 1–40.
  27. ^ "Scrapping lower-valued coins unfair to consumers".
  28. ^ BSP Announces the Replacement Process of Old Banknotes (New Design Series, NDS) with New Generation Currency Banknotes Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas ( December 29, 2014. Retrieved on 2014-12-30.
  29. ^ Poster for the demonetization of the New Design/BSP series (English) Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas ( Retrieved on 2016-01-21.
  30. ^ Poster for the demonetization of the New Design/BSP series (Filipino) Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas ( Retrieved on 2016-01-21.
  31. ^ Poster for the demonetization of the New Design/BSP series (Ilocano) Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas ( Retrieved on 2016-01-21.
  32. ^ Poster for the demonetization of the New Design/BSP series (Cebuano) Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas ( Retrieved on 2016-01-21.
  33. ^ Poster for the demonetization of the New Design/BSP series (Bicolano) Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas ( Retrieved on 2016-01-21.
  34. ^ BSP Extends the Period for the Exchange or Replacement of New Design Series Banknotes at Par with the New Generation Currency Banknotes, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas press release, December 28, 2016
  35. ^ BSP extends deadline for the exchange/replacement of old note series (NDS) at par with the new note series (NGC) until 30 June 2017 Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas ( Retrieved on 2017-03-26.
  36. ^ "The New Generation Currency Program of the Philippines". Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. March 26, 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  37. ^ "Errors found on new peso bills". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. December 19, 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  38. ^ "Error-filled peso bills spark uproar". Philippine Daily Inquirer. December 20, 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  39. ^ Lucas, Daxim (January 1, 2011). "The peso's makeover from an insider's view". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 6, 2015. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  40. ^ "Philippine Money - Peso Coins and Banknotes: Error in Scientific Names on New Generation Banknotes". Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  41. ^ Vera, Ben O. de. "BSP releases new P100 bills". Retrieved 2016-02-04.
  42. ^ "Philippine Peso Devalued 11 To A US Dollar". New Straits Times. June 23, 1983. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  43. ^ "'Arrovo' bills to be replaced; firm to pay cost". Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 10, 2006. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  44. ^ "Typo drives up peso's 'worth' - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  45. ^ "Philippine Money - Peso Coins and Banknotes: Banknote Error - "Arrovo" on 100 Peso Banknote". Philippine Money - Peso Coins and Banknotes. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  46. ^ News, ABS-CBN. "'Faceless' bills due to 'rare misprint,' Bangko Sentral says". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  47. ^ Philippines bank left red-faced over 'faceless' notes
  48. ^ Menon, Sunita (August 1, 2006). "Hey presto! A Peso's as good as a Dirham". Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  49. ^ GMA Public Affairs (2017-08-21), Kapuso Mo, Jessica Soho: Isang milyong piso kapalit ng 1971 piso?, retrieved 2018-07-29
  50. ^ Bangko Sentral warns against fake ₱10,000 bill
  51. ^ Lucas, Daxim L. "Peso drops past P54 amid market jitters". Retrieved 2018-09-12.


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Bank of the Philippine Islands

Bank of the Philippine Islands (Filipino: Bangko ng Kapuluang Pilipinas, Spanish: Banco de las Islas Filipinas, commonly known as BPI; PSE: BPI) is a universal bank in the Philippines. It is the first bank in both the Philippines and Southeast Asia. It is the fourth largest bank in terms of assets, the second largest bank in terms of market capitalization, and one of the most profitable banks in the Philippines.The bank has a network of over 900 branches in the Philippines, Hong Kong and Europe, and more than 3,000 ATMs and CDMs (cash deposit machines).

BPI was founded during the Spanish Colonial Era of the Philippines as the El Banco Español Filipino de Isabel II, and when founded, provided credit to the National Treasury and printed and issued the Philippine peso fuerte, a precursor to today's Philippine peso.

