Phi Beta Kappa

The Phi Beta Kappa Society (ΦΒΚ) is the oldest academic honor society in the United States, and is often described as its most prestigious honor society,[1][2][3] due to its long history and academic selectivity.[4][5][6] Phi Beta Kappa aims to promote and advocate excellence in the liberal arts and sciences, and to induct the most outstanding students of arts and sciences at American colleges and universities.[7] It was founded at the College of William and Mary on December 5, 1776 as the first collegiate Greek-letter fraternity and was among the earliest collegiate fraternal societies.[8]

Phi Beta Kappa (ΦΒΚ) stands for Φιλοσοφία Βίου Κυβερνήτης (Philosophia Biou Kybernētēs), which means "Love of wisdom is the guide of life" or "Philosophy is the governor of one's life."

The Phi Beta Kappa Society
Phi Beta Kappa Key
FoundedDecember 5, 1776
The College of William and Mary
TypeHonor society
EmphasisLiberal arts and sciences
Mission statement
To celebrate and advocate excellence in the liberal arts and sciences.
MottoΦιλοσοφία Βίου Κυβερνήτης
Love of learning is the guide of life
Colors     Pink and      Sky blue
PublicationThe American Scholar
Members500,000+ collegiate
FactoidThe first collegiate Greek-letter fraternity and the oldest honor society for the liberal arts and sciences.
Headquarters1606 New Hampshire Ave. NW
Washington, D.C.


According to Phi Beta Kappa, the organization has chapters in about 10% of American higher learning institutions, and about 10% of these schools' Arts and Sciences graduates are invited to join the society.[9] Although most students are elected in their senior year, many colleges elect a very limited number of extremely select students in their junior year, generally less than 2% of the class.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16] Each chapter sets its own academic standards, but all inductees must have studied the liberal arts and sciences (Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree candidates), demonstrated "good moral character", and, usually, earned grades placing them in the top tenth of their class.[17] (However, at least one school, Princeton University, includes Bachelor of Science in Engineering (BSE) students in Phi Beta Kappa.[18]) There is a mandatory initiation fee (between US$50 and US$90, as of 2005), which is sometimes covered by the inductee's university.[17]

Membership in Phi Beta Kappa is limited to undergraduates with very high GPAs, typically at least 3.8 or 3.9 out of a 4.0 scale. In 2001, a quorum of PBK alumni voted to raise the GPA cutoff: though all chapters set their own standards for induction, they were now instructed to be much more selective in terms of GPA. The higher cutoff was justified in reference to the historical phenomenon of grade inflation since the 1950s and 1960s.


The Phi Beta Kappa Society was founded on December 5, 1776 at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia by five students, with John Heath as its first President. The society established the precedent for naming American college societies after the initial letters of a secret Greek motto.[19][20]

The group consisted of students who frequented the Raleigh Tavern as a common meeting area off the college campus (a persistent story maintains that a Masonic lodge also met at this tavern, but the Freemasons actually gathered at a different building in Williamsburg;[21] ten of the original members later did become Freemasons).[22]:5 Whether the students organized to meet more freely and discuss non-academic topics, or to discuss politics in a Revolutionary society is unknown; the earliest records indicate only that the students met to debate and engage in oratory, and on topics that would have been not far removed from the curriculum.[22]:83–85[23] In the Phi Beta Kappa Initiation of 1779, the new member was informed, "here then you may for a while disengage yourself from scholastic cares and communicate without reserve whatever reflections you have made upon various objects; remembering that every thing transacted within this room is transacted sub rosa,, too, you are to indulge in matters of speculation that freedom of enquiry which ever dispels the clouds of falsehood by the radiant sunshine of truth...".[22]:5

There had been an earlier fraternal society established at William & Mary, the well-known F.H.C. Society (nicknamed "the Flat Hat Club"), which was founded in 1750. The F.H.C. Society is the first recorded collegiate secret Society in North America, but unlike Phi Beta Kappa, it was a Latin-letter society. Its name was taken from letters of a secret Latin motto with acronym F.H.C. William & Mary alumnus and third U.S. President Thomas Jefferson was perhaps the most famous member of the F.H.C.;[24] other notable members of the original Society included Col. James Innes, St. George Tucker, and George Wythe.[25] Jefferson noted that "When I was a student of Wm. & Mary college of this state, there existed a society called the F.H.C. society, confined to the number of six students only, of which I was a member, but it had no useful object, nor do I know whether it now exists."[22]:5

A second Latin-letter fraternity at William & Mary was the P.D.A. Society (publicly known as "Please Don't Ask").[26] John Heath, chief organizer of Phi Beta Kappa, according to tradition earlier sought but was refused admission to the P.D.A., though he may instead have disdained to join it (Heath's friend and fellow student William Short later wrote that the P.D.A. "had lost all reputation for letters, and was noted only for the dissipation & conviviality of its members"[22]:84).

