Philip Kearny

Philip Kearny, Jr. (/ˈkɑːrniː/; June 1, 1815 – September 1, 1862) was a United States Army officer, notable for his leadership in the Mexican–American War and American Civil War. He was killed in action in the 1862 Battle of Chantilly.

Philip Kearny, Jr.
Philip Kearny,jr
Philip Kearny
BornJune 1, 1815
New York City, New York
DiedSeptember 1, 1862 (aged 47)
Chantilly, Virginia
Place of burial
Allegiance United States of America
 Second French Empire
Service/branch United States Army  French Army
Years of service1837–1851; 1861–1862 (USA)
1859–1861 (France)
RankUnion Army major general rank insignia.svg Major General
Commands heldFirst New Jersey Brigade
Battles/warsMexican–American War
Second Italian War of Independence
American Civil War
Signature
Appletons' Kearny Lawrence - Philip - signature

Early life and career

Kearny was born in New York City to a wealthy Irish American family. His father and mother were Philip Kearny, Sr., and Susan Watts.[1] His maternal grandfather John Watts, the last Royal Recorder of New York City,[2] was one of New York's wealthiest residents, who had vast holdings in ships, mills, factories, banks, and investment houses. Kearny's father was a Harvard-educated, New York City financier who owned his own brokerage firm and was also a founder of the New York Stock Exchange.

Early in life, Kearny desired a career in the military. His parents died when he was young, and he was consequently raised by his grandfather. Against the younger Kearny's wishes, his guardian insisted that Kearny pursue a law career. Kearny attended Columbia College, attaining a law degree in 1833. His cousin John Watts de Peyster, who had also attended Columbia, wrote the first authoritative biography on Kearny.

In 1836, his grandfather died, leaving Kearny a fortune of over $1 million ($22 million in 2016 dollars). He chose to make the army his profession. The following year, Kearny obtained a commission as a second lieutenant of cavalry, assigned to the 1st U.S. Dragoons, who were commanded by his uncle, Colonel Stephen W. Kearny, and whose adjutant general was Jefferson Davis. The regiment was assigned to the western frontier.

Kearny was sent to France in 1839 to study cavalry tactics, first attending school at the famous cavalry school in Saumur. He participated in several combat engagements with the Chasseurs d'Afrique in Algiers. Kearny rode into battle with a sword in his right hand, pistol in his left, and the reins in his teeth, as was the style of the Chasseurs. His fearless character in battle earned him the nickname by his French comrades Kearny le Magnifique, or Kearny the Magnificent. He returned to the United States in the fall of 1840 and prepared a cavalry manual for the Army based on his experiences overseas.

Shortly afterward, Kearny was designated aide-de-camp to General Alexander Macomb, and served in this position until Macomb's death in June 1841. After a few months at the cavalry barracks in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Kearny was assigned to the staff of General Winfield Scott, soon becoming his aide-de-camp. He did additional duty on the frontier, accompanying his uncle's unit on an expedition to the South Pass of the Oregon Trail in 1845.

War with Mexico

Kearny, disappointed with the lack of fighting he was seeing in the Army, resigned his commission in 1846, but returned to duty a month later at of the outbreak of the Mexican–American War. Kearny was assigned to raise a troop of cavalry for the 1st U.S. Dragoons, Company F, in Terre Haute, Indiana. He spared no expense in recruiting his men and acquired 120 matched dapple gray horses with his own money. The unit was originally stationed at the Rio Grande but soon became the personal bodyguard for General Scott, the commander-in-chief of the Army in Mexico. Kearny was promoted to captain in December 1846.

Kearny and his men participated in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco; in the latter engagement, Kearny led a daring cavalry charge and suffered a grapeshot wound to his left arm. It later had to be amputated. Kearny's courage earned him the respect of his soldiers and fellow officers alike; General-in-Chief Winfield Scott called him "a perfect soldier" and "the bravest man I ever knew."[3] Kearny quickly returned to duty. When the U.S. Army entered Mexico City the following month, he had the personal distinction of being the first man through the gates of the city.