Banknotes of the Philippine peso

Banknotes of the Philippine peso are issued by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines) for circulation in the Philippines. The smallest amount of legal tender in wide circulation is 20 pesos and the largest is 1,000 pesos. The front side of each banknote features prominent people along with buildings, and events in the country's history while the reverse side depicts landmarks and animals.

Coins of the Philippine peso

Philippine peso coins are issued by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas for circulation in the Philippines and are currently available in six denominations. The Philippine peso has been in use since Spanish rule.

English Series

The English Series were Philippine banknotes that circulated from 1949 to 1969. It was the first banknote series of the newly established Central Bank of the Philippines (Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas) and was the only banknote series of the Philippine peso to use English as its language for all of its banknotes.

Flora and Fauna Series

The Flora and Fauna Series was a series of Philippine peso coins minted from 1983 to 1994, in denominations from 1 sentimo to ₱2. The series used the Optima typeface. The sizes of the coins were reduced, and ₱5 coins were reintroduced, in 1991. Production of 50-sentimo and ₱2 coins ceased in 1995.

Japanese government-issued Philippine peso

During World War II in the Philippines, the occupying Japanese government-issued fiat currency in several denominations; this is known as the Japanese government-issued Philippine fiat peso (see also Japanese invasion money). The Second Philippine Republic under President José P. Laurel outlawed possession of guerrilla currency, and declared a monopoly on the issuance of money, so that anyone found to possess guerrilla notes could be arrested or even executed.

Some Filipinos called the fiat peso "Mickey Mouse money". Many survivors of the war tell stories of going to the market laden with suitcases or "bayóng" (native bags made of woven coconut or buri leaf strips) overflowing with the Japanese-issued bills. According to one witness, 75 "Mickey Mouse" pesos, or about 35 U.S. dollars at that time, could buy one duck egg. In 1944, a box of matches cost more than 100 Mickey Mouse pesos.These bills were often used by American psychological warfare personnel as propaganda leaflets. Japanese occupation banknotes were overprinted with the words "The Co-prosperity Sphere: What is it worth?", in an attempt to discredit the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, and dropped from Allied aircraft over the occupied territories.


The peso (meaning weight in Spanish) was a coin that originated in Spain and became of immense importance internationally. Peso is now the name of the monetary unit of several countries in the Americas and the Philippines.

Philippine fifty centavo coin

The Philippine fifty centavo coin (Filipino: Limampung sentimo) (50¢) was a denomination of Philippine currency. It was minted from 1880 to 1994 and was demonetized in 1998.

Philippine five centavo coin

The Philippine five-centavo coin (5¢) coin is the second-lowest denomination coin of the Philippine peso after the one centavo.

Philippine five peso coin

The Philippine five-peso coin (₱5) is the second-largest denomination of the coins of the Philippine peso.

The current version issued in 2017 is measured at 25 mm (0.98 in) in diameter, and features a portrait of Filipino revolutionary leader Andrés Bonifacio on the obverse. The reverse side depicts the Tayabak, a type of Philippine vine and the current logo of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.

Firstly, the five peso coin was produced in conjunction along with the five peso note, which commenced from the year 1975 to 1982 and again in 1991 to 1996.

However, production for the five peso note became obsolete when the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas stopped printing the banknotes in 1996 (as the last production year of the banknote was stamped in 1995).

Philippine half centavo coin

The Philippine half centavo coin (½¢), a denomination of Philippine currency, was issued when the Philippines was under US administration. It bears the names of both countries: Filipinas (the Spanish name of the Philippines) and the United States of America.Filipino sculptor Melecio Figueroa was hired to design the coin. It features a man with a hammer and anvil, seating in front of Mayon Volcano.In 1903 and 1904, the US mint at Philadelphia struck bronze-minted half centavo coins for circulation. Eventually, the coin was withdrawn from circulation because it was rejected by Filipinos for its low value. After 1908, all remaining half centavos were melted.

Philippine one-peso coin

The Philippine one-peso coin (₱1) coin is the third-highest denomination coin of the Philippine peso.

The current version, issued in 2018, features a portrait of Philippine national hero, José Rizal on the obverse. The reverse side features the Waling-waling orchid and the current logo of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.