The new society was intended to be "purely of domestic manufacture, without any connexion whatever with anything European, either English or German."[22]:84 The founders of Phi Beta Kappa declared that the society was formed for congeniality and to promote good fellowship, with "friendship as its basis and benevolence and literature as its pillars."[22]

Like the older, Latin-letter fraternities, the Phi Beta Kappa was a secret society. To protect its members and to instill a sense of solidarity, each had the essential attributes of most modern fraternities: an oath of secrecy, a badge (or token) and a diploma (or certificate) of membership, mottoes (in the case of the Phi Beta Kappa, in Greek rather than in Latin), a ritual of initiation, a handclasp of recognition; to these, the Phi Beta Kappa would soon add another attribute, branches or "chapters" at other colleges. The new society was given the motto, Φιλοσοφία Βίου Κυβερνήτης or in Latin letters Philosophia Biou Kybernētēs, which means in English The Love for Knowledge be the Guide of Life. Greek was chosen, because Greek was in Roman times the language of science like Latin in medieval times.

Phi Beta Kappa DC
The Phi Beta Kappa Society National Headquarters located in the historic Dupont Circle neighborhood of Washington, D.C.

One official historian of the society, William T. Hastings, and some others believe that the "S" and "P" on the badge, which stood for Societas Philosophiae, "Philosophical Society", was the original name of the Society and that "Phi Beta Kappa" came only over time to be taken as the name of the society. The heading on the original list of members states, "A List of the members, who have been initiated into the S.P. alias Phi Beta Kappa Society."[22]:5

Later, in May 1777, a new sign of recognition was devised: "a salutation of the clasp of the hands, together with an immediate stroke across the mouth with the back of the same hand, and a return with the hand used by the saluted". This new complex of gestures was created to allow the mutual recognition of members "in any foreign country or place."[22]:10

Before the British invasion of Virginia forced the temporary closure of the College of William and Mary and disbandment of the Phi Beta Kappa there early in 1781, Elisha Parmelee, an alumnus of Yale College and Harvard College, passed through Williamsburg and took charters from the Phi Beta Kappa to establish branches of the society at these schools. A second chapter was founded at Yale College in late 1780; a third, at Harvard College in 1781; and a fourth, at Dartmouth College in 1787. From these new chapters, the Phi Beta Kappa evolved from a fraternity with principally academic and some social purposes to an entirely honorary organization recognizing scholastic achievement. While the Phi Beta Kappa developed some of the characteristics which still distinguish Greek-letter fraternities, it was left to other students to fill the natural human need for fellowship with kindred students by extension of fraternity to a purely social context.

Further chapters appeared at Union College in 1817, Bowdoin College in 1825, and Brown University in 1830. The original chapter at William & Mary was re-established. In 1831, the Harvard chapter publicly disclosed the fraternity's secrets during a period of strong anti-Masonic sentiment. The first chapter established after the Phi Beta Kappa became an "open" society was that at Trinity College (Connecticut), in 1845.

In the pre-Civil War period Society chapters frequently sponsored addresses by distinguished speakers. Ralph Waldo Emerson's 1837 address at Harvard, "The American Scholar" is the best-known of those addresses, but there were dozens of others at schools such as Bowdoin, Brown, Harvard, Union, and Yale.[27]

As the first collegiate organization of its type to adopt a Greek-letter name, the Phi Beta Kappa is generally considered a forerunner of modern college fraternities as well as the model for later collegiate honorary societies. Ironically, it was partly the rise of true "social" fraternities modelled after Phi Beta Kappa later in the nineteenth century which obviated the social aspects of membership in the organization, transforming it into the honorary society it is today.

By 1883, when the United Chapters of Phi Beta Kappa was established, there were 25 chapters. The first women were elected to the society at the University of Vermont in 1875, and the first African-American member was elected at the same institution two years later. In 1885, however, Phi Beta Kappa eliminated those majoring in engineering from eligibility. This practice continues today.

