Philip the Apostle

Philip the Apostle (Greek: Φίλιππος; Coptic: ⲫⲓⲗⲓⲡⲡⲟⲥ, Philippos) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. Later Christian traditions describe Philip as the apostle who preached in Greece, Syria, and Phrygia.

In the Roman Rite, the feast day of Philip, along with that of James the Less, was traditionally observed on 1 May, the anniversary of the dedication of the church dedicated to them in Rome (now called the Church of the Twelve Apostles). The Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates Philip's feast day on 14 November. One of the Gnostic codices discovered in the Nag Hammadi library in 1945 bears Philip's name in its title, on the bottom line.[2]

Saint Philip the Apostle
Rubens apostel philippus
St. Philip, by Peter Paul Rubens, from his Twelve Apostles series (c. 1611), at the Museo del Prado, Madrid
Apostle and Martyr
BornBethsaida, Galilee, Roman Empire
Died80 AD
Hierapolis, Anatolia, Roman Empire
Venerated inChristianity
CanonizedPre-congregation
Major shrinerelics in Basilica Santi Apostoli, Rome
Feast3 May General Roman Calendar,[1] 14 November (Eastern Orthodox Church), 1 May (Anglican Communion, Lutheran Church and pre-1955 Roman Rite), 11 May (General Roman Calendar, 1955–69)
AttributesRed Martyr, Elderly, bearded saint and open-to-God man, holding a basket of loaves and a Tau cross
PatronageCape Verde; Hatters; Pastry chefs; San Felipe Pueblo; Uruguay

New Testament

The Synoptic Gospels list Philip as one of the apostles. The Gospel of John recounts Philip's calling as a disciple of Jesus.[Jn 1:43] Philip is described as a disciple from the city of Bethsaida, and the evangelist connects him with Andrew and Peter, who were from the same town. He also was among those surrounding John the Baptist when the latter first pointed out Jesus as the Lamb of God. It was Philip who first introduced Nathanael (sometimes identified with Bartholomew) to Jesus.[3] According to Butler, Philip was among those attending the wedding at Cana.[1]

Of the four Gospels, Philip figures most prominently in the Gospel of John. Jesus is asked by Philip on how to feed the 5,000 people.[3] Later he appears as a link to the Greek community. Philip bore a Greek name, may have spoken Greek,[4] and may have been known to the Greek pilgrims in Jerusalem. He advises Andrew that certain Greeks wish to meet Jesus, and together they inform Jesus of this (John 12:21).[3] During the Last Supper, when Philip asked Jesus to show them the Father, he provides Jesus the opportunity to teach his disciples about the unity of the Father and the Son.[1]

Philip the Apostle should not be confused with Philip the Evangelist, who was appointed with Stephen to oversee charitable distributions (Acts 6:5).

Christian tradition

Brooklyn Museum - Saint Philip (Saint Philippe) - James Tissot - overall
James TissotSaint Philip (Saint Philippe)Brooklyn Museum

Accounts of Philip's life and ministry exist in the extra-canonical writings of later Christians. However, some can be misleading, as many hagiographers conflated Philip the Apostle with Philip the Evangelist. The most notable and influential example of this is the hagiography of Eusebius, in which Eusebius clearly assumes that both Philips are the same person.[5] As early as 1260, Jacobus de Voragine noted in his Golden Legend that the account of Philip's life given by Eusebius was not to be trusted.[6]

An early extra-biblical story about St. Philip is preserved in the apocryphal Letter from Peter to Philip, one of the texts in the Nag Hammadi Library, and dated to the end of the 2nd century or early 3rd.[7] This text begins with a letter from St Peter to Philip the apostle, asking him to rejoin the other apostles who had gathered at the Mount of Olives. Fred Lapham believes that this letter indicates an early tradition that "at some point between the Resurrection of Jesus and the final parting of his risen presence from the disciples, Philip had undertaken a sole missionary enterprise, and was, for some reason, reluctant to return to the rest of the Apostles." This mission is in harmony with the later tradition that each disciple was given a specific missionary charge.[8] Lapham explains the central section, a Gnostic dialogue between the risen Christ and his disciples, as a later insertion.[9]

