Phaselis (Ancient Greek: Φασηλίς) was a Greek and Roman city on the coast of ancient Lycia. Its ruins are located north of the modern town Tekirova in the Kemer district of Antalya Province in Turkey. It lies between the Bey Mountains and the forests of Olympos National Park, 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) south of the tourist town of Kemer and on the 57th kilometre of the Antalya–Kumluca highway. Phaselis and other ancient towns around the shore can also be accessed from the sea by daily yacht tours.
Φασηλίς ‹See Tfd›(in Greek)
Shown within Turkey
|Location||Tekirova, Antalya Province, Turkey|
|Periods||Archaic to High Medieval|
|Website||Phaselis Archaeological Site|
The town was set up by the Rhodians in 700 BC. Because of its location on an isthmus separating two harbours, it became the most important harbour city of eastern Lycia and an important centre of commerce between Greece, Asia, Egypt, and Phoenicia, although it did not belong to the Lycian League. The city was captured by Persians after they conquered Asia Minor. Cimon, in 468 BC, attacked the city and it was enrolled in the Delian Confederacy. Later it was captured by Alexander the Great.
After the death of Alexander, the city remained in Egyptian hands from 209 BC to 197 BC, under the dynasty of Ptolemaios, and with the conclusion of the Apamea treaty, was handed over to the Rhodian Peraia, together with the other cities of Lycia. From 190 BC to 160 BC it remained under Rhodeian hegemony, but after 160 BC it was absorbed into the Lycian confederacy under Roman rule. Phaselis, like Olympos, was under constant threat from pirates in the 1st century BC, and the city was even taken over by the pirate Zekenites for a period until his defeat in 77 or 76 BC by the Romans under Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. In 42 BC Brutus had the city linked to Rome. In the 3rd century AD, the harbor fell under the threat of pirates once again. So it began to lose importance, suffering further losses at the hands of Arab ships, until totally impoverished in the 11th century. When the Seljuqs began to concentrate on Alanya and Antalya as ports, Phaselis ceased to be a port of any note.
There was a temple of Athene at Phaselis, where the lance of Achilles was exhibited. It was the birthplace of the poet and orator Theodectes. It was also renowned for its roses, from which the essence was extracted.
Phaselis became a Christian bishopric, a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Mira, the capital of the Roman province of Lycia. Its bishop Fronto took part in the Council of Chalcedon in 451. His successor, Aristodemus, was one of the signatories of the letter that in 458 the bishops of Lycia sent to Byzantine Emperor Leo I the Thracian concerning the murder of Proterius of Alexandria. The bishop of the time of the Second Council of Nicaea (787) did not attend, and the acts were signed in his name by a deacon called Ioannes.
Phaselis has three harbours: the 'Northern Harbour', the 'Battle Harbour' and the 'Protected (Sun) Harbour', of which the last is the most important today. A 24-metre-wide ancient street runs through the middle of the city. The 'Hadrian Waterway Gate' is on the southern part of the street. There are ruins of shops and stores on the sides of the street and near these are ruins of public places such as Roman baths, agoras and theatres. These structures are dated to the 2nd century BC. There are water canals between the town centre and the 70 m plateau. There are also numerous sarcophagi.
The 2006 Rally of Turkey was the thirteenth round of the 2006 World Rally Championship season. It took place between October 15–17, 2006. It was the last WRC event that the late Colin McRae competed in. He retired on the final stage with a mechanical problem.Antiphemus
Antiphemus (Ancient Greek: Ἀντίφημος) was a man from ancient Greece from Rhodes who was the founder of Gela, around 690 BCE. The colony was composed of Rhodians and Cretans, the latter led by Entimus the Cretan, the former chiefly from Lindus, and to this town Antiphemus himself belonged.From the Etymologicum Magnum and Aristaenetus in Stephanus of Byzantium it appears the tale ran that Antiphemus and his brother Lacius, the founder of Phaselis, were, when at Delphi, suddenly bid to go forth, one eastward, one westward; and from his laughing at the unexpected response, the city took its name. From Pausanias we hear of his taking the Sicanian town of Omphace as an oikistes, and carrying off from it a statue made by the legendary Daedalus.The scholar Karl Otfried Müller considers Antiphemus a mythical person.Battle of the Eurymedon
The Battle of the Eurymedon was a double battle, taking place both on water and land, between the Delian League of Athens and her Allies, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I. It took place in either 469 or 466 BC, in the vicinity of the mouth of the Eurymedon River (now the Köprüçay) in Pamphylia, Asia Minor. It forms part of the Wars of the Delian League, itself part of the larger Greco-Persian Wars.