Each chapter is designated by its state and a Greek letter indicating its position in the order in which that state's chapters were founded. For example, Alpha of Pennsylvania refers to the chapter at Dickinson College, founded in 1887; Beta of Pennsylvania, the chapter at Lehigh University (founded later that same year); Gamma of Pennsylvania, the chapter at Lafayette College (1890); and Delta of Pennsylvania, the chapter at the University of Pennsylvania (1892).

By 1920, a total of 89 chapters existed at a variety of schools. New chapters are continually added.

In the 1960s, Vanderbilt University professor Donald Davidson claimed that Phi Beta Kappa was under the influence of Communists.[28]

In 1988, the United Chapters of Phi Beta Kappa officially changed its name to The Phi Beta Kappa Society, recalling the name under which the organization had been established in 1776.


The symbol of the Phi Beta Kappa Society is a golden key engraved on the obverse with the image of a pointing finger, three stars, and the Greek letters from which the society takes its name. The stars are said today to show the ambition of young pupils and the three distinguishing principles of the Society: friendship, morality, and learning. On the reverse are found the initials "SP" in script, which stand for the Latin words Societas Philosophiae, or "Philosophical Society".

The "key" of Phi Beta Kappa did not begin as a copy of a watchkey. The first insignia was in fact a larger, cut-and-engraved silver medallion, essentially a square of metal with a loop cut integrally with the body of the square from the same sheet of silver, in order to allow for suspension from one or two ribbons worn around the member's neck in the manner in which the older fraternities (and the Freemasonic bodies on which the collegiate societies were in part patterned) wore their own insignia.[26] Later, the size of the medallion was reduced and men took to wearing the insignia on their watch chains as fobs. The post or stem, designed for the winding of pocket-watches, did not appear on fobs until the beginning of the 19th century. The fobs were not even gold at first; the earliest extant 18th-century models were made of silver or pewter, and again it was not until the first quarter of the 19th century that gold largely supplanted the use of silver or pewter. Some notable exceptions did occur, as at Harvard, which until the first decade of the twentieth century continued the use of silver or pewter for some of its keys.

Though several stylistic details have survived since the earliest days—the use of the stars, pointing hand, and Greek letters on the obverse, for example—notable differences exist between older keys and current examples. The name of the recipient was not engraved on the earliest fobs or keys, and was not until the first decade of the nineteenth century. The name of the school from which the fob or key came was also not routinely included on the earliest models, and sometimes the only way to trace a key to a particular school's chapter is by researching the name of the recipient against surviving class records. The number of stars on the obverse has also changed over the years, with never fewer than three, but on some known examples with as many as a dozen (the explanation as to the meaning of the stars in these early cases varies from chapter to chapter). Also, the date of the awarding of the honor is only seen on keys from the second quarter of the nineteenth century onward (some people mistake the date that appears on the fob or key—December 5, 1776—as the date that a particular fob or key was awarded, when in fact it is merely the date of the founding of the society). Only in 1912 was the key made to a uniform standard of size, golden appearance (some are plated), and engraving with the school's name, recipient's name, and date of the award.

Activities and publications

The Phi Beta Kappa Society publishes The Key Reporter,[29] a newsletter distributed quarterly to all contributing members and biannually to all other members, and The American Scholar, a quarterly subscription-based journal that accepts essays on literature, history, science, public affairs, and culture.[30]

Phi Beta Kappa also funds a number of awards, fellowships, and programs.

The Phi Beta Kappa Book Awards are the Ralph Waldo Emerson Award, the Christian Gauss Award, and the Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science.[31] The Book Awards are given annually to outstanding scholarly books published in the United States. Winning works, which are drawn from the fields of the humanities, the social sciences, the natural sciences and mathematics, must be of broad interest and accessible to the general reader. Each award carries a $10,000 prize. The winners were selected from five short listed titles in each category.[32]

The Mary Isabel Sibley Fellowship is awarded annually, alternating in the fields of Greek and French. The award may be used for the study of Greek language, literature, history, or archaeology, or the study of French language or literature. Established in 1934 by Isabelle Stone (ΦΒΚ, Wellesley College) in honor of her mother, Mary Isabel Sibley, the fellowship was designed to reward the women in these two fields of study with the experience of studying and living abroad, which Miss Stone did in Greece during her studies. The fellowship carries a stipend of $20,000.[33]