Kearny was an original member of the Aztec Club of 1847, a military society for Army officers who served in Mexico in 1847. Its membership qualifications were later modified to include all American officers who served during the Mexican War and their male descendants.

Resignation and service in France

After the war, Kearny did a stint with the Army recruiting service in New York City. While there, he was presented with a sword by the Union Club for his service during the war, and was brevetted to major.

In 1851, he was a member of a unit that saw action against the Rogue River Native American tribe in Oregon. After the failure of his marriage, frustrated with the slow promotion process of the Army, Kearny resigned his commission in October of that year.

He embarked on a trip around the world, visiting China, Ceylon, and France. In Paris, Kearny fell in love with a New York City woman named Agnes Maxwell, but was unable to marry her because his first wife would not grant him a divorce. In 1854, Kearny was injured when the horse he was riding fell through a rotten bridge. Agnes Maxwell moved in to take care of him.

By 1855, Agnes and Kearny had left New York to escape the disapproval of society. They settled in Kearny's new mansion, Bellegrove, overlooking the Passaic River (in what is now Kearny, New Jersey). It was a short distance and across the river from his family's old manor in Newark, New Jersey. In 1858 his wife finally granted a divorce. Kearny and Maxwell moved to Paris, where they were married.

In 1859, Kearny returned to France, re-joining the Chasseurs d'Afrique, who were at the time fighting against Austrian forces in Italy. Later, he was with Napoleon III's Imperial Guard at the Battle of Solferino, where he charged with the cavalry under général Louis-Michel Morris, which penetrated the Austrian center and captured the key point of the battle. For this action, Kearny was awarded the French Légion d'honneur, becoming the first U.S. citizen to be thus honored.

Civil War

When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, Kearny returned to the United States and was appointed a brigadier general, commanding the First New Jersey Brigade, which he trained. The Army had been reluctant to restore his commission due to his disability, but the shocking Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run made them realize the importance of seasoned combat officers. His brigade, even after he left to command a division, performed spectacularly, especially at the Battle of Glendale.

He received command of the 3rd Division of the III Corps on April 30, 1862. He led the division into action at the Battle of Williamsburg and the Battle of Fair Oaks. At Williamsburg, as he led his troops onto the field, Kearny shouted (in a notable quote), "I'm a one-armed Jersey son-of-a-gun, follow me!" The general led the charge with his sword in hand, reins in his teeth. He is noted for urging his troops forward by declaring, "Don't worry, men, they'll all be firing at me!" His performance during the Peninsula Campaign earned him much respect from the army and his superiors. He disliked the commander of the Army of the Potomac, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, whose orders (especially those to fall back) he frequently ignored. After the Battle of Malvern Hill, which was a Union victory, McClellan ordered a withdrawal, and Kearny wrote:

I, Philip Kearny, an old soldier, enter my solemn protest against this order for retreat. We ought instead of retreating should follow up the enemy and take Richmond. And in full view of all responsible for such declaration, I say to you all, such an order can only be prompted by cowardice or treason.

Kearny is credited with devising the first unit insignia patches used in the U.S. Army. In the summer of 1862, he issued an order that his officers should wear a patch of red cloth on the front of their caps to identify themselves as members of his unit. The enlisted men, with whom Kearny was quite popular, quickly followed suit voluntarily. Members of other units picked up on the idea, devising their own insignia, and these evolved over the years into the modern shoulder patch. (Daniel Butterfield is credited with taking Kearny's idea and standardizing it for all corps in the Army of the Potomac, designing most of the corps badges.) Kearny was promoted to major general on July 4, 1862, in a blanket promotion of McClellan's corps and division commanders.[4]

Death

General Kearney's funeral, 1912, F. Batt, 3rd F.A., Arlington Cemetery, (Virginia) LCCN2016852561
Kearney's funeral at Arlington National Cemetery (April 12, 1912)
Kearny Tomb
Dedicated in 1914, an equestrian statue by Edward Clark Potter marks Kearny's grave in Arlington National Cemetery.