The Delian League had been formed between Athens and many of the city-states of the Aegean to continue the war with Persia, which had begun with the first and second Persian invasions of Greece (492–490 and 480–479 BC, respectively). In the aftermath of the Battles of Plataea and Mycale, which had ended the second invasion, the Greek Allies had taken the offensive, besieging the cities of Sestos and Byzantium. The Delian League then took over responsibility for the war, and continued to attack Persian bases in the Aegean throughout the next decade.
In either 469 or 466 BC, the Persians began assembling a large army and navy for a major offensive against the Greeks. Gathering near the Eurymedon, it is possible that the expedition aimed to move up the coast of Asia Minor, capturing each city in turn. This would bring the Asiatic Greek regions back under Persian control, and give the Persians naval bases from which to launch further expeditions into the Aegean. Hearing of the Persian preparations, the Athenian general Cimon took 200 triremes and sailed to Phaselis in Pamphylia, which eventually agreed to join the Delian League. This effectively blocked the Persian strategy at its first objective.
Cimon then moved to pre-emptively attack the Persian forces near the Eurymedon. Sailing into the mouth of the river, Cimon quickly routed the Persian fleet gathered there. Most of the Persian fleet made land-fall, and the sailors fled to the shelter of the Persian army. Cimon then landed the Greek marines and proceeded to attack the Persian army, which was also routed. The Greeks captured the Persian camp, taking many prisoners, and were able to destroy 200 beached Persian triremes. This stunning double victory seems to have greatly demoralised the Persians, and prevented any further Persian campaigning in the Aegean until at least 451 BC. However, the Delian League do not appear to have pressed home their advantage, probably because of other events in the Greek world that required their attention.Beycik, Kemer
Beycik is a village of Kemer District, Antalya Province, Turkey. It is located southwest of Antalya. The population is 326, as of 2000.
Beycik is situated in the Olympos National Park, in the foothills of Mount Olympos (2,400 m) and at an altitude of 450 m to 1,000 m. Noteworthy tourist attractions in the vicinity are Phaselis and Tekirova. The distance to the city of Antalya is 65 km and to the tourist town of Kemer is 22 km.Beydağları Coastal National Park
Beydağları Coastal National Park (Turkish: Beydağları Sahil Milli Parkı), a.k.a. Olympos Beydagları National Park (Turkish: Olympos Beydağları Milli Parkı), is a national park in Antalya Province, southern Turkey.
The national park was established on March 16, 1972 by a decret of the government. It stretches over an area of 34,425 ha (132.92 sq mi) beginning in Sarısu, located southwest of Antalya and reaching out to Cape Gelidonya parallel to the Mediterranean Sea across the Kemer-Kumluca shoreline.The ancient settlements Olympos, Phaselis and Idyros are situated within the national park, which lies between the shores of the ancient regions Pamphylia and Lycia. The tallest mountain in the park is Tahtalı Dağı. The Yanartaş burning gas field is found on the foothills of that mountain.
The national park offers place for activities such as beach and sea sports, picnic, camping, trekking, mountain climbing, paragliding etc. Visiting of the archeological sites within the national park is possible all around the year.Corydala
Corydala or Corydalla or Korydalla or Korydala (Ancient Greek: Κορύδαλλα) was a city of ancient Lycia. Anciently, it belonged to the Rhodians, according to Hecataeus, quoted by Stephanus. But it was not in Rhodes, nor was it one of the Rhodian possessions in the Peraea, Caria. The Tabula Peutingeriana marks Corydala (spelt Coridallo) on the road from Phaselis to Patara, and makes the distance between these two places 29 Roman miles (43 km; 27 mi) Pliny places Corydalla in the interior of Lycia, and Ptolemy mentions it with Sagalassus, Rhodia, Phellus, Myra, and other places, as about Mons Massicytus.
