Phan Châu Trinh (Chinese: 潘周楨, 1871 - 1926), courtesy name Tử Cán (梓幹), pen name Tây Hồ (西湖) or Hi Mã (希馬), was an early 20th-century Vietnamese nationalist. He sought to end France's colonial occupation of Vietnam. He opposed both violence and turning to other countries for support, and instead believed in attaining Vietnamese liberation by educating the population and by appealing to French democratic principles.
Phan Châu Trinh
|Born||9 September 1872|
|Died||24 March 1926 (aged 53)|
Phan Châu Trinh was born in Tây Lộc, Quảng Nam Province in Annam, French Indochina on 9 September 1872. He was the son of a rich land owner and scholar. His father was a fighter in the Scholars' Revolt, but in 1885 he was killed by the other leaders in the revolt who suspected him of being a traitor. This left Trinh an orphan at the age of 13. His older brother educated him in classics. In 1901 he got the highest Mandarin degree.
In 1905 Trinh resigned from his post in the mandarin bureaucracy. He had become strongly opposed to the monarchy, traditional Chinese Confucian-influenced Vietnamese court and mandarin system. He called for an end to the monarchy and its replacement with a democratic republic. Having earlier met Phan Bội Châu in 1903, in March/April 1906 he went to Hong Kong and then to Kwangtung to meet with him again. He made his way there disguised as a disheveled common laborer. He then went to Japan with Châu as part of the Đông-Du movement. They stayed in Yokohama, where they had set up a two-story Japanese house to teach students, which they called Binh Ngo Hien. In June they went to Tokyo to inspect the Japanese education and political system.
Trinh disagreed with Châu's early ideas of asking for military assistance from Japan, as he didn't trust Japan's militarism. He also had other disagreements with Châu's philosophy. Therefore, they had a friendly argument for a few weeks before he returned to Vietnam. Back in Vietnam he continued to receive letters from Châu arguing about his opposition to the monarchy and his belief that the French could be used. Trinh continued to campaign with slogans like "Up with Democracy, Out with Monarchy", and "Making Use of the French in the Quest for Progress". This made Châu quite upset and worried that the movement was fragmenting and that fundraising efforts would fail.
In 1906 he wrote to the French Governor General Paul Beau. He asked the French to live up to their civilising mission. He blamed them for the exploitation of the countryside by Vietnamese collaborators. He called on France to develop modern legal, educational, and economic institutions in Vietnam and industrialise the country, and to remove the remnants of the mandarin system. In 1907 he opened a patriotic modern school for young Vietnamese men and women. The school was called Đông Kinh Nghĩa Thục (aka Tonkin Free School). He was a lecturer at the school, and Châu's writings were also used. The school carefully avoided doing anything illegal. Its ideas attacked the brutality of the French occupation of Vietnam, but also wanted to learn modernisation from the French. The school required scholars to renounce their elitist traditions and learn from the masses. It also offered the peasants a modern education. After peasant tax revolts erupted in 1908, Trinh was arrested, and his school was closed. He was sentenced to death, but it was commuted to life imprisonment after his progressive admirers in France intervened. He was sent to Côn Đảo island. In 1911, after three years, he was pardoned and sentenced to house arrest. He said he would rather return to prison than have partial freedom. So instead he was deported to France, where the French continued to monitor him.
He went to Paris in 1915 to get the support of progressive French politicians and Vietnamese exiles. There he worked with Hồ Chí Minh, Phan Văn Trường, Nguyễn Thế Truyền, and Nguyễn An Ninh in "The Group of Vietnamese Patriots". The group was based at 6 Villa des Gobelins. There they wrote patriotic articles signed with the name Nguyễn Ái Quốc which Hồ Chí Minh later used, "on behalf of the Group of Vietnamese Patriots". He worked as a photograph retoucher to support himself while he was in France. He returned to Saigon in 1925, where he died on 24 March 1926, aged 53. His funeral was attended by 60,000 people and caused big protests across the country demanding the end of French colonial occupation, which would not occur for three more decades.
In Tokyo, Trinh told Châu: "The level of their people is so high, and the level of our people is so low! How could we not become slaves? That some students now can enter Japanese schools has been your great achievement. Please stay on in Tokyo to take a quiet rest and devote yourself to writing, and not to making appeals for combat against the French. You should only call for 'popular rights and popular enlightenment.' Once popular rights have been achieved, then we can think about other things."