By the end of August 1862, General Kearny led his division at the disastrous Second Battle of Bull Run, which saw the Union Army routed and nearly destroyed by Gen. Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. The Union army retreated toward Washington and fought with the pursuing Confederate corps under Stonewall Jackson on September 1, 1862, at the Battle of Chantilly. In a violent storm with lightning and pouring rain, Kearny decided to investigate a gap in the Union line. Responding to warnings of a subordinate, he said, "The Rebel bullet that can kill me has not yet been molded." Encountering Confederate troops, Kearny ignored a demand to surrender and, while he tried to escape on horseback, a "half dozen muskets fired" and he was shot with a Minié ball that entered his hip and came out his shoulder, killing him instantly.[5] Confederate Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill, upon hearing the gunfire, ran up to the body of the illustrious soldier with a lantern and exclaimed, "You've killed Phil Kearny, he deserved a better fate than to die in the mud." General Lee sent his body back to Union forces, with a condolence note. At the time, there were rumors in Washington that President Abraham Lincoln was contemplating replacing George B. McClellan with "Kearny the Magnificent". The body was borne to the rear after the Confederates realized that a general officer had been killed. Confederate soldiers quickly proceeded to strip Kearny's body of his coat, boots, pocket watch, papers, and other items of value. However, after it was realized who the deceased was, Robert E. Lee ordered all of his belongings returned over the objections of poorly-clad soldiers who protested that a dead man no longer needed a warm coat and boots. Kearny's papers were given to Lee for examination, but they merely consisted of personal letters to his wife and contained no useful military documents; Lee quickly burned them.

Kearny was buried at Trinity Churchyard in New York after his remains were transported from his residence in East Newark, New Jersey.[6] In 1912, his remains were exhumed and re-interred at Arlington National Cemetery, where there is a statue by Edward Clark Potter in his honor, one of only two equestrian statues at Arlington. The re-interment drive was spearheaded by Medal of Honor recipient Charles F. Hopkins, who had served under General Kearny in the First New Jersey Brigade. The statue was dedicated by President Woodrow Wilson in November 1914. It was refurbished in 1996 by the General Philip Kearny Memorial Committee, a New Jersey nonprofit corporation.

Legacy and honors

KEARNEY, PHILIP. MAJ., U.S.A. STATUE OF KEARNEY IN ARLINGTON, DEDICATED IN 1914 LCCN2016865953
President Woodrow Wilson spoke at the dedication of the statue marking Kearny's grave in Arlington National Cemetery (November 11, 1914).
PhilipKearnyStatueNewark
Statue in Military Park, Newark

Musical

A musical about General Kearny's life is being created and is planned to make its debut during the Town of Kearny, New Jersey's 150th anniversary in October 2017.[9] The musical is written by playwright Joseph Ferriero, and will be produced by The West Hudson Arts & Theater Company of Kearny. The musical will star local actors including musician James Berko in the title role.[10] Music was written by Joseph Ferriero and award-winning composer Karen Sokolof Javitch.

The musical is billed as a new contemporary historical musical about General Philip Kearny that will pull from his personal and his professional life including his time during the Civil War.

Character Original Cast Member
General Kearny James Berko
Man #1 Tom Huelbig
Man #2 Scott Burzynski
Woman #1 (Diana) Mariclare Rivera
Woman #2 (Agnes) Elissa Perez
Woman #3 Marisa Friedman
Ensemble Nathalia Caro, Maura Huelbig