There are coins of Corydala of the imperial period, with the epigraph Κορυδαλλεων.Critolaus
Critolaus (; Greek: Κριτόλαος Kritolaos; c. 200 – c. 118 BC) of Phaselis was a Greek philosopher of the Peripatetic school. He was one of three philosophers sent to Rome in 155 BC (the other two being Carneades and Diogenes of Babylon), where their doctrines fascinated the citizens, but scared the more conservative statesmen. None of his writings survive. He was interested in rhetoric and ethics, and considered pleasure to be an evil. He maintained the Aristotelian doctrine of the eternity of the world, and of the human race in general, directing his arguments against the Stoics.Hellenion (Naucratis)
Hellenion (Greek: Ἑλλήνιον) was an Ancient Greek sanctuary in Naucratis (Egypt), founded by the cities Rhodes, Cnidus, Halicarnassus, Phaselis, Chios, Teos, Phocaea, Clazomenae and Mytilene in the reign of Amasis (6th century BC).Idyros
Idyros (Ancient Greek: Ἴδυρης, Latin: Idyrus) was a Greek city in ancient Lycia. Its exact location is uncertain. According to Pseudo-Scylax it was located north of Phaselis.The site of the town is tentatively located near modern Kemer.Kemer
Kemer is a seaside resort and district of Antalya Province on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, 40 km (25 mi) west of the city of Antalya, on the Turkish Riviera.
Kemer is on the Gulf of Antalya, 53 km (33 mi) of sea coast with the skirts of the western Taurus Mountains behind. The coast has the typical Mediterranean hot, dry weather and warm sea. Until the early 1980s this was a quiet rural district but today the town of Kemer and coastal villages in the district play a very important part in tourism in Turkey.Kheriga
Kheriga (in Greek Gergis) was a Dynast of Lycia, who ruled circa 450-410 BCE. Kheriga is mentioned on the succession list of the Xanthian Obelisk, and is probably the owner of the sarcophagus that was standing on top of it.Kheriga was son of Harpagus (Arppakhu in Lycian). Arbinas was the son of Kheriga.Kheriga was ruler of Lycia at the time when Lycia was an ally of Athens in the Delian League. As the power of Athens weakened and Athens and Sparta fought the Peloponnesian wars (431–404 BC), the majority of Lycian cities defaulted from the Delian League, with the exception of Telmessos and Phaselis. In 429 BC, Athens sent an expedition against Lycia to try to force it to rejoin the League. This failed when Lycia's leader Kheriga (Gergis) defeated Athenian general Melesander. The encounter is described in the inscription on the Xanthian Obelisk.Lacritus
Lacritus (Ancient Greek: Λάκριτος) was a sophist, and native of Phaselis, known to us chiefly from the speech of Demosthenes against him, and for having been the tutor of Archias of Thurii.
The subject of the speech entails a man named Androcles, who had lent a sum of money to Artemo, the brother of Lacritus. The latter, on the death of his brother, refused to refund the money, though he had become security for his brother, and was his heir. Hence the suit instituted against him by Androcles, for whom Demosthenes composed the speech in question. Lacritus was a pupil of Isocrates, of which he seems to have been rather vain. speaks of him likewise as the author of some Athenian laws.Lycian Way Ultramarathon
Lycian Way Ultramarathon (Turkish: Likya Yolu Ultramaratonu, shortly LYUM) is an international multiday trail running ultramarathon event that takes place across the ancient Lycian region in southwestern Turkey. The event is run around 220–240 km (140–150 mi) of the 509 km (316 mi) long historical Lycian Way eastwards from Fethiye to Antalya in six days. The elevation of the route varies between sea level and 800 m (2,600 ft). The Lycian Way Ultramarathon was established in 2010 taking place on October 11–17.Changing ground conditions such as sandy and rocky trails, dirt roads, slippery terrain in conifer forests and steep slopes make the ultramarathon extremely difficult.
The route starts at Ölüdeniz in Fethiye district of Muğla Province. Following the Turkish Riviera coastline, it passes through Sidyma and then in Antalya Province the places Kaş, Simena, Finike, Olympos and Phaselis. The race ends in Antalya.The fourth edition of the event in 2013 was cancelled because many foreign ultra runners stayed away or annulled their entry due to perceived risks in connection with the 2013 protests in Turkey and 2012 Syrian–Turkish border clashes. The cancellation caused reaction by local athletes, who had already arranged their training, holiday and airline tickets in accordance with the race term.Mahmut Şenol
Mahmut Şenol (born on November 23, 1958) is a contemporary Turkish and Canadian author and journalist. He has published 10 books as of April 2016. The author currently lives in Edmonton, Canada.