Châu commented: "Thereafter over more than ten days, he and I debated time and again, and our opinions were diametrically opposed. That is to say, he wished to overthrow the monarchy in order to create a basis for the promotion of popular rights; I, on the contrary, maintained that first the foreign enemy should be driven out, and after our nation's independence was restored we could talk about other things. My plan was to make use of the monarchy, which he opposed absolutely. His plan was to raise up the people to abolish the monarchy, with which I absolutely disagreed. In other words, he and I were pursuing one and the same goal, but our means were considerably different. He wished to start by relying on the French to abolish the monarchy, but I wished to start by driving out the French to restore Vietnam - That was the difference. However, even though his political view was the opposite of mine, he liked me personally a great deal and we roomed together for several weeks. Then all of a sudden he decided to return to our country."
Most cities in Vietnam have named major streets after him.
Hoàn Kiếm (Hán tự: 郡還劍; Sino-Vietnamese for Returned Sword) is an urban district (quận) of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam, named after the scenic Hoàn Kiếm Lake. The lake is in the heart of the district and serves as the focal point of the city's public life. The majority of tourist attractions in Hanoi are also located in the district.
Hoàn Kiếm is the downtown and commercial center of Hanoi. Most of the largest Vietnamese public corporations and bank headquarters are located here, but the central government offices are located in Ba Đình District. The Hanoi City Committee is located on Đinh Tiên Hoàng street, adjacent to the Hoàn Kiếm lake.Huỳnh Thúc Kháng
Huỳnh Thúc Kháng (chữ Hán: 黃叔抗; 1 October 1876 – 21 April 1947) was a Vietnamese anti-colonialist and associate of Phan Chu Trinh.
Huỳnh Thúc Kháng born in Tiên Phước District in Quảng Nam Province, the same district from which Trinh hailed. Khang went on to top the imperial examinations in 1900. In 1946 Kháng came back to Quảng Ngãi to lead the fight against the French in the 5th Interzone. He died the next year under suspicious circumstances.Most cities in Vietnam have named major streets after him.List of ambassadors of Vietnam to the United States
The Vietnamese Ambassador to the United States is the official representative of the Vietnamese government to the government of the United States. The ambassador lives in Washington, D.C..Nguyễn Nhật Ánh
Nguyễn Nhật Ánh (born May 7, 1955) is a Vietnamese author who writes for teenagers and adults. He also works as a teacher, poet and correspondent. His works include approximately 24 short stories, 2 novel series and some collections of poems. He is regarded as one of Vietnam's most successful writers for teenagers. His best-known series, Kính Vạn Hoa (Kaleidoscope), which contains 54 volumes, has been made into 3 drama series of the same name.Nguyễn Quyền
Nguyễn Quyền (1869–1941) was a Vietnamese scholar-gentry anti-colonial revolutionary activist who advocated independence from French colonial rule. He was a contemporary of Phan Bội Châu and Phan Chu Trinh, and one of Tonkin Free School's (Dong Kinh Nghia Thuc) founders.Quyen was born in Thượng Trì (or Đìa Village), Thượng Mão, Thuận Thành, Bắc Ninh Province. He was the principal of the Dong Kinh Nghia Thuc School in 1907.Quyen gained the rank of tu tai in the regional imperial examinations and as a result found himself appointed the huan dao (education officer) of Lạng Sơn prefecture. As a result, he was often known as Huan Quyen.Quyen was not the first choice for the role. The regional authority in the area was Vi Van Ly, a seventy-year-old descendant of a Chinese immigrant family that had inherited authority in the area due to its bestowal to them by the Nguyễn Dynasty. Ly had requested a huan dao via the French resident, but since the highlands area had a poor record in academic performance, there were very few students preparing for exams, so Quyen was appointed to the post from out of district since nobody else was available.As it was, there was a lack of interest in education in the area, so Quyen had very little duties to fulfil. Instead, he spent most of his time reading books. Since Lạng Sơn was near the Chinese border, Quyen quickly came across Chinese translations of European literature and the writings of Kang Youwei and Liang Chi Chao. Later in his life, he reflected on his time in Lạng Sơn and recalled the excitement he derived rom reading the Chung-kuo hun and Ch'un chi chuan chieh lun, often going without sleep or food to continue reading.