See also

Notes

  1. ^ De Peyster, p. 32.
  2. ^ De Peyster, p. 31.
  3. ^ Dupuy, p. 396.
  4. ^ Warner, p. 259. Eicher, p. 328, claims this was a posthumous promotion, backdated to July, but histories of the Battle of Chantilly refer to him as a major general during the battle.
  5. ^ Smith, p. 63. None of the secondary sources in this article identify a particular man who shot Kearny. An obituary notice for a CSA Pvt. John McCrimmon of the 49th Georgia claims that he was the shooter.
  6. ^ "The Late Gen. Kearney.", The New York Times, September 5, 1862. Accessed July 30, 2018. "The funeral of Major-Gen. Philip Kearney will take place at Trinity Church, in this City, on Saturday, Sept. 6, inst., at 3 P.M. He will be interred in his family vault in Trinity Churchyard. His relatives are invited to attend at his residence in East Newark, N.J., at 1 P.M., to accompany the remains to New-York."
  7. ^ Hicks, Virginia Pierce (February 1938). "Sketches of Early Days in Kearny County". Kansas Historical Quarterly. VII (1): 54–80. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
  8. ^ {{cite web|url=https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0556648/?ref_=ttep_ep15%7Ctitle=La Tules on Death Valley Days|publisher=[[Internet Movie Database|accessdate=December 31, 2018}}
  9. ^ "Kearny: A True American Warrior – A New Musical". KearnyMusical.com. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
  10. ^ "Cast | Kearny: A True American Warrior – A New Musical". kearnymusical.com. Retrieved 2017-09-30.

References

External links

American Civil War Corps Badges

Corps badges in the American Civil War were originally worn by soldiers of the Union Army on the top of their army forage cap (kepi), left side of the hat, or over their left breast. The idea is attributed to Maj. Gen. Philip Kearny, who ordered the men in his division to sew a two-inch square of red cloth on their hats to avoid confusion on the battlefield. This idea was adopted by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker after he assumed command of the Army of the Potomac, so any soldier could be identified at a distance.

Maj. Gen. Daniel Butterfield, Hooker's chief of staff, was assigned the task of designing a distinctive shape for each corps badge. Butterfield also designated that each division in the corps should have a variation of the corps badge in a different color. Division badges were colored as follows:

Red — First division of corps

White — Second division of corps

Blue — Third division of corpsThese were used in the United States' Army of the Potomac. For the most part, these rules were adopted by other Union Armies, however it was not universal. For example, the XIII Corps never adopted a badge, and the XIX Corps had the first division wear a red badge, the second division wear a blue badge, and the third division wear white.

For Army corps that had more than three divisions, the standardization was lost:

Green — Fourth division of VI, IX, and XX Corps

Yellow — Fourth division of XV Corps (reportedly Orange was also used for a 5th Division Badge)

Multicolor — Headquarters or artillery elements (certain corps)The badges for enlisted men were cut from colored cloth, while officer's badges were privately made and of a higher quality. Metallic badges were often made by jewelers and were personalized for the user. The badges eventually became part of the Army regulations and a great source of regimental pride.

Battle of Chantilly

The Battle of Chantilly (or Ox Hill, the Confederate name) took place on September 1, 1862, in Fairfax County, Virginia, as the concluding battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign of the American Civil War. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's corps of the Army of Northern Virginia attempted to cut off the line of retreat of the Union Army of Virginia following the Second Battle of Bull Run but was attacked by two Union divisions. During the ensuing battle, Union division commanders Isaac Stevens and Philip Kearny were both killed, but the Union attack halted Jackson's advance.

Charles Carroll High School

Charles Carroll High School was a public high school located in the Port Richmond section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Its student body was mostly black, Hispanic and Asian.

The school was closed in 2013 as part of Philadelphia's shutdown of 23 district-run schools. Displaced students were enrolled in Penn Treaty, Kensington International Business High School, Kensington Health Sciences Academy, and Kensington Urban Education Academy.

Fort Kearny (Washington, D.C.)

Fort Kearny was a fort constructed during the American Civil War as part of the defenses of Washington, D.C. Located near Tenleytown, in the District of Columbia, it filled the gap between Fort Reno and Fort DeRussy north of the city of Washington. The fort was named in honor of Maj. Gen. Philip Kearny of the Union Army, who was killed at the Battle of Chantilly on September 1, 1862. Three batteries of guns (Battery Rossell, Battery Terrill, and Battery Smead) supported the fort, and are considered part of the fort's defenses.