Later stories about Saint Philip's life can be found in the anonymous Acts of Philip, probably written by a contemporary of Eusebius.[10] This non-canonical book recounts the preaching and miracles of Philip. Following the resurrection of Jesus, Philip was sent with his sister Mariamne and Bartholomew to preach in Greece, Phrygia, and Syria.[11] Included in the Acts of Philip is an appendix, entitled "Of the Journey of Philip the Apostle: From the Fifteenth Act Until the End, and Among Them the Martyrdom." This appendix gives an account of Philip's martyrdom in the city of Hierapolis.[12] According to this account, through a miraculous healing and his preaching Philip converted the wife of the proconsul of the city. This enraged the proconsul, and he had Philip, Bartholomew, and Mariamne all tortured. Philip and Bartholomew were then crucified upside-down, and Philip preached from his cross. As a result of Philip's preaching the crowd released Bartholomew from his cross, but Philip insisted that they not release him, and Philip died on the cross. Another legend is that he was martyred by beheading in the city of Hierapolis.

Nowadays relics of Philip the Apostle are in the crypt of Basilica Santi Apostoli, Rome.

Iconography

Coa Illustration Cross of St Philip
Cross of Philip

Philip is commonly associated with the symbol of the Latin cross.[13] Other symbols assigned to Philip include: the cross with the two loaves (because of his answer to the Lord in John 6:7), a basket filled with bread, a spear with the patriarchal cross, and a cross with a carpenter's square.[14]

Patronage

Saint Philip is the patron saint of hatters.

Tomb discovered

On Wednesday, 27 July 2011, the Turkish news agency Anadolu reported that archaeologists had unearthed a tomb that the project leader claims to be the tomb of Saint Philip during excavations in Hierapolis close to the Turkish city Denizli. The Italian archaeologist, Professor Francesco D'Andria stated that scientists had discovered the tomb within a newly revealed church. He stated that the design of the tomb, and writings on its walls, definitively prove it belonged to the martyred apostle of Jesus.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Butler, Alban. "St. Philip, Apostle", The Lives or the Fathers, Martyrs and Other Principal Saints, Vol. V, D. & J. Sadlier, & Company, 1864
  2. ^ Martha Lee Turner, The Gospel According to Philip: The Sources and Coherence of an Early Christian Collection, page 9 (E. J. Brill, 1996). ISBN 90-04-10443-7
  3. ^ a b c "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Philip the Apostle".
  4. ^ Expositor's Greek Testament on John 12, accessed 10 June 2016
  5. ^ For an example of Eusebius identifying Philip the Apostle with the Philip mentioned in Acts, see Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History, 3.31.5, retrieved 14 March 2007.
  6. ^ de Voragine, Jacobus. "The Golden Legend". catholic-forum.com. Archived from the original on 23 June 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2007.
  7. ^ Translated in James M. Robinson, editor, The Nag Hammadi Library (New York: HarperCollins, 1990), pp. 431-437
  8. ^ Fred Lapham, An Introduction to the New Testament Apocrypha (London: T & T Clark International, 2003), p. 78
  9. ^ Lapham, An Introduction, p. 80
  10. ^ Craig A. Blaising, "Philip, Apostle" in The Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, ed. Everett Ferguson (New York: Garland Publishing, 1997).
  11. ^ "Acts of Philip -- especially Book 8". meta-religion.com. Retrieved 14 March 2007.
  12. ^ Schaff, Philip (1885). "Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume 8". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 14 March 2007.
  13. ^ The Apostles – Saints & Angels – Catholic Online. Catholic.org (11 June 2008). Retrieved on 28 July 2011.
  14. ^ "Symbols of the Saints". clovertlcs.org. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  15. ^ "Tomb of Apostle Philip Found". biblicalarchaeology.org. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2015.

External links

Catedral de San Felipe Apóstol (Arecibo, Puerto Rico)

The Catedral de San Felipe Apóstol, or in English, Cathedral of St. Philip the Apostle, is a Catholic cathedral located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, United States. It is the seat of the Diocese of Arecibo .

Chet (murza)

Chet (baptized as Zachary) was a murza of the Golden Horde and is a legendary progenitor of number of Russian families, including Godunov, Saburov, Zernov, and Veliaminov. He also was a founder of the Ipatievsky Monastery.

According to a legend, Chet received estates near Kostroma in 1330 during the reign of Ivan I of Moscow and was baptized as Zachary. He also had a vision of Virgin Mary with prestanding Philip the Apostle and hieromartyr Hypatius of Gangra, which resulted in his healing from sickness. In a gratitude for healing at that place was established Hypatian Monastery.