The more I read the more I become aware that he things we studied, our examination system, were wrong – indeed the real reasons for our having lost our country. From that point on I was determined to seize upon our country's literature and on modern learning to awaken our citizenry.
As a result, Quyen advocated the modernisation of Vietnam's education system. In approximately 1903 or 1904, Quyen met Tang Bat Ho, who had recently returned from his travels abroad and talked extensively about the modernisation of Japan. In 1904 he met with Phan Bội Châu, but Quyen had little in common with Chau's ideology of using violence to achieve independence. Quyen went on the work with Lương Văn Can and Le Dai in setting up the Dong Kinh Thuc Nghia, which sought to strengthen the Vietnamese people and thereby the likelihood of independence through the training of a new, more modern generation of scholars.In 1908, Quyen was arrested in a general crackdown by French authorities and sent to jail on Côn Lôn island.Nguyễn Thành
Nguyễn Tiểu La (chữ Hán: 阮小羅; 1863-1911), born Nguyễn Thành was a Vietnamese scholar-gentry anti-colonial revolutionary activist who advocated independence from French colonial rule. He was a contemporary of Phan Bội Châu and Phan Chu Trinh. He was imprisoned by the French and died in custody. Today in Vietnam, he has streets and schools named in his honor.Nguyễn Thái Học Street
Nguyễn Thái Học Street (phố Nguyễn Thái Học) is a major street in Ba Đình District, Hanoi.Nguyễn Thần Hiến
Nguyễn Thần Hiến (1856–1914) was a Vietnamese scholar-gentry anti-colonial revolutionary activist who advocated independence from French colonial rule. He was a contemporary of Phan Bội Châu and Phan Chu Trinh and was regarded as the most prominent southerner of his generation of scholar-gentry activists.Nguyễn Thị Bình
Nguyễn Thị Bình (born Nguyễn Châu Sa; 26 May 1928) is a Vietnamese communist leader and politician who negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference on behalf of the Viet Cong, or National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam.Pan (surname)
Pān is the Mandarin pinyin romanization of the East Asian surname 潘. It is listed 43rd in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames. It is romanized as P'an in Wade–Giles; Poon, Pon, or Pun in Cantonese; Phua in Hokkien and Teochew.
潘 is also a common surname in Vietnam and Korea. It is romanized Phan in Iu-Mien , Vietnamese and Ban or Pan in Korean.Phan Khôi
Phan Khôi (August 20, 1887 (Đinh Hợi) Bảo An village, Điện Bàn county, Quảng Nam Province, Vietnam – January 16, 1959, Hanoi, North Vietnam) was an intellectual leader who inspired a North Vietnamese variety of the Chinese Hundred Flowers Campaign, in which scholars were permitted to criticize the Communist regime, but for which he himself was ultimately persecuted by the Communist Party of Vietnam.Sacred Heart Cathedral, Buôn Ma Thuột
The Sacred Heart Cathedral (Vietnamese: Nhà Thờ Chình Toà Thánh Tâm Chúa Giêsu; French: Cathédrale du Sacré-Cœur) also called Buôn Ma Thuột Cathedral is the name given to a religious building that is affiliated with the Catholic Church and is found in 2 Phan Chu Trinh in the city of Buon Ma Thuot, capital of Dak Lak province in the southern part of the Asian country of Vietnam.
Construction of the church began in 1957 and was completed the following year with space for 1,200 faithful seated.
The temple follows the Roman or Latin rite and is the principal church of the Diocese of Ban Me Thuot (Dioecesis Banmethuotensis or Giáo phận Ban Mê Thuột) which was created in 1967 by Pope Paul VI by bull Qui Dei benignitate.