The Walter J. Jensen Fellowship for French Language, Literature, and Culture aims to help educators and researchers improve education in standard French language, literature and culture and in the study of standard French in the United States. Established in 2001 by Professor Walter J. Jensen (ΦΒΚ, UCLA), the fellowship is awarded for at least six continuous months of study in France and carries a stipend originally set in 1995 at $10,000, to be adjusted for inflation. The stipend for 2016 was $15,500.[34]

The Dr. Martin R. Lebowitz and Eve Lewellis Lebowitz Prize for Philosophical Achievement and Contribution is awarded by the Phi Beta Kappa Society in conjunction with the American Philosophical Association. The associated Lebowitz Symposium is presented annually at a divisional meeting of the American Philosophical Association. The prize was established in 2013 by Eve Lewellis Lebowitz in honor of her late husband, Martin R. Lebowitz, to provide a significant, tangible recognition for excellence in philosophical thought. The Symposium program consists of a pair of lectures to be delivered at an annual APA division meeting and a Phi Beta Kappa event. The topic of the lectures should be an important philosophical issue of current interest, and the lectures should offer contrasting (not necessarily opposing) views on that topic. Honoraria for the symposiasts are funded at an adjusted rate based on the current size of the endowment. Previous winners have won as much as $25,000 each.[35]

The Romanell-Phi Beta Kappa Professorship is awarded annually to scholars in the field of philosophy, without restriction to any one school of philosophical thought. The professorship recognizes not only distinguished achievement but also the recipient’s contribution or potential contribution to public understanding of philosophy.[36]

Since 1956, the Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Scholar Program has offered undergraduates the opportunity to spend time with some of America's most distinguished scholars. The purpose of the program is to contribute to the intellectual life of the campus by making possible an exchange of ideas between the Visiting Scholars and the resident faculty and students.[37]

Phi Beta Kappa also sponsors a National Arts & Sciences Initiative, which taps into its cross-country network of members, chapters, and associations to connect with leaders, shares the value of the arts and sciences through all of life, and advocates for policies that strengthen an arts and sciences education.[38]


Phi Beta Kappa has 286 chapters. Chapters are approved at the Triennial Conventions.

Notable members

Since inception, 17 U.S. Presidents, 40 U.S. Supreme Court Justices,[39] and 136 Nobel Laureates and David Shrooman have been inducted members.[40]


In 2008, the Phi Beta Kappa Society was awarded the Arts and Sciences Advocacy Award from the Council of Colleges of Arts and Sciences (CCAS). CCAS bestows this award upon an individual or organization demonstrating exemplary advocacy for the arts and sciences, flowing from a deep commitment to the intrinsic worth of liberal arts education.[41]

