Phaltan (pronunciation ) is a town, a taluka and a municipal council in Satara district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The town is about 59 kilometres (37 mi) north-east of the city of Satara and about 110 km from Pune .

Marathi transcription(s)
Phaltan is located in Maharashtra
Location in Maharashtra, India
Coordinates: 17°59′N 74°26′E / 17.98°N 74.43°ECoordinates: 17°59′N 74°26′E / 17.98°N 74.43°E
Country India
 • TypeMunicipal corporation
 • BodyMunicipal council
 • Total1,028 km2 (397 sq mi)
568 m (1,864 ft)
 • Total342,667
 • Density330/km2 (860/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code02166
Sex ratioMale 51% / female 49% /


Phaltan State was one of the non-salute Maratha princely states of British India, under the central division of the Bombay Presidency, under the states of the Kolhapur-Dekkan Residency, Satara Agency and later the Deccan States Agency. It was one of the Satara Jahagirs. The state measured 397 square miles (1,028 km²) in area. According to the 1901 census, the population showed a decrease of 31% in the decade at 45,739. The population of the town itself was 9,512 in that year. In 1901, the state enjoyed revenue estimated at £13,000- and paid a tribute to the British Raj of £640. Its flag was a rectangular bicolor, orange over green.

The Hindu ruling family was descended from Naik Nimbaji Nimbalkar (1284–1291), a Maratha who received a grant from a Mughal emperor in the 17th century. The ruler had the title of Raja, or Naik Nimbalkar. The first wife, SaiBai, of 17th century emperor Shivaji was from Phaltan. Major HH Raja Bahadur Shrimant Malojirao Mudhojirao Nanasaheb Naik Nimbalkar IV was the last Ruler of Phaltan. The original name is Pratishtana pur, from which the current name has been derived. Request historians and knowledgeable people to add interesting details about the original name. Phaltan acceded to the Dominion of India on 8 March 1948 and is currently a part of Maharashtra state.[2]

List of Rulers

  • Nimbraj I Nimbalkar, Naik 1284-1291
  • Padakhala Jagdevrao Dharpatrao Nimbalkar, Naik 1291-1327
  • Nimbraj II Nimbalkar, Naik 1327-1349
  • Vanang Bhupal Nimbalkar, Naik 1349-1374
  • Vanangpal Nimbalkar, Naik 1390-1394
  • Vangoji I Nimbalkar, Naik 1394-1409
  • Maloji I Nimbalkar, Naik 1409-1420
  • Baji I Nimbalkar, Naik 1420-1445
  • Powwarao Nimbalkar, Naik 1445-1470
  • Baji II Nimbalkar, Naik 1470-1512
  • Mudhoji I Nimbalkar, Naik 1512-1527
  • Baji Dharrao Nimbalkar, Naik 1527-1560
  • Maloji II Nimbalkar, Naik 1560-1570
  • Vangoji II Jagpalrao Nimbalkar, Naik 1570-1630
  • Mudhoji II Nimbalkar, Naik 1630-1644
  • Bajaji I Nimbalkar, Naik 1644-1676
  • Vangoji III Nimbalkar, Naik 1676-1693
  • Janoji Nimbalkar, Naik 1693-1748
  • Mudhojirao III Nimbalkar, Naik 1748-1765
  • Sayajirao Nimbalkar, Naik 1765-1774
  • Maloji III Rao Nimbalkar, Naik 1774-1777
  • Janrao II Nimbalkar, Naik 1777-1827
  • Bajaji II Rao Nimbalkar, Naik 1827-1841
  • Mudhoji IV Rao Naik Nambalkar, Raja Shrimant, 1841-1916 (longest-reigning monarch in India)
  • Maloji IV Rao Mudhojirao Naik Nimbalkar, Raja Bahadur Shrimant 1916-1948


Phaltan is located at 17°59′N 74°26′E / 17.98°N 74.43°E. It has an average elevation of 568 meters (1,863 feet).

Places of interest around Phaltan include: Vimantal (Airport); Goddess Maljai Mandir; Saibaba Mandir; Nimblak (which has been named after Naik-Nimbalkars as Nimblak) and Nimblak Naka, the oldest place in ancient Phaltan; Dhumalwadi (15 km or 9 mi from Phaltan, known for its waterfall) and Jabareshwar Mandir There are some forts around Phaltan, such as Wadgaum Nimbalkar, Santoshgad, Varugad, Mahimangad and Vardhangad. The fort Vardhangad can be reached from Satara also.kurwali dam is 7 km away from Phaltan city.

Phaltan's climate is an inland climate of Maharashtra. The temperature has a relatively high range between 15 to 45 °C (59 to 113 °F).[1] Summer in Phaltan is comparatively hot, and dry, compared to neighboring inland cities. Maximum temperatures exceed 40 °C (104 °F) every summer and typically range between 38–45 °C (100–113 °F). Lows during this season are around 25–28 °C (77–82 °F).

The city receives much less rainfall from June to September, and it has been declared as a drought-prone place by the Government. The city sometimes gets nil rainfall during the