Fort Phil Kearny

Fort Phil Kearny was an outpost of the United States Army that existed in the late 1860s in present-day northeastern Wyoming along the Bozeman Trail. Construction began Friday July 13, 1866 by Companies A, C, E and H of the 2nd Battalion, 18th Infantry, under the direction of the regimental commander and Mountain District commander Colonel Henry B. Carrington. The post was named for Maj. Gen. Philip Kearny, a popular figure in the American Civil War. The fort should be distinguished from the similarly named Fort Kearny in Nebraska, which was named for Kearny's uncle Stephen W. Kearny. Today, the fort and the nearby Fetterman and Wagon Box battle sites are maintained by the State of Wyoming as the Fort Phil Kearny State Historic Site.

The fort was located along the east side of the Bighorn Mountains in present-day northern Johnson County, approximately 15 miles (24 km) north of Buffalo. Along with Fort Reno and Fort C. F. Smith, the fort was established along the Bozeman Trail in the Powder River Country at the height of the Indian Wars to protect prospective miners traveling the trail north from the Oregon Trail to present-day Montana.

Fort Phil Kearny was the largest of the three stockaded fortifications along the trail. Its eight-foot (2.5 m) high log walls enclosed an area of 17 acres (69,000 m2). The longer walls on the north-east and south-west sides each measured 1,496 feet (456 m) in length . The width of the north-west side was 600 feet (180 m) and this tapered to 240 feet (73 m) at the south-east side. The perimeter of the stockade was approximately 3,900 feet (1,200 m) and its construction took more than 4,000 logs. Further building construction in 1867 required over 606,000 board feet of lumber and 130,000 adobe bricks.

The fort was under continuous construction and was nearing completion in December 1866, when its garrison was due to be re-designated the 27th Infantry. At its peak strength the garrison numbered 400 troops and 150 civilians: 9 officers, a surgeon, and 329 enlisted men of five infantry companies of the 18th/27th Infantry, including the newly recruited Company K, 27th; one officer and 60 men of Company C, 2nd Cavalry, and 150 civilian quartermaster and contractor employees.

The fort, known to the Indians as the "hated post on the Little Piney", played an important role in Red Cloud's War. The area around the fort was the site of the Fetterman Fight in 1866 and the Wagon Box Fight in 1867. By 1868, the Union Pacific Railroad had reached far enough west that emigrants could reach the Montana gold fields through present-day Idaho, rendering the dangerous Bozeman Trail obsolete. All three forts along the trail were abandoned as part of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868). Shortly after, it was burned by Cheyenne Indians.

Fort Phil Kearny, including the nearby sites of the Fetterman Fight and the Wagon Box Fight, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1960.

Frederick Douglass (Weitzman)

Frederick Douglass is a 2013 bronze sculpture depicting the American abolitionist and politician of the same name by Steven Weitzman, installed in the United States Capitol Visitor Center's Emancipation Hall, in Washington, D.C., as part of the National Statuary Hall Collection.

Hall of Columns

The Hall of Columns is a more than 100-foot-long (30 m) hallway lined with twenty-eight fluted columns in the south wing extension of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. It is also the gallery for eighteen statues of the National Statuary Hall Collection.

John Watts (New York politician)

John Watts Jr. (August 27, 1749 New York City – September 3, 1836) was an American lawyer and politician from New York City who represented New York in the U.S. House of Representatives.

Kearny County, Kansas

Kearny County (county code KE) is a county located in the U.S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 3,977. Its county seat and most populous city is Lakin. The county is named in honor of General Philip Kearny.

Kearny Cross

The Kearny Cross was a military decoration of the United States Army, which was first established in 1862 during the opening year of the American Civil War. The original decoration was known as the Kearny Medal and was adopted as an unofficial medal by the officers of the 1st Division, 3rd Corps, of the Union Army of the Potomac, which had served under Major General Philip Kearny.

The original Kearny Medal was first bestowed on November 29, 1862, and was awarded to any Union officer who had performed acts of extreme bravery and heroism in the face of the enemy. It was created by Black, Starr & Frost in 1863. In 1863, the medal was authorized retroactively to officers who had performed such acts while enlisted soldiers, and had been subsequently commissioned.