See also


  1. ^ "Phi Beta Kappa". University of Virginia - The College of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved May 15, 2018. Phi Beta Kappa is the nation’s oldest and most prestigious undergraduate honors organization. For more than 200 years, the Society has pursued its mission of celebrating and advocating excellence in the liberal arts and sciences, and its distinctive emblem, a golden key, is widely recognized as a symbol of academic distinction.
  2. ^ "Phi Beta Kappa". Boston College - Morrissey College of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved May 15, 2018. Phi Beta Kappa is the most prestigious academic honorary society in the United States. Founded in 1776 at the College of William and Mary in Virginia, and nurtured early on at Harvard and Yale, the Society is currently established at 262 of the foremost colleges and universities in the nation.
  3. ^ Bernstein, Emily. "Phi Beta Kappa Key Being Turned Down By Many Honorees". New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2018. The upshot is that Phi Beta Kappa, the nation's most prestigious honor society, has an image problem.
  4. ^ "About the Phi Beta Kappa Society". USC Dornsife - College of Letters, Arts, and Sciences. Retrieved May 24, 2018. The selectivity of membership, as well as the society’s rich history, is the reason that Phi Beta Kappa is considered among the most prestigious American college honor societies.
  5. ^ "Phi Beta Kappa". Honor Society. Retrieved May 15, 2018. Widely considered to be the nation's most prestigious honor society, Phi Beta Kappa aims to promote and advocate excellence in the liberal arts and sciences and to induct the most outstanding students of arts and sciences at American colleges and universities.
  6. ^ "What is Phi Beta Kappa?". Occidental College. Retrieved May 15, 2018. Phi Beta Kappa (ΦΒΚ) is the most prestigious and best known academic honor society in the United States ... Phi Beta Kappa celebrates excellence in the liberal arts and sciences by offering membership to the most outstanding arts and sciences students at the country’s leading colleges and universities.
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-06. Retrieved 2015-03-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ Warren, John (2000). "Historical Information". Association of College Honor Societies. Retrieved 2009-03-10.
  9. ^ "About Us". Phi Beta Kappa. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  10. ^ "Columbia University".
  11. ^ "Wellesley".
  12. ^ "Stanford".
  13. ^ "University of Pennsylvania".
  14. ^ "Harvard". Archived from the original on 2012-03-17.
  15. ^ "Santa Clara".
  16. ^ "U.C. Riverside".
  17. ^ a b Nancy Keates (4 Nov 2005). "Phi Beta What?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  18. ^ "Graduation and Honors | Undergraduate Announcement". Retrieved 2018-07-03. The Phi Beta Kappa Society, founded in 1776 and the oldest of all national honorary scholastic societies, has a chapter at Princeton. Election to this chapter is based on scholastic standing and is open to candidates for the A.B. and B.S.E. degrees in their senior year.
  19. ^ Bernstein, Emily M. (1996-05-26). "Phi Beta Kappa Key Being Turned Down By Many Honorees". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-06-22.
  20. ^ Society, Phi Beta Kappa. "PBK_History". Retrieved 2017-06-22.
  21. ^ Brinkley, M. Kent Brinkley (March 1, 1999). "Freemasonry in Williamsburge: An Overview History of Williamsburg Lodge #6, A.F.& A.M. of Virginia". Williamsburg, Virginia: Acacia Lodge No. 16 A.F.&A.M. Archived from the original on July 23, 2008.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hastings, William T. (1965). Phi Beta Kappa as a Secret Society with its Relations to Freemasonry and Antimasonry Some Supplementary Documents. Richmond, Virginia: United Chapters of Phi Beta Kappa.
  23. ^ Fleming, Bill (May 6, 1996). "Phi Beta Kappa". Brief History of Fraternities. Sam Houston State University. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
  24. ^ Millfield, Becca (November 2, 2004). "Shhh! The Secret Side to the College's Lesser Known Societies". The DoG Street Journal. The College of William & Mary's daily online. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011.
  25. ^ "F.H.C. Society," University Archives Subject File Collection Archived January 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Special Collections Research Center, Earl Gregg Swem Library, College of William and Mary.
  26. ^ a b Robert W. Storm, "In Token of Friendship: Early Fraternity Medals at the College of William and Mary"; 1973; typescript in university archives, Earl Gregg Swem Library, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia.
  27. ^ Alfred L. Brophy, The Rule of Law in College Literary Addresses: The Case of William Greene, Cumberland Law Review Archived March 29, 2016, at the Wayback Machine (2001) 32: 231–85.
  28. ^ Houston, Benjamin (2011). "Donald Davidson and the Segregationist Intellect". In Tendrich Frank, Lisa; Daniel, Kilbride. Southern Character: Essays in Honor of Bertram Wyatt-Brown. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. p. 177. ISBN 9780813036908. OCLC 949154540.
  29. ^ "The Key Reporter - Welcome!".
  30. ^ "Phi Beta Kappa". Stanford University. Stanford. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  31. ^ "Book Awards". The Phi Beta Kappa Society. The PBK Society. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  32. ^ Society, Phi Beta Kappa. "Book Awards 2016 Winners".
  33. ^ Society, Phi Beta Kappa. "Sibley Fellowship".
  34. ^ Society, Phi Beta Kappa. "Jensen Fellowship".
  35. ^ Society, Phi Beta Kappa. "The Lebowitz Prizes".
  36. ^ Society, Phi Beta Kappa. "Romanell Professorship".
  37. ^ Society, Phi Beta Kappa. "Visiting Scholars".
  38. ^ Society, Phi Beta Kappa. "National Arts and Sciences Initiative".
  39. ^ Society, Phi Beta Kappa. "About ΦΒΚ".
  40. ^ Phi Beta Kappa Society :: Phi Beta Kappa Society Archived January 13, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. (2012-10-05). Retrieved on 2013-08-27.
  41. ^ "Arts & Sciences Advocacy Award – Council of Colleges of Arts and Sciences". Retrieved 2016-05-02.