According to the Russian historian Stepan Veselovsky (1876-1952), the legend appeared only at the end of the 16th century and has serious chronological issues. The historian claims that the Zachary clan is a native Kostroma clan. In his opinion Zachary lived in the second half of the 13th century and had a son Aleksandr (d. 1304). The first representative of the family who served Moscow was a grandchild of Zachary, Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Zerno. The Hypatian Monastery was founded at the end of the 13th century and originally was a hereditary monastery located in Zachary's estates.

An alternative version of Russian origin was presented by another Russian historian, Maksim Yemelyanov-Lukyanchikov. He believes that Zachary Chet was an ancient boyar clan that served Daniel of Galicia and appeared in Kostroma at the end of the 13th century. Presumably he was the one who brought the Hypatian Codex, which later was found in the Hypatian Monastery.

Zachary and Aleksandr were both buried in the Hypatian Monastery.

Church of the Twelve Apostles

For the eponymous structure in Constantinople, see Church of the Holy Apostles.

The Church of the Twelve Apostles (Russian: церковь Двенадцати Апостолов) is a minor cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin, commissioned by Patriarch Nikon as part of his stately residence in 1653 and dedicated to Philip the Apostle three years later. It also serves as a part of Moscow Kremlin Museums.

Although premises for the Muscovite metropolitan had existed in the Kremlin ever since the 14th century, Patriarch Nikon, who aspired to rival the tsar in authority and magnificence, had them replaced with a much more ambitious residence, centered on a spacious chamber in the form of the cross, once used as a banqueting hall but now serving as a museum of applied arts. To this structure adjoins from the south a domestic church of the patriarchs, originally consecrated to Philip the Apostle until the dedication was altered to the present one in 1682.

The church is almost as prominent as neighbouring grand cathedrals of the 15th century, due to its placement upon a high podium, pierced by two large arches allowing passage from the Cathedral Square to the patriarch's courtyard. The exterior walls are decorated with two belts of columned arches which reference both the neighbouring cathedrals of the Cathedral Square and the great churches of the 12th-century Vladimir-Suzdal school which had been their inspiration. The rigorous outline of five helmeted domes, in keeping with Nikon's conservative architectural tastes, serves to accentuate the church's Byzantine pedigree.

The patriarchal residence was seriously damaged when the Bolsheviks shelled the Kremlin in October 1917. Subsequently, the church was restored in order to accommodate the applied arts museum. Very little subsists of its original murals, yet there is a delightful 17th-century iconostasis, salvaged from the Ascension Convent cathedral upon its demolition by the Bolsheviks and displaying many fine old icons, notably those by Fyodor Zubov and Simon Ushakov.

Gospel of Philip

The Gospel of Philip is one of the Gnostic Gospels, a text of New Testament apocrypha, dated to around the 3rd century but lost in modern times until an Egyptian man rediscovered it by accident, buried in a cave near Nag Hammadi, in 1945.The text is not related to the canonical gospels and is not accepted as canonical by the Christian church. Although it may seem similar to the Gospel of Thomas, scholars are divided as to whether it is a single discourse or a collection of Valentinian sayings. Sacraments, in particular the sacrament of marriage, are a major theme. As in the other gnostic texts, the Gospel of Thomas and Gospel of Mary, the Gospel of Philip defends the tradition that gives Mary Magdalene special insight into Jesus' teaching, but does not support "twenty-first-century inventions concerning Mary Magdalene as Jesus' wife and mother of his offspring."Nevertheless, novels such as Dan Brown's The Da Vinci Code have encouraged the popular theory that Jesus was married to Mary Magdalene. The Ancient Greek manuscript describes Jesus as Mary's "koinonos", or "companion", which may sometimes imply a sexual relationship, but is always used as "a metaphor for a deeper, spiritual partnership".

Hierapolis

Hierapolis (Ancient Greek: Ἱεράπολις, lit. "Holy City") was an ancient city located on hot springs in classical Phrygia in southwestern Anatolia. Its ruins are adjacent to modern Pamukkale in Turkey and currently comprise an archaeological museum designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The hot springs have been used as a spa since the 2nd century BC, with many patrons retiring or dying there. The large necropolis is filled with sarcophagi, most famously that of Marcus Aurelius Ammianos, which bears a relief depicting the earliest known example of a crank and rod mechanism.