On March 13, 1863, a second version of the Kearny Medal was ordered established as a "Cross of Valor" for enlisted personnel. The new medal, known as the Kearny Cross, was awarded to any Union soldier who had displayed meritorious, heroic, of distinguished acts while in the face of an enemy force.

By 1865, both the Kearny Medal and the Kearny Cross were commonly referred to by the single name of the Kearny Cross. Since the decorations were issued by local commanders, the medals remained unofficial awards and were not issued after the close of the Civil War. Nevertheless, the Kearny Cross and Medal are regarded as one of the oldest military decorations of the United States Army, second only to the Badge of Military Merit and the Fidelity Medallion.

General Birney awarded Mrs. Anna Etheridge with this award; a nurse and vivandiere born either on May 3, 1839, or May 3, 1844. Also known as "Gentle Annie", she received the award for her bravery, gentleness, and kindness. Running into battle to heal wounded soldiers no matter the situation, she was always there.

Marie Tepe, (1834-1901) also known as "French Mary", a famous Vivandiere of the Civil War, was one of at least three women who served during the battle of Gettysburg, the other well documented example being a currently unidentifiable woman, whose body was found amongst the many Confederate dead after Pickett's Charge. While serving under the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteers, also known as the Collis' Zouaves d'Afrique, she received the award for being wounded in the ankle. She was in 13 battles, and carried a .44 caliber pistol.

Charlotte Elizabeth McKay received the Kearney Cross from the officers of the 17th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment, whom she had cared for after the Battle of Chancellorsville.

Kearny Public Library

The Kearny Public Library is the free public library in Kearny, New Jersey. Containing a collection of 76,989 volumes it serves a population of approximately 46,000 from two locations and circulates 79,118 items annually. The main library is one of New Jersey's Carnegie libraries.The Kearny Museum, on the upper floor of the main library, is a history museum that houses local displays about the town. The collection includes photographs, articles of clothing, and war memorabilia from the town's history. Special attention is given to Civil War hero Major General Philip Kearny, Jr. for whom the town is named, including a display of furniture from his Belle Grove home, donated by his granddaughter and second wife. The museum also includes a full collection of Kearny High School yearbooks. The museum has a collection of antique clothes and accessories, representing town life between 1850 and 1960, which were donated or are on loan by townspeople. The museum is staffed by volunteers who curate and arrange the displays. The museum is open on Wednesdays from 6:30 p.m. to 7:30 p.m., and on Saturdays from 10 a.m. to noon. The museum is closed during the summer months of July and August.

List of horses of the American Civil War

This is a list of named horses and the senior Union and Confederate officers who rode them during the American Civil War.

National Statuary Hall

National Statuary Hall is a chamber in the United States Capitol devoted to sculptures of prominent Americans. The hall, also known as the Old Hall of the House, is a large, two-story, semicircular room with a second story gallery along the curved perimeter. It is located immediately south of the Rotunda. The meeting place of the U.S. House of Representatives for nearly 50 years (1807–1857), after a few years of disuse in 1864 it was repurposed as a statuary hall; this is when the National Statuary Hall Collection was established. By 1933 the collection had outgrown this single room, and a number of statues are placed elsewhere within the Capitol.

New Jersey in the American Civil War

The state of New Jersey in the United States provided a source of troops, equipment and leaders for the Union during the American Civil War. Though no major battles were fought in New Jersey, soldiers and volunteers from New Jersey played an important part in the war, including Philip Kearny and George B. McClellan, who led the Army of the Potomac early in the Civil War and unsuccessfully ran for President of the United States in 1864 against his former commander-in-chief, Abraham Lincoln.

Ox Hill Battlefield Park

Ox Hill Battlefield Park is a site in Fairfax, Virginia, where the Battle of Ox Hill (Union name Battle of Chantilly) was fought during the American Civil War. It was the only major battle of the war fought in Fairfax County. The battlefield is now a public park adjacent to suburban developments and the Fairfax Towne Center shopping center, and is maintained by the Fairfax County Park Authority.