External links

Coordinates: 38°54′41″N 77°02′31″W / 38.911454°N 77.042083°W

Cum Laude Society

The Cum Laude Society is an organization that honors scholastic achievement at secondary institutions, similar to the Phi Beta Kappa Society, which honors scholastic achievements at the university level. It was founded in 1906 as the Alpha Delta Tau fraternity and changed its name in the 1950s. It presently has 382 chapters, most of which are private or independent schools located in the United States.Participating secondary institutions may nominate up to 20% of their graduating class for induction into the society. The society's motto is Areté, Diké, Timé, which translates from Greek into "Excellence, Justice, Honor".

David S. Smith

For the British recycled-packaging firm started by David Solomon Smith, see DS SmithDavid Shiverick Smith (January 25, 1918 – April 13, 2012) was the United States ambassador to Sweden from 1976–1977.

Smith was born in Omaha, Nebraska, the son of Anna (née Shiverick) and Floyd Monroe Smith. He was appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower as a trustee of the National Cultural Center. Smith was a Board member of the Council of American Ambassadors. He graduated magna cum laude from Dartmouth College (where he was a member of Phi Beta Kappa), the Sorbonne, and Columbia University Law School.

His niece was actress Anne Ramsey.

Edward Bouchet

Edward Alexander Bouchet (September 15, 1852 – October 28, 1918) was an African American physicist and educator and was the first African-American to earn a Ph.D. from any American university, completing his dissertation in physics at Yale in 1876. On the basis of his academic record he was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society. In 1874, he had become one of the first African Americans to graduate from Yale College.Although Bouchet was elected to Phi Beta Kappa along with other members of the Yale class of 1874, the official induction did not take place until 1884, when the Yale chapter was reorganized after thirteen years of inactivity. Because of the circumstances, Bouchet was not the first African American elected to Phi Beta Kappa as many historical accounts state; that honor belongs to George Washington Henderson (University of Vermont).

Bouchet was also among the first 20 Americans (of any race) to receive a Ph.D. in physics and was the sixth to earn a Ph.D. in physics from Yale.

Gavin Stevens (Faulkner character)

Gavin Stevens is a lawyer and the county attorney in Jefferson in Faulkner’s fictional Yoknapatawpha County, Mississippi. He was educated at Harvard (Phi Beta Kappa) and Heidelberg Universities.

He is shrewd, observant and tolerant of the quirks and foibles of his fellow Southerners. He takes part in the detection and prevention of crime in the county community, and in handling the human passions released by violence in the community.

The stories are mostly narrated by his nephew Charles (Chick) Mallison, who calls him Uncle Gavin. His best friend is V. K. Ratliff (Suratt).

He is described as heroic, idealistic, tireless, and meddlesome. He finally marries the Widow Harris, the sweetheart of his youth.Gowan Stevens is related; he is described as Gavin’s cousin in The Town and Gavin’s nephew in Requiem for a Nun.

History of North American fraternities and sororities

The North American fraternity and sorority system began with students who wanted to meet secretly, usually for discussions and debates not thought appropriate by the faculty of their schools. Today they are used as social, professional, and honorary groups that promote varied combinations of community service, leadership, and academic achievement.

Jessica Wilson

Jessica M. Wilson is a professor of philosophy at the University of Toronto, Scarborough. Her research focuses on metaphysics, especially on the metaphysics of science and mind, the epistemologies of skepticism, a priori deliberation, and necessity. Wilson was awarded the Lebowitz Prize for excellence in philosophical thought by Phi Beta Kappa in conjunction with the American Philosophical Association.

John Heath (politician)

John Heath (May 8, 1758 – October 13, 1810) was an American lawyer and politician from Northumberland County, Virginia. He represented Virginia in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1793 to 1797. Heath was one of the students at William and Mary who organized the Phi Beta Kappa fraternity in 1776, and served as its first president.The town of Heathsville, Virginia, the county seat of Northumberland County, is named for him.

List of Phi Beta Kappa chapters

A listing of the chapters of Phi Beta Kappa Society.

List of Phi Beta Kappa members by year of admission

This is a list of notable members of the Phi Beta Kappa Society who have Wikipedia biographies.

Mary Annette Anderson

Mary Annette Anderson (July 27, 1874 – 1922) was an American professor and the first African American woman elected to Phi Beta Kappa.