Phaselis Adağı (2004) - novel/historical fiction
Bay Konsolos (2005) - novel/fiction
Çerkes Adil Paşa'nın Tahsildarlık Günleri (2007) - novel/fiction
Keşfini Bekleyen Insan (2010) - non-fiction
Kayısı Topuklu Kadınlar (2011) - essays and daily articles
Akhisar Düşerken (2011) - novel/fiction
Capon Çayevi (2012) - novel/fiction -
Altıncı Hasta (2013) - theatre/play [ 6.Hasta ], this book is available as e-Pub, onto internet
Geçiyordum, Uğradım (2015) - Short Stories.
Dalkavuk Hanım (2016) - novel
Bizim Unuttuğumuz Şey - (2017), Short Stories.Mount Chimaera
Mount Chimaera was the name of a place in ancient Lycia, notable for constantly burning fires. It is thought to be the area called Yanartaş in Turkey, where methane and other gases emerge from the rock and burn. Some ancient sources considered it to be the origin of the myth of the monster called the Chimera, because of similarities described below.
Ctesias is the oldest traceable author to offer this euhemerizing theory. We know of this because of a citation by Pliny the Elder, who in his second book of Historia Naturalis identified the Chimera with the permanent gas vents in Mount Chimaera, in the country of the ancient Lycian city of Phaselis, which he described as being "on fire", adding that it "...indeed burned with a flame that does not die by day or night." Pliny was quoted by Photius and Agricola.
Strabo and Pliny are the only surviving ancient sources who would be expected to discuss a Lycian toponym, but the placename is also attested by Isidore of Seville and Servius, the commentator on the Aeneid. Strabo held the Chimaera to be a ravine on a different mountain in Lycia, placing it unhesitatingly in the vicinity of the Cragus Mountains, the southern part of the present Babadağ, some 75 km due west as the crow flies, and Isidore quotes writers on natural history (see below) that Mount Chimaera was on fire here, had lions and goats there, and was full of snakes over there. Servius goes so far as to arrange these with the lions on the peak of the mountain, pastures full of goats in the middle, and serpents all about the base, thus imitating Homer's description of the monster.
The site was identified by Sir Francis Beaufort in 1811, as the modern Turkish Yanar or Yanartaş, which was described by Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt in his Travels in Lycia, Milyas, and the Cibyratis, in company with the late Rev. E. T. Daniell. The discussion on the connection between the myth and the exact location of Mount Chimera was started by Albert Forbiger in 1844, and George Ewart Bean was of the opinion that the name was allochthonous and could have been transferred here from its original location further west, as cited by Strabo, owing to the presence of the same phenomenon and the fires.Olbia (Pamphylia)
Olbia (Ancient Greek: Ὀλβία) was the westernmost town on the coast of ancient Pamphylia, which some ancient writers place in Lycia. Ptolemy places it between Phaselis and Attaleia. Stephanus of Byzantium blames Philo for ascribing this town to Pamphylia, since, as he asserts, it was situated in the territory of the Solymi, and its real name was Olba; but the critic is here himself at fault, confounding Olbia with the Pisidian Olbasa. Strabo describes Olbia as a strong fortress, and its inhabitants colonised the Lycian town of Cadrema.Its site is located near Koruma, Asiatic Turkey.Olympus (Lycia)
Olympus or Olympos (Ancient Greek: Ὄλυμπος, Ólympos; Latin: Olympus) was a city in ancient Lycia. It was situated in a river valley near the coast. Its ruins are located south of the modern town Çıralı in the Kumluca district of Antalya Province, Turkey. Together with the sites of the ancient cities Phaselis and Idyros it is part of the Olympos Beydaglari National Park. The perpetual gas fires at Yanartaş are found a few kilometers to the northwest of the site.Stratonicus of Athens
Stratonicus (in Greek Στρατόνικoς; lived 4th century BC), of Athens, was a distinguished musician of the time of Alexander the Great (336–323 BC), of whom scarcely anything is recorded, except the sharp and witty rebuke which he administered to Philotas, when the latter boasted of a victory which he had gained over Timotheus of Miletus. His character is also revealed by another anecdote:
And when he was once asked by some one who were the wickedest people, he said, "That in Pamphylia, the people of Phaselis were the worst; but that the Sidetae were the worst in the whole world." And when he was asked again, according to the account given by Hegesander, which were the greatest barbarians, the Boeotians or the Thessalians he said, " The Eleans."
It is told that Nicocles, king of Cyprus, killed him for some satyric pieces he had composed on Nicocles' sons.Theodectes
Theodectes (Greek: Θεοδέκτης; c. 380 – c. 340 BCE) was a Greek rhetorician and tragic poet, of Phaselis in Lycia.