The most prominent feature is a pair of monuments to the two Union generals killed during the battle, Isaac Stevens and Philip Kearny. Stevens was fatally shot within the area of the present-day park while Kearny was killed just to the west. There are also two Virginia historical markers placed near the park entrance commemorating the battle and aftermath.

The park is located at 4134 West Ox Road, in Fair Lakes near Route 50, on the corner of West Ox Road (State Route 608) and Monument Drive (which was presumably named for the Kearny and Stevens memorial). It is only 4.8 acres (0.019 km2), about 1.5% of the roughly 300 acres (1.2 km2) where the battle was fought. The rest of the battlefield has been developed with apartments, office buildings, and similar urban construction. Nevertheless, the remaining plot does hold important portions of the battle area.

Philip Kearny (Brown)

Philip Kearny is an 1888 bronze sculpture of Philip Kearny by Henry Kirke Brown, installed in the United States Capitol, in Washington, D.C., as part of the National Statuary Hall Collection. It is one of two statues donated by the state of New Jersey. The statue portrays Kearny dressed in the uniform of a Civil War general, holding a sword in his right hand. His coat draped over his left shoulder covers the fact that his left arn had been amputated following the Battle of Churubusco.Kearny, described by William Walter Phelps while accepting the statue into the collection on August 21, 1888, called Kearny “the perfect soldier . . .brave as a lion, tender as a woman.”Although the statue entered the Hall in 1888 it is dated “1873” on the base.There are at least three other casting of the statue. one was done in 1901 and is located in Kearny Park, Muskegon, Michigan. Another was dedicated in 1880 in Trenton, New Jersey and then relocated several times, finally to Military Park in Newark, New Jersey. The Archives of American Art traced the some what complicated history of the statue. “In March 1868, the New Jersey legislature approved funding for a bronze portrait of Major General Philip Kearny to be placed in Statuary Hall at the U.S. Capitol. The cast was finished in 1873, but on its way to Washington, the statue was diverted to the State House in Trenton where it ended up in an obscure hallway. In 1880, the mistake was discovered and concerned citizens of Newark petitioned to relocate the sculpture to its original destination in Statuary Hall, and if not there, then to a suitable location in Newark where Kearney was born and raised. The petition was successful and in 1880, the statue was installed to Newark's Military Park on a Quincy granite base designed by Henry Kirke Brown and architect Paul G. Botticher to resemble an embankment in a war fortification.” In that same year the statue accepted into the Statuary Hall in Washington, D.C. The statue had somehow become two.

In 1993, the Newark statue was knocked of its base and in the process of restoring it a cast was taken and another version of the work was created, this one placed in Kearny, New Jersey, a town named after the general and dedicated on September 10, 1993.

Ronald Reagan (Fagan)

Ronald Reagan is a bronze sculpture depicting the American politician of the same name by Chas Fagan, installed at the United States Capitol's rotunda, in Washington, D.C., as part of the National Statuary Hall Collection. The statue was donated by the U.S. state of California in 2009, and replaced one depicting Thomas Starr King, which the state had gifted in 1931.

Stephen W. Kearny

Stephen Watts Kearny ( KAR-nee; surname also appears as Kearney in some historic sources; August 30, 1794 – October 31, 1848) was one of the foremost antebellum frontier officers of the United States Army. He is remembered for his significant contributions in the Mexican–American War, especially the conquest of California. The Kearny code, proclaimed on September 22, 1846 in Santa Fe, established the law and government of the newly acquired territory of New Mexico, and was named after him. His nephew was Major General Philip Kearny of American Civil War fame.

Thomas Edison (Cottrill)

Thomas Edison is a bronze sculpture depicting the American inventor and businessman of the same name by Alan Cottrill, installed in the United States Capitol's National Statuary Hall, in Washington, D.C., as part of the National Statuary Hall Collection. The statue was gifted by the U.S. state of Ohio in 2016, and replaced one depicting William Allen, which had been donated in 1887.

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