Anderson was born in Shoreham, Vermont, to William and Philomine (Langlois) Anderson. Her father, a farmer, was a freed slave originally from Virginia, and her mother was a Canadian immigrant of French and Native American ancestry. Anderson was educated at the Northfield School for Young Ladies in Northfield, Massachusetts, before entering Middlebury College in 1895. She graduated in 1899 as valedictorian, becoming the first African American woman elected to Phi Beta Kappa.Following graduation from Middlebury, Anderson taught at Straight University in New Orleans before being appointed a professor of English grammar and history at Howard University in Washington, D.C. She married Walter Lucius Smith on August 7, 1907, and gave up teaching.

Miss America 1958

Miss America 1958, the 31st Miss America pageant, was held at the Boardwalk Hall in Atlantic City, New Jersey on September 7, 1957 on CBS.

The winner, Marilyn Van Derbur, who was a Phi Beta Kappa scholar at the University of Colorado, performed a medley of the songs "Tenderly" and "Tea for Two" on the organ during the talent competition. She later revealed it was the only thing she knew how to play.

North Coast Athletic Conference

The North Coast Athletic Conference (NCAC) is an NCAA Division III athletic conference composed of colleges located in Ohio, Indiana and Pennsylvania. When founded in 1984, the league was a pioneer in gender equality, offering competition in a then-unprecedented 10 women's sports. Today it remains true to that legacy, sponsoring 23 sports, 11 for men and 12 for women.

The NCAC is respected for the academic strength of its member institutions — all of which have Phi Beta Kappa chapters. In its most recent college rankings, U.S. News & World Report recognized all 10 members as top-tier liberal arts colleges, and ranked five NCAC institutions among the nation's top 70 such colleges.

Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science

The Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science is given annually by the Phi Beta Kappa Society to authors of significant books in the fields of science and mathematics. The award was first given in 1959 to anthropologist Loren Eiseley.

Phi Beta Kappa Memorial Hall

Phi Beta Kappa Memorial Hall is a multi-use building at the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. It contains the largest auditorium on the campus, containing two floors of seating. The building is home to art shows, musical acts, theatre, assemblies and guest speakers.

Ralph Waldo Emerson Award

The Ralph Waldo Emerson Award is a non-fiction literary award given by the Phi Beta Kappa society, the oldest academic society of the United States, for books that have made the most significant contributions to the humanities. Albert William Levi won the first of these awards, in 1960.

The American Scholar

For the publication of Phi Beta Kappa, see The American Scholar (magazine).

"The American Scholar" was a speech given by Ralph Waldo Emerson on August 31, 1837, to the Phi Beta Kappa Society of Harvard College at the First Parish in Cambridge in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was invited to speak in recognition of his groundbreaking work Nature, published a year earlier, in which he established a new way for America's fledgling society to regard the world. Sixty years after declaring independence, American culture was still heavily influenced by Europe, and Emerson, for possibly the first time in the country's history, provided a visionary philosophical framework for escaping "from under its iron lids" and building a new, distinctly American cultural identity.

The American Scholar (magazine)

The American Scholar is the quarterly literary magazine of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, established in 1932. The magazine has won fourteen National Magazine Awards from the American Society of Magazine Editors from 1999 to present, including awards for General Excellence (circulation <100,000). Additionally, the magazine has won four UTNE Independent Press Awards from Utne Reader, most recently in 2011 in the category "Best Writing".The magazine is named for an oration by Ralph Waldo Emerson given before the society in 1837. According to its website, "the magazine aspires to Emerson’s ideals of independent thinking, self-knowledge, and a commitment to the affairs of the world as well as to books, history, and science." The American Scholar began publishing fiction in 2006, and "essays, articles, criticism, and poetry have been mainstays of the magazine for 75 years."

William Short (American ambassador)

William Short (1759–1849) was an American diplomat during the early years of the United States. He served as Thomas Jefferson's private secretary when the latter was a peace commissioner in France, and remained in Europe to take on several other diplomatic posts. Jefferson, later the third President of the United States, was a lifelong mentor and friend. In a 1789 letter, Jefferson referred to Short as his "adoptive son."Short was an early member and president (1778–1781) of Phi Beta Kappa at the College of William & Mary and was elected to Virginia's Executive Council from 1783 to 1784. After serving as the U.S.'s chargé d'affaires in France during the French Revolution (1789–92). In 1792 he was appointed as America's Minister to the Netherlands, and from 1794 to 1795 he served as a treaty commissioner to Spain. Although his diplomatic career was not as celebrated or long as Short may have wished, and his love affair with a French noblewoman ended with her marrying another man, Short was a successful businessman and an opponent of slavery who died very wealthy in America.

Student life

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