Philippine dynasty

The Philippine Dynasty, also known as the House of Habsburg in Portugal, was the third royal house of Portugal. It was named after the three Spanish kings who ruled Portugal between 1581 and 1640 in a dynastic union of the two crowns. The three kings, all named Philip (Spanish: Felipe; Portuguese: Filipe, Portuguese pronunciation: [fɨˈlip(ɨ)]), were from the House of Habsburg.

The history of Portugal from the dynastic crisis in 1580 to the House of Braganza monarchs was a period of transition. At its beginning, the Portuguese Empire spice trade was near its height. It continued to enjoy widespread influence after Vasco da Gama had finally reached the East by sailing around Africa in 1497–1498. Vasco da Gama's achievement completed the exploratory efforts inaugurated by Henry the Navigator, and opened an oceanic route for the profitable spice trade into Europe that bypassed the Middle East.

Throughout the 17th century, the increasing predations and beleaguering of Portuguese trading posts in the East by the Dutch, English and French, and their rapidly growing intrusion into the Atlantic slave trade undermined Portugal's near monopoly on the lucrative oceanic spice and slave trades. This sent the Portuguese spice trade into a long decline. To a lesser extent, the diversion of wealth from Portugal by the Habsburg monarchy to help support the Catholic side of the Thirty Years' War also created strains within the union, although Portugal did benefit from Spanish military power in helping to retain Brazil and in disrupting Dutch trade. These events, and those that occurred at the end of the House of Aviz and the period of the Iberian Union, led Portugal to a state of dependency on its colonies, first India and then Brazil.

Philippine Dynasty
Full Ornamented Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1621-1668)
Parent houseHouse of Habsburg
Casa de Habsburgo
(Portuguese)
Country Portugal
Founded25 March 1581
FounderPhilip I
Current headExtinct
Final rulerPhilip III
Titles
Estate(s)of Portugal
Deposition1 December 1640

The continuity in the administrative system

Dinasty Habsburg (Spain) family tree by shakko (EN)
Spanish Habsburgs' family tree and connection with Portugal royal house of Aviz

Due to complexity in the management of government affairs, the Spanish Monarch established auxiliary bodies called Councils (Consejos), dedicated to providing advice toward resolution of problems. The Councils needed a permanent seat, and so King Philip II of Spain established in 1562 the permanent capital in Madrid, seat of the Royal Court and of the administrative staff.[1][2][3][4] During a brief period (1601–1606), the whole administrative staff held court in Valladolid.[5]

Administrative correspondence originated from different Councils and was delivered by each Council Secretary to Madrid for the attention of the Crown. The king would later assemble the secretaries to request the Council's opinion. The meetings of the Councils took place in the royal palace, and they did not count on the presence of the king habitually. In this polisynodial system[6] stood out for its importance, the Consejo de Estado (Council of State).

Relating to the particular government of the kingdom of Portugal itself. During the union of the kingdom of Portugal to the Spanish monarchy, the Spanish Habsburgs on the whole respected the pledges made at Thomar in 1581 to allow considerable Portuguese autonomy and to respected the territories of its empire. Public offices were reserved for Portuguese subjects at home and overseas. The king was represented at Lisbon sometimes by a governor and sometimes by a viceroy. So, Spain left the administration of Portugal and its empire largely to the Portuguese themselves, under general supervision from Madrid channeled through a viceroy in Lisbon. Important matters, however, were referred to Madrid, where they came before the Council of Portugal. In the kingdom of Portugal, the polisynodial system is reinforced:

  • Council of State. The Conselho de Estado of Lisbon is the King's private Council, entrusted of debating major issues related to the Crown, especially foreign policy. The counselors would send their remarks to the king, and the King consulted them through his Viceroy. Although the Conselho de Estado of Lisbon worked as the great adviser Council to the King's delegate, this Council of State was without clearly defined administrative powers and actually it did not perform relevant roles of coordination. The Spanish kings maintained the system of two secretaries of state, one for the kingdom and the other for "India", that is to say, for the colonies, despite several conflicts over jurisdiction, until the creation of the Conselho da India in 1604.
  • In the same way, Spanish kings retained the Mesa da Consciência e Ordens, which was both tribunal and as a council for religious affairs and was responsible for administering ecclesiastical appointments and for the property of the military orders in the colonies as well as in the home country.
  • Portuguese Inquisition remained independent from the Mesa da Consciência e Ordens. There were three major courts in Lisbon, Coimbra and Évora.
  • Also preserved was the Desembargo do Paço. The pinnacle of the entire Portuguese judicial system was the Desembargo do Paço or Royal Board of Justice in Lisbon. This board, the highest court in the kingdom, controlled the appointment of all magistrates and judges and oversaw the Casa de Supplicação or Court of Appeals in Lisbon, as well as the high courts in the Portuguese overseas territories. The first function of the Desembargo do Paço was to control the recruitment of the magistrates (leitura de bachareis) and to monitor them in the exercise of their charge. Its control spread to the whole of the juridical professions. The Desembargo do Paço had to arbitrate conflicts between other courts of the kingdom. This court granted dispensations, acts of legitimization and other relevant issues about the justice and the grace, and which on occasions advised the king on political and economic as well as judicial matters. Moreover, a commission of jurists set up to reform the legal system produced a new code for Portugal, the Ordenações filipinas, promulgated in 1603.
  • The Casa de Supplicação and the Casa do Civel, both are two royal courts of appeal for civil cases as criminal cases. The Casa do Civel exercised jurisdiction over the northern part of the kingdom, and the Casa de Supplicação over the rest on the realm including the islands and overseas.
  • In 1591, the four Vedores da Fazenda (overseers of the Treasury) were replaced by a Conselho da Fazenda composed of one Vedor da Fazenda presiding over four counsillors (two of them lawyers) and four secretaries. The Conselho da Fazenda exercised a control over the officials of finance, administered the particular king's goods and exercised its jurisdiction over the customs and the arsenals, the court of accounts and the administration of the monopolistic trade with overseas.
  • From 1604, the newly created Conselho da India was invested with powers for all overseas affairs, apart from matters concerning Madeira, the Azores and the strongholds of Morocco, and colonial officials were appointed and their dispatches handled by it.

Nevertheless, the political conjuncture needed urgent reactions, and in this context a system of meetings appeared for specific issues, as the Junta for the reform of the Council of Portugal (1606–1607, 1610), the Junta for the classification of the debts to the treasury (since 1627) or the Juntas for the organization of the navies of succor of Brazil (since 1637)...[7]

The Portuguese Empire challenged

The union of the two crowns deprived Portugal of a separate foreign policy, and Spain's enemies became Portugal's. England had been an ally of Portugal since the Treaty of Windsor in 1386. War between Spain and England led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal's oldest ally, and the loss of Hormuz. English help provided by Elizabeth I of England in a rebellion against the kings assured the survival of the alliance. War with the Dutch led to invasions of many countries in Asia, including Ceylon (today's Sri Lanka), and commercial interests in Japan, Africa (Mina), and South America. Even though the Portuguese were unable to capture the entire island of Ceylon, they were able to keep the coastal regions of Ceylon under their control for a considerable time. Brazil was partially conquered by both France and the Seventeen Provinces.

In the 17th century, taking advantage of this period of Portuguese weakness, many Portuguese territories in Brazil were occupied by the Dutch who gained access to the sugarcane plantations. John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen was appointed as the governor of the Dutch possessions in Brazil in 1637 by the Dutch West India Company. He landed at Recife, the port of Pernambuco, in January 1637. By a series of successful expeditions, he gradually extended the Dutch possessions from Sergipe on the south to São Luís de Maranhão in the north. He likewise conquered the Portuguese possessions of Elmina Castle, Saint Thomas, and Luanda, Angola, on the west coast of Africa. After the dissolution of the Iberian Union in 1640, Portugal would reestablish its authority over the lost territories of the Portuguese Empire. The Dutch intrusion into Brazil was long-lasting and troublesome for Portugal. The Seventeen Provinces captured a large portion of the Brazilian coast including Bahia (and its capital Salvador), Pernambuco (and its capital Recife), Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, and Sergipe, while Dutch privateers sacked Portuguese ships in both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The large area of Bahia and its city, the strategically-important Salvador, was recovered quickly by a powerful Iberian military expedition in 1625. This laid the foundations for the recovery of remaining Dutch controlled areas. The other smaller, less developed areas were recovered in stages and relieved of Dutch piracy in the next two decades by local resistance and Portuguese expeditions.

On the other hand, the Iberian Union opened to both countries a worldwide span of control, as Portugal dominated the African and Asian coasts that surrounded the Indian Ocean, and Spain the Pacific Ocean and both sides of Central and South America, while both shared the Atlantic Ocean space.

Decline of the Habsburg Empire and revolt of Portugal

When Philip II of Portugal (Philip III of Spain) died, he was succeeded by Philip III (and IV of Spain) who had a different approach on Portuguese issues. Taxes raised affected mainly the Portuguese merchants (Carmo Reis 1987). The Portuguese nobility began to lose its importance at the Spanish Cortes, and government posts in Portugal were occupied by Spaniards. Ultimately, Philip III tried to make Portugal a royal province, and Portuguese nobles lost all of their power.

This situation culminated in a revolution by the nobility and high bourgeoisie on December 1, 1640, 60 years after the crowning of Philip I. The plot was planned by Antão Vaz de Almada, Miguel de Almeida and João Pinto Ribeiro. They, together with several associates, killed Secretary of State Miguel de Vasconcelos and imprisoned the king's cousin, the Duchess of Mantua, who had governed Portugal in his name. The moment was well chosen, as Philip's troops were at the time fighting the Thirty Years' War and also facing a revolution in Catalonia.

The support of the people became apparent almost immediately and soon John, 8th Duke of Braganza, was acclaimed King of Portugal throughout the country as John IV. By December 2, 1640, John had already sent a letter to the Municipal Chamber of Évora as sovereign of the country.

Restoration War

The subsequent Portuguese Restoration War against Philip III (Portuguese: Guerra da Restauração) consisted mainly of small skirmishes near the border. The most significant battles being the Battle of Montijo on May 26, 1644, the Battle of the Lines of Elvas (1659), the Battle of Ameixial (1663), the Battle of Castelo Rodrigo (1664), and the Battle of Montes Claros (1665); the Portuguese were victorious in all of these battles.

Several decisions made by John IV to strengthen his forces made these victories possible. On December 11, 1640, the Council of War was created to organize all the operations.[8] Next, the king created the Junta of the Frontiers, to take care of the fortresses near the border, the hypothetical defense of Lisbon, and the garrisons and sea ports. In December 1641, a tenancy was created to assure upgrades on all fortresses that would be paid with regional taxes. John IV also organized the army, established the Military Laws of King Sebastian, and developed intense diplomatic activity focused on restoring good relations with England.

After gaining several decisive victories, John quickly tried to make peace. His demand that Philip recognize the new ruling dynasty in Portugal was not fulfilled until the reign of his son Afonso VI during the regency of Afonso's brother Infante Pedro (later King Pedro II of Portugal).

Origins of the House of Braganza

The Portuguese Royal House of Braganza began with John IV. The dukes of the House of Braganza were a branch of the House of Aviz created by King Afonso V for his half-uncle Afonso, 8th Count of Barcelos, illegitimate son of John I, first monarch of the House of Aviz. The Braganzas soon became one of the most powerful families of the kingdom and for the next decades would inter-marry with the main line of the Portuguese royal family. In 1565, John, 6th Duke of Braganza married Princess Catherine, granddaughter of King Manuel I. This connection with the Royal Family proved determinant in the rise of the House of Braganza to a Royal House. Catherine was one of the strongest claimants of the throne during the succession crisis of 1580 but lost the struggle to her cousin Philip II of Spain. Eventually Catherine's grandson became John IV of Portugal as he was held to be the legitimate heir.

John IV was a beloved monarch, a patron of fine art and music, and a proficient composer and writer on musical subjects. He collected one of the largest libraries in the world.[9] Among his writings is a defense of Palestrina and a Defense of Modern Music (Lisbon, 1649). Abroad, the Dutch took Malacca (January 1641) and the Sultan of Oman captured Muscat (1648). By 1654, however, most of Brazil was back in Portuguese hands and had effectively ceased to be a viable Dutch colony. John died in 1656, and his widow, Luisa of Guzman, married their daughter Catherine to Charles II of England in 1661 while she was regent for their son Afonso VI. Her dowry consisted of Tangier, Bombay and £1,000,000 sterling, making it the largest dowry ever brought by a queen consort. John IV was succeeded by his son Afonso VI.

Monarchs of the House of Habsburg

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Philip I
  • the Prudent
21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598 (aged 71)25 March 158113 September 1598Grandson of Manuel IHabsburgPortrait of Philip II of Spain by Sofonisba Anguissola - 002b
Philip II
  • the Cruel
14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621 (aged 42)13 September 159831 March 1621Son of Philip IHabsburgPhilip III of Spain
Philip III
  • the Oppressor
8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665 (aged 60)31 March 16211 December 1640
(deposed)
Son of Philip IIHabsburgPhilipIV01

Coats of arms of Titles held by the House of Habsburg

Coat of Arms Title Time Held Coat of Arms Title Time Held
Ornamented Royal Coat of Arms of Portugal (Philip I) King of Portugal 1581–1640 COA Reino de Algarve 1666 King of the Algarve 1581–1640

Notes

  1. ^ Anthony Ham. Lonely Planet Madrid. Books.google.com. p. 48. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
  2. ^ John Horace Parry (1990). The Spanish seaborne empire. University of California Press. p. 196.
  3. ^ Stephen J. Lee (1984). Aspects of European history, 1494-1789. Routledge.
  4. ^ Torbjørn L. Knutsen (1999). The rise and fall of world orders. Manchester University Press. p. 138.
  5. ^ Alastair Boyd (2002). The Companion guide to Madrid and central Spain. Companion Guides. p. 103.
  6. ^ Stephen J. Lee (1984). Aspects of European history, 1494-1789. Routledge. p. 40.
  7. ^ Julio Valdeón Baruque (1990). Revueltas y revoluciones en la historia. Universidad de Salamanca. p. 70.
  8. ^ (Mattoso Vol. VIII, 1993)
  9. ^ (Madeira & Aguiar, 2003)

References

See also

Philippine Dynasty
Cadet branch of the House of Aviz
Preceded by
House of Aviz
Ornamented Royal Coat of Arms of Portugal (Philip I)
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Portugal

1580–1640
Succeeded by
House of Braganza
Aleixo de Menezes

Archbishop Aleixo de Menezes or Alexeu de Jesu de Meneses (25 January 1559 – 3 May 1617) was Catholic Archbishop of Goa, Archbishop of Braga, Portugal, and Viceroy of Portugal during the Philippine Dynasty.

Battle of Alcácer Quibir

The Battle of Alcácer Quibir (also known as "Battle of Three Kings" (Arabic: معركة الملوك الثلاثة‎) or "Battle of Oued al-Makhazin" (Arabic: معركة وادي المخازن‎) in Morocco) was fought in northern Morocco, near the town of Ksar-el-Kebir (variant spellings: Ksar El Kebir, Alcácer-Quivir, Alcazarquivir, Alcassar, etc.) and Larache, on 4 August 1578.

The combatants were the army of the deposed Moroccan Sultan Abu Abdallah Mohammed II, with his ally, the King of Portugal Sebastian I, against a large Moroccan army nominally under the new Sultan of Morocco (and uncle of Abu Abdallah Mohammed II) Abd Al-Malik I.

The Christian king, Sebastian I, had planned a crusade after Abu Abdallah asked him to help recover his throne. Abu Abdallah's uncle, Abd Al-Malik, had taken it from him with Ottoman support. The defeat of Portugal and attendant death of the childless Sebastian led to the end of the Aviz dynasty, and the integration of the country in the Iberian Union for 60 years under the Philippine Dynasty in a dynastic union with Spain.

Count of Tentúgal

Count of Tentúgal (in Portuguese Conde de Tentúgal) was a Portuguese title of nobility created by a royal decree, dated from 1 January 1504, by King Manuel I of Portugal, and granted to Dom Rodrigo de Melo, son of Álvaro of Braganza and Philippa of Melo (daughter and heir of the Count of Olivença).

Twenty nine years later, in 1533, King John III of Portugal granted him the new title of Marquis of Ferreira (in Portuguese Marquês de Ferreira). Count of Tentúgal became the title used by the Marquis's heir.

Finally, and following the expulsion of the Philippine Dynasty from the throne of Portugal (1640), the new King John IV of Portugal granted to 5th Count of Tentúgal and 4th Marquis of Ferreira, Dom Nuno Álvares Pereira de Melo, the new title of Duke of Cadaval (in Portuguese Duque de Cadaval) by a royal decree dated from 26 April 1648.

Marquis of Ferreira and Count of Tentúgal became subsidiary titles from the Duke of Cadaval, used by the Duke's heir, during his father's life.

Count of Vidigueira

Count of Vidigueira (in Portuguese Conde da Vidigueira) was a Portuguese comital title of nobility awarded by King Manuel I of Portugal to Dom Vasco da Gama, who discovered the maritime route from Europe to India. The title was created by a royal decree issued in Évora on 29 December 1519, after an agreement signed in 7 November between Vasco da Gama and Dom Jaime, Duke of Braganza, who ceded him the towns of Vidigueira and Vila de Frades, granting Vasco da Gama and his heirs and successors all the revenues and privileges related.

Vasco da Gama was then the 1st Admiral of the Seas of India and in 1524 would become the 6th Governor of Portuguese India under the title of 2nd Viceroy.

Following the expulsion of the Philippine Dynasty from the throne of Portugal in 1640, the new King John IV of Portugal granted this family the new title of Marquis of Nisa (Portuguese: Marquês de Nisa) by a royal decree dated October 18, 1646.

When the 8th Marchioness and 8th Countess, Maria Josefa da Gama, married the 3rd Count of Unhão, the three titles were later inherited by their son, Rodrigo Xavier Teles de Castro da Gama (1744–1784), who became 14th Count of Vidigueira, 7th Marquis of Nisa and 5th Count of Unhão.

Cristóvão de Moura, 1st Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo

D. Cristóvão de Moura e Távora (1538 in Lisbon – 1613 in Madrid) was a Portuguese nobleman who led the Spanish party during the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580.

Francisco Rodrigues Lobo

Francisco Rodrigues Lobo (1580 – November 4, 1622) was a Portuguese poet and bucolic writer.

He was born of rich and noble New Christian parents in Leiria, reading philosophy, poetry and writing of shepherds and shepherdesses by the rivers Liz and Lena. He studied at the University of Coimbra and took the degree of licentiate about 1600. He worked for the Duke of Vila Real, probably being his sons' teacher. He visited Lisbon from time to time, and tradition has it that he died by drowning on his way there. Though his first book, a little volume of verse (Romances) published in 1596, and his last, a rhymed welcome to King Philip III, published in 1623, are written in Spanish he composed his eclogues and prose pastorals entirely in Portuguese, and thereby did a rare service to his country at a time when, owing to the Philippine Dynasty, Castilian was the language preferred by "polite society" and by men of letters. The characteristics of his prose style are harmony, purity and elegance, and he was one of Portugal's leading writers. A disciple of the Italian school, his verses were free from imitations of classical models. Their popularity may be seen by the fact that the Primavera went through seven editions in the 17th century and nine in all, a large number for so limited a market as that of Portugal. An edition of his collected works was published in one volume in Lisbon in 1723, and another in four volumes, but less complete, appeared there in 1774. He died drowned near Santarém while in voyage to Lisbon by river when the boat he was in was sunk by the current.

Habsburg Spain

Habsburg Spain refers to Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe). The Habsburg rulers (chiefly Charles I and Philip II) reached the zenith of their influence and power. They controlled territory that included the Americas, the East Indies, the Low Countries and territories now in France and Germany in Europe, the Portuguese Empire from 1580 to 1640, and various other territories such as small enclaves like Ceuta and Oran in North Africa. This period of Spanish history has also been referred to as the "Age of Expansion".

Under the Habsburgs, Spain dominated Europe politically and militarily for much of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries but experienced a gradual decline of influence in the second half of the seventeenth century under the later Habsburg kings.

The Habsburg years also ushered in the Spanish Golden Age of cultural efflorescence. Among the most outstanding figures of this period were Teresa of Ávila, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Miguel de Cervantes, El Greco, Domingo de Soto, Francisco Suárez, Diego Velázquez, and Francisco de Vitoria.

"Spain" or "the Spains" in this period covered the entire peninsula, politically a confederacy comprising several, nominally independent kingdoms or realms in personal union: Aragon, Castile, León, Navarre and, from 1580, Portugal. In some cases, these individual kingdoms themselves were confederations, most notably, the Crown of Aragon (Principality of Catalonia, Kingdom of Aragon, Kingdom of Valencia, and the Kingdom of Majorca).

The marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469 had enabled the union of two of the greatest of these kingdoms, Castile and Aragón, which led to their largely successful campaign against the Moors, peaking at the conquest of Granada in 1492.

Isabella and Ferdinand were bestowed the title of Most Catholic Monarchs by Pope Alexander VI in 1496, and the term Monarchia Catholica (Catholic Monarchy, Modern Spanish: Monarquía Católica) remained in use for the monarchy under the Spanish Habsburgs. The Habsburg period is formative of the notion of "Spain" in the sense that was institutionalized in the 18th century.

From the 17th century, during and after the end of the Iberian Union, the Habsburg monarchy in Spain was also known as "Spanish Monarchy" or "Monarchy of Spain", along with the common form Kingdom of Spain.

Spain as a unified state came into being de jure only after the Nueva Planta decrees of 1707 (that were a unilateral Royal edict) from the contested successor to the multiple Crowns of its former realms. After the death in 1700 of Charles II and with it the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty, the Spanish Succession war lasted for many years between its contesting dynasties from France and Austria and their respective supporting allies, until the ascension of Philip V and the inauguration of the Bourbon dynasty when this centralizing legal vehicle for new State formation, without legal precedent in the Iberian realms (or the ratification of the dismissed Courts of Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia, whose Laws were not sworn in order to be crowned) and of clear foreign origin, in all comparable after those in France under the Old Regime Absolutism, were established after de facto.

House of Braganza

The Most Serene House of Braganza (Portuguese: Sereníssima Casa de Bragança), also known as the Brigantine Dynasty (Dinastia Brigantina), is a dynasty of emperors, kings, princes, and dukes of Portuguese origin which reigned in Europe and the Americas.

The house was founded by Afonso I, 1st Duke of Braganza, illegitimate son of King John I of Portugal of the House of Aviz, and would eventually grow into one of the wealthiest and most powerful noble houses of the Iberian Peninsula of the Renaissance period. The Braganzas came to rule the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves after successfully deposing the Philippine Dynasty in the Restoration War, resulting in the Duke of Braganza becoming King John IV of Portugal, in 1640. The Braganzas ruled Portugal and the Portuguese Empire from 1640 and with the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, in 1815, and the subsequent independence of the Empire of Brazil, in 1822, the Braganzas came to rule as the monarchs of Brazil.

The House of Braganza produced 15 Portuguese monarchs and all 4 Brazilian monarchs, numerous consorts to various European kingdoms, such as Catherine of Braganza (wife of Charles II of England who introduced tea to Britain) and Maria Isabel of Braganza (wife of Ferdinand VII of Spain who founded the El Prado Museum), as well as sometime candidates for the thrones of Poland and Greece, Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém and Pedro, Duke of Braganza, respectively, and numerous other notable figures in the histories of Europe and the Americas. The Braganzas were deposed from their thrones in Europe and the Americas at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries, when Emperor Pedro II was deposed in Brazil, in 1889, and when King Manuel II was deposed in Portugal, in 1910.

Following the reign of King John VI of Portugal, the Braganzas were split into three main branches of the family: the Brazilian branch, headed by King John VI's eldest son, Emperor Pedro I of Brazil, the Constitutional branch, headed by Emperor Pedro I's eldest daughter, Queen Maria II of Portugal, and the Miguelist branch, headed by King John VI's second eldest son, King Miguel I of Portugal. The Brazilian branch, following 1921, became the House of Orléans-Braganza, whose leadership is disputed by two branches of its own: the Vassouras branch, headed by Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza, and the Petrópolis branch, headed by Prince Pedro Carlos of Orléans-Braganza. The Constitutional branch died out with the death of King Manuel II in 1932, passing its claim to the Portuguese throne to the Miguelist Branch, by way of Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza. The claim to the Portuguese Crown, and thus to the leadership of the House of Braganza, passed to Duarte Nuno's son, Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, who is currently the most recognized pretender to the Portuguese throne.

Junta (Habsburg)

Under Habsburg rule, a junta (or jointe) was an administrative body ruled in personal union with the Spanish Habsburgs. Juntas existed in Iberia and other European countries; in the Low Countries, the French name jointe was also officially used. Some territories maintained their juntas even after being brought under the imperial Austrian branch of the dynasty.

Leal Senado Building

The Leal Senado Building (Portuguese for Loyal Senate) was the seat of Portuguese Macau's government (Legislative Assembly of Macau and Municipal Council of Macau). It is located at one end of the Senado Square in São Lourenço, Macau, China. The title was bestowed on Macau's government in 1810 by Portugal's Prince Regent João, who later became King John VI of Portugal. This was a reward for Macau's loyalty to Portugal, which refused to recognise Spain’s sovereignty during the Philippine Dynasty that it occupied Portugal, between 1580 and 1640. A plaque ordered by the king commemorating this can still be seen inside the entrance hall.

Miguel de Vasconcelos

Miguel de Vasconcelos (or Vasconcellos) e Brito (c. 1590 – 1 December 1640 in Lisbon; Portuguese pronunciation: [miˈɡɛɫ dɨ vaʃkõˈsɛluʃ]) was the last Secretary of State (Prime Minister) of the Kingdom of Portugal, during the Philippine Dynasty, in which both kingdoms of Portugal and Spain remained separated but united by the same king and foreign policy.

He was in office from 1635 to 1640, serving under Margarida of Savoy, Vicereine of Portugal, the Duchess of Mantua, a cousin of King Philip III.

He was probably the most hated collaborator with the Spanish, considered a traitor during the last years of the Philippine Dynasty, especially after the revolts of 1637. On the morning of 1 December 1640, a group of Portuguese noblemen who wanted to restore full independence started a revolution, immediately supported by the people of Lisbon. After entering the palace, the conspirators sought Miguel Vasconcelos, but saw no sign of him. They would eventually find Miguel de Vasconcelos hidden in a closet with a gun. His movements within the small closet and the rustling of papers inside gave away his position. He was shot to death and defenestrated, leaving his corpse to the angry public.

Municipal Council of Macau

Municipal Council of Macau, officially known as the Leal Senado (Portuguese for Loyal Senate), was the local government structure in Macau (similar to city councils) during Portuguese colonial rule. The title Leal Senado was bestowed on Macau's government in 1810 by Portugal's Prince Regent João, who later became King John VI of Portugal. This was a reward for Macau's loyalty to Portugal during the Philippine Dynasty, between 1580 and 1640.

Following the handover in 1999, the Council was replaced by a Provisional Municipal Council and finally replaced by the Institute for Civic and Municipal Affairs of the Macau (Instituto para os Assuntos Cívicos e Municipais). Like its Municipal Council predecessors, the Institute meets at the Leal Senado Building.

Philip III of Spain

Philip III (Spanish: Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain. He was also, as Philip II, King of Portugal, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia and Duke of Milan from 1598 until his death.

A member of the House of Habsburg, Philip III was born in Madrid to King Philip II of Spain and his fourth wife and niece Anna, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain. Philip III later married his cousin Margaret of Austria, sister of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor.

Although also known in Spain as Philip the Pious, Philip's political reputation abroad has been largely negative – an 'undistinguished and insignificant man,' a 'miserable monarch,' whose 'only virtue appeared to reside in a total absence of vice,' to quote historians C. V. Wedgwood, R. Stradling and J. H. Elliott. In particular, Philip's reliance on his corrupt chief minister, the Duke of Lerma, drew much criticism at the time and afterwards. For many, the decline of Spain can be dated to the economic difficulties that set in during the early years of his reign. Nonetheless, as the ruler of the Spanish Empire at its height and as the king who achieved a temporary peace with the Dutch (1609–1621) and brought Spain into the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) through an (initially) extremely successful campaign, Philip's reign remains a critical period in Spanish history.

Philip II of Spain

Philip II of Spain (Spanish: Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was King of Castile and Aragon (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554 to 1558). He was also Duke of Milan. From 1555 he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands.

The son of Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Spanish kingdoms Charles V and Isabella of Portugal, Philip was called "Felipe el Prudente" ("Philip the Prudent") in the Spanish kingdoms; his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippines. During his reign, the Spanish kingdoms reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Spanish Golden Age.

During Philip's reign there were separate state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1569, 1575, and 1596. This was partly the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in 1581. On 31 December 1584 Philip signed the Treaty of Joinville, with Henry I, Duke of Guise signing on behalf of the Catholic League; consequently Philip supplied a considerable annual grant to the League over the following decade to maintain the civil war in France, with the hope of destroying the French Calvinists. A devout Catholic, Philip saw himself as the defender of Catholic Europe against the Ottoman Empire and the Protestant Reformation. He sent a large armada to invade Protestant England in 1588, with the strategic aim of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and establishing Catholicism in England. He hoped to stop both English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and the harm caused to Spanish interests by English and Dutch privateering.

Philip was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in 1563 as "slight of stature and round-faced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lip, and pink skin, but his overall appearance is very attractive". The Ambassador went on to say "He dresses very tastefully, and everything that he does is courteous and gracious." Besides Mary I, Philip was married three other times and widowed four times.

Philip IV of Spain

Philip IV (Spanish: Felipe, Portuguese: Filipe; 8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665) was King of Spain (as Philip IV in Castile and Philip III in Aragon) and Portugal (as Philip III). He ascended the thrones in 1621 and reigned in Spain until his death and in Portugal until 1640. Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, including such artists as Diego Velázquez, and his rule over Spain during the Thirty Years' War.

By the time of his death in 1665, the Spanish Empire had reached approximately 12.2 million square kilometers (4.7 million square miles) in area but in other respects was in decline, a process to which Philip contributed with his inability to achieve successful domestic and military reform.

Philip Prospero, Prince of Asturias

Philip Prospero, Prince of Asturias (Felipe Próspero José Francisco Domingo Ignacio Antonio Buenaventura Diego Miguel Luis Alfonso Isidro Ramón Víctor; 28 November 1657 – 1 November 1661) was the first son of Philip IV of Spain and Mariana of Austria to survive infancy. Philip IV had no male heir since the death of Balthasar Charles, his son by his first wife, Elisabeth of France, eleven years before, and as Spain's strength continued to ebb the issue of succession had become a matter of fervent and anxious prayer.

Portuguese Crown Jewels

The Portuguese Crown Jewels were the pieces of jewelry, regalia, and vestments worn by the Monarchs of Portugal during the time of the Portuguese Monarchy. Over the nine centuries of Portuguese history, the Portuguese Crown Jewels have lost and gained many pieces. Most of the current set of the Portuguese Crown Jewels are from the reigns of King João VI and King Luís I.

Rui Gonçalves da Câmara III

Rui Gonçalves da Câmara (c.1550 – c.1601), member of the Gonçalves da Câmara, was son of Manuel da Câmara, and succeeded him as the 4th Donatary Captain of the island of São Miguel, but was recognized predominantly in his role as the 1st Count of Vila Franca during the Philippine Dynasty.

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