Is under the pastoral responsibility of the Bishop Vincent Nguyễn Văn Bản.Tonkin Free School
The Tonkin Free School (Vietnamese: Đông Kinh Nghĩa Thục, 東京義塾) was a short-lived but historically significant educational institution in Hanoi that aimed to reform Vietnamese society under French colonialism during the beginning of the 20th century.Trần Cao Vân
Trần Cao Vân (陳高雲, 1866–1916) was a mandarin of the Nguyễn Dynasty who was best known for his activities in attempting to expel the French colonial powers in Vietnam. He orchestrated an attempt to expel the French and install Emperor Duy Tân as the boy ruler of an independent Vietnam, but the uprising failed. Vân was executed while Duy Tân was exiled by the French.Trần Quý Cáp
Trần Quý Cáp (chữ Hán: 陳季恰, Dã Hàng, Thích Phu, modern Thái Xuyên 1870 - 1908) was a Vietnamese poet. He was a supporter of the unsuccessful Cần Vương (Aid the King) Movement of 1885–89 which sought to restore sovereign authority to the Nguyễn throne. He was one among several leading scholars in the movement including Phan Đình Phùng, Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Bội Châu, and Huỳnh Thúc Kháng.Tôn Thất Thiện
Dr. Tôn Thất Thiện was a South Vietnamese nationalist of the post-World War II generation who had the rare distinction of serving and watching at close quarters the two historic leaders of post-World War II Vietnam: presidents Ho Chi Minh in the Viet Minh coalition in 1945–46, and Ngô Đình Diệm 1954–55/1956–59/1963. He played a significant though understated role in the nationalist attempt to preserve a non-communist Vietnam.
The website http://www.tonthatthien.com presents a complete bibliography and almost 400 collected articles, book excerpts, editorials, letters, interview transcripts and poetry.
From 1945 to 1975 Thien was an active participant or a personal witness to almost all of the major historic events in Vietnam: the 1945 August Revolution, the 1954 Geneva Conference, division of the country and birth of the Republic of Vietnam, the 1963 coup d'état against Ngô Đình Diệm, the 1968 Tet Offensive in Huế and the April 1975 Fall of Saigon.
He knew or met virtually all of the significant actors among the North Vietnamese, South Vietnamese and American political and military leadership, as well as most foreign journalists who covered the conflict.
In 1968 he served as Minister of Information in the South Vietnamese government. His reformist efforts allowing an uncensored media led to the Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature and Creative Communication Arts in the same year.As a 'Third Force' nationalist opposed to colonialism and communism, and dedicated to a mix of Confucian traditions and Western political ideals he is most closely aligned with the evolutionary reformist vision of the famous Vietnamese nationalist, Phan Chu Trinh. In many ways he can be considered the personification of a 'Quiet Vietnamese' counterpart to Graham Greene's fictional "Quiet American" character.
Professor Tôn Thất Thiện died at his home in Ottawa, Canada on October 3, 2014.Vietnamese community in Paris
Paris is home to the oldest Overseas Vietnamese community in the Western world and is also one of the largest outside Vietnam. There are a little under 100,000 people of Vietnamese descent within the city limits of Paris, with the greater Île-de-France area home to another estimated 100,000. Both figures make the Paris metropolitan area host to one of the greatest concentrations of Vietnamese outside Vietnam, if not the largest.In periods before 1975 several Vietnamese arrived in Paris, including intellectuals, those who worked as civil servants in colonial times, and those who came to Paris to study and did not return home. Ethnic Vietnamese arriving after 1975 became a part of an ethnic network established by those that came before them. Many Vietnamese achieved proficiency in the medical, scientific, and computer science fields.Võ Chí Công
Võ Chí Công (born Võ Toàn; 7 August 1912 – 8 September 2011) was a Vietnamese Communist politician, and the Chairman of the Council of State of Vietnam (Alternatively: President of Vietnam) between 1987 and 1992. He was the Standing Deputy Chairman of the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam from 1962 to 1976.Đông Du
Đông Du (Saigon: [ɗəwŋm ju], Hanoi: [ɗəwŋm zu], journey to the east; Japanese: 東遊) was a Vietnamese political movement founded by Phan Bội Châu at the start of the 20th century that encouraged young Vietnamese to go east to Japan to study, in the hope of training a new era of revolutionaries to rise against French colonial rule. Other notable proponents of Dong Du include Phan Chu Trinh and Prince Cường Để. In 1906 there were only 20 students in Japan, but October 1907, there were over 100 students in Japan, more than half from the South.
Vietnamese independence movement