Philippine one centavo coin

The Philippine one-centavo coin (1¢) is the smallest-denomination coin of the Philippine peso. It has been issued since 1903 during American rule. It became the smallest unit of currency following the removal of the half-centavo in 1908. Its former size and colour is similar to the former five centavo coin, although it does not have a hole in the middle.

Philippine peso fuerte

The Philippine peso fuerte (Spanish "Strong Peso" sign: PF) was the first paper currency of the Philippines and the Spanish East Indies during the later Spanish colonial period. It co-circulated with other Spanish silver and gold coins and was issued by El Banco Español Filipino de Isabel II (currently Bank of the Philippine Islands). The banknotes were convertible to either silver pesos or gold coins at the bank's discretion. The colonial government at the time allowed El Banco Español-Filipino to issue pesos fuertes up to one-fourths of its subscribed capital, or a maximum of PF 100,000, which was subsequently raised to 300,000 in 1855.

El Banco Español-Filipino began issuing peso fuerte notes on May 1, 1852. As of the end of the 19th century its circulating volume of 1,800,000 pesos was small relative to about 40,000,000 silver pesos in circulation. See History of Philippine money.

The currency was replaced by the revolutionary peso in 1898 following the Philippine Revolution, and further by the modern peso in 1901.

Philippine peso sign

The Philippine peso sign (₱) is the currency sign used for the Philippine peso, the official currency of the Philippines. The symbol resembles a Latin letter P with a double stroke.

This insignia of the Philippine peso is native to the Philippines, while the other countries having peso as the main currency use the dollar sign or $ as their symbol. It was introduced under the United States colonial administration after 1898 as a way to distinguish the Philippine peso (from $ originally to ₱) in official documents versus the United States dollar which was also used the $ symbol.

Philippine ten centavo coin

The Philippine ten-centavo coin (10¢) coin was a denomination of the Philippine peso. It was the oldest denomination under 1 peso in the country's circulation, having been introduced in 1880 during the Spanish rule of the islands until it was stopped being minted in 2017.

The first coin worth one tenth of a peso was the 10 centimo coin of 1880-1885. It featured on its obverse King Alfonso XII of Spain with the inscription 'Alfonso XII por La G(racia) de Dios' (Alfonso XII, by the Grace of God) and the year of minting. The reverse featured the coat of arms of Castille and Kingdom of León. Around it was the inscription 'Rey de Espana' (King of Spain) and the denomination as 10 Cs. de Po. (10 centimos of peso).

Philippine ten peso coin

The Philippine ten-peso coin (₱10) is the largest denomination coin of the Philippine peso.

Two versions of this denomination are in circulation; the bi-metallic coin, first issued in 2000, with the dual profiles of Andrés Bonifacio and Apolinario Mabini on obverse and the 1993 logo of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas on the reverse. The current version, issued since 2018, features a portrait of Apolinario Mabini on the obverse side and the Kapa-kapa and the current logo of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas on the reverse side.

However, production of the ten peso note became obsolete when the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) stopped printing the banknotes in 2002 (as the last production year of the banknote was stamped in 2001).

Philippine ten peso note

The Philippine ten-peso note (Filipino: Sampung Piso) (₱10) was a denomination of Philippine currency. In its latest incarnation, Apolinario Mabini and Andrés Bonifacio are featured on the front side of the notes, while the Barasoain Church and a Blood Compact scene of the Katipuneros are featured on the reverse side. This banknote was circulated until the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas stopped printing this denomination in 2002 (the last production year is 2001) and was replaced by coins.

Philippine two peso coin

The Philippine two peso coin (Filipino: Dalawang Piso) (₱2) was a denomination of Philippine currency. It was minted by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas from 1983 to 1994 and was demonetized in 1998.

Currencies named peso or similar
See also
Philippines Philippine peso
Currencies of Asia
Industry and Business
Economic Regions
Trade and Infrastructure
Philippines articles

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