The great baths were constructed with huge stone blocks without the use of cement and consisted of various closed or open sections linked together. There are deep niches in the inner section, including the bath, library, and gymnasium.

Nativity Fast

The Nativity Fast is a period of abstinence and penance practiced by the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic Churches, in preparation for the Nativity of Jesus (December 25). The corresponding Western season of preparation for Christmas, which also has been called the Nativity Fast and St. Martin's Lent, has taken the name of Advent. The Eastern fast runs for 40 days instead of four (Roman rite) or six weeks (Ambrosian rite) and thematically focuses on proclamation and glorification of the Incarnation of God, whereas the Western Advent focuses on the two comings (or advents) of Jesus Christ: his birth and his Second Coming or Parousia.

The Byzantine fast is observed from November 15 to December 24, inclusively. These dates apply to those Orthodox Churches which use the Revised Julian calendar, which currently matches the Gregorian calendar. For those Eastern Orthodox Churches which still follow the Julian calendar (Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, Russian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church, Polish Orthodox Church, Georgian Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox Church, and Mount Athos), the Winter Lent does not begin until November 28 (Gregorian) which coincides with November 15 on the Julian calendar. The Ancient Church of the East fasts dawn til dusk from the 1st December until the 25th of December on the Gregorian calendar.

Sometimes the fast is called Philip's Fast (or the Philippian Fast), as it traditionally begins on the day following the Feast of St. Philip the Apostle (November 14). Some churches, such as the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, have abbreviated the fast to start on December 10, following the Feast of the Conception by Saint Anne of the Most Holy Theotokos.

Philip's Church, Copenhagen

Philip's Church (Danish: Filips Kirke) is a Church of Denmark parish church on Amager in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Puerto Plata

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Puerto Plata (Latin: Dioecesis Portus Argentarii) (erected 16 December 1996) is a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago de los Caballeros. The diocese is located in the province of Puerto Plata, in the northern section of the Dominican Republic.

The cathedral of the diocese is the Cathedral of St. Philip the Apostle, which is located in the city of San Felipe de Puerto Plata,

Russian Orthodox Church, Sharjah

St. Philip the Apostle Russian Orthodox Church is a Russian Orthodox Church located in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The church is the biggest church in the country, with an area of 1,800 square metres (19,000 sq ft) capacity of 20,000 worshippers. The church opened on Saturday August 13, 2011.

Saint Philip (Nanni di Banco)

Saint Philip is an Apuan marble statue of Philip the Apostle by Nanni di Banco. It forms part of a cycle of fourteen sculptures commissioned for the external niches of Orsanmichele in Florence, each showing the patron saint of one of the city's guilds. It is 2.5 m high and was commissioned by the Arte dei Calzolai. Completed around 1410-1412, it is now in the Museo di Orsanmichele, although a replica fills its original niche.

South Lake, Pasadena, California

South Lake is a neighborhood in Pasadena, California. It is Pasadena's premier shopping district and home to the California Institute of Technology.

South Lake is bordered by Colorado Boulevard to the north, the Pasadena-San Marino border to the south, Hudson Avenue to the west, and Hill Avenue to the east.

St. Philip's Cathedral

St. Philip's Cathedral may refer to:

St. Philip's Cathedral, San Felipe, Chile

St. Philip the Apostle Cathedral, Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic

St Philip's Cathedral, Birmingham, England

Cathedral of St. Philip the Apostle (Arecibo, Puerto Rico)

Episcopal Cathedral of Saint Philip (Atlanta, Georgia), United States

St. Philip the Apostle Cathedral, San Felipe, Venezuela

St. Philip the Apostle Cathedral, Puerto Plata

The Cathedral of St. Philip the Apostle in Puerto Plata (Spanish: Catedral de San Felipe Apóstol) Also known as Puerto Plata Cathedral, and as St. Philip the Apostle Cathedral is a cathedral of the Catholic Church that is located in Calle José del Carmen Ariza 36 of the city of Puerto Plata part of the province of the same name to the north of the island of Hispaniola and the Caribbean country of the Dominican Republic, It should not be confused with other cathedrals of the same name (San Felipe Apóstol) in Chile, Puerto Rico and Venezuela.

The earlier wooden church was destroyed by a fire in 1863 during the "Dominican War of Restoration" (Guerra de Restauración). Construction of the present church began in 1870 under Pedro Tomás de Mena. Reconstruction of the church began in 1929 and was completed in 1956. The reconstruction took longer than expected due to an earthquake in 1946. In 2003 yet another earthquake damaged the structure, which was fully repaired by 2008.The cathedral, built in a modern Victorian style, and is the mother (or main church) of the Diocese of Puerto Plata (Dioecesis Portus Argentarii) which was created by the then Pope John Paul II in 1996 through the papal bull "Venerabilis Frater" from territory formerly belonging to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Santiago de los Caballeros.

It is under the pastoral responsibility of Bishop Julio César Corniel Amaro.

St. Philip the Apostle Cathedral, San Felipe

The St. Philip the Apostle Cathedral (Spanish: Catedral de San Felipe Apóstol), also known as San Felipe Cathedral is a religious building belonging to the Catholic Church and is located on 7th Avenue between Caracas Avenue and 9 Street, in the city of San Felipe, in the municipality of San Felipe, the capital of Yaracuy State in the Central-Western Region of South American country of Venezuela.The temple follows the Roman or Latin rite and functions as the headquarters of the Diocese of San Felipe (Dioecesis Sancti Philippi in Venetiola) that was created on October 7, 1966 when Pope Paul VI issued the Bull Ex tempore quo. The current building was completed in 1973 and replaced an older structure dating from the colonial era. Its design by architect Erasmo Calvani.Not to be confused with a temple of the same name located in San Felipe, Chile.

St. Philip the Apostle Catholic School

St. Philip the Apostle Catholic School, Camp Springs, Maryland, (known as St. Philips) is a Catholic school in Camp Springs, Maryland within the Archdiocese of Washington.

St Philip the Apostle, Tottenham

St Philip the Apostle Church is a Church of England parish church in Tottenham, London, and part of the Diocese of London.In 1899 the London Diocesan Home Mission established a district which was served by an iron church in Philip Lane. A permanent church, dedicated to St Philip the Apostle, was founded in 1906 on the east corner of Clonmell Road and Philip Lane. A consolidated chapelry, from the parishes of Holy Trinity and Christ Church, was formed in 1907, and the Bishop of London became patron of the living. The new church, of red brick with stone dressings, was designed by J. P. Cutts in the Perpendicular style; it was not orientated and consisted of an aisled nave, a chancel, which was finished in 1911, and a south-east chapel, and seated 800. There were plans for a north-west tower, of which only the first stage was completed. The organ came from St. Philip, Clerkenwell. (fn. 154) A yellow-brick church hall was built to the west, near Spur Road.

The Ascension, Lavender Hill

The Ascension of The Lord, Lavender Hill, is an Anglican church in the Anglo-Catholic tradition, situated on Lavender Hill, in Battersea, South West London. It is thought to be the first church in England dedicated to The Ascension of The Lord. Built to the designs of the architect James Brooks, its foundation stone was laid in 1874, and it was consecrated in 1883.

The church is one of three in the parish of Lavender Hill, The Ascension and Battersea, St. Philip with St. Bartholomew. The other two are no longer used by the Church of England. St Philip the Apostle, Queenstown Road is now home to the Ethiopian Orthodox Parish of Saint Mary of Debre Tsion, and St Bartholomew the Less, Wycliffe Road is now home to the Greek Orthodox Parish of St Nectarious.

The Martyrdom of Saint Philip

The Martyrdom of Saint Philip (Spanish: Martirio de San Felipe) is a painting by Jusepe de Ribera from 1639.

It is considered one of his best works. The Spanish critic Eugenio d'Ors said of it " almost, almost like a Russian ballet." The painting is exhibited in the Museo del Prado in Madrid.

Ursinus of Bourges

Saint Ursinus of Bourges (French: Ursin) (3rd or 4th century) is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church and is considered the first bishop of Bourges.

Gregory of Tours' legendary account associated him with a Nathaniel, friend of Philip the Apostle, that he was present at the Last Supper, and read a lesson there. It also states that he was present at the martyrdom of Saint Stephen, and that Saint Peter sent him to Gaul as a missionary. Ursinus is not alone among founding bishops in France whose time of flourishing was moved back to the apostolic period, bolstering episcopal claims of primacy: as Hippolyte Delehaye writes, "To have lived amongst the Saviour's immediate following was...honorable...and accordingly old patrons of churches were identified with certain persons in the gospels or who were supposed to have had some part of Christ's life on earth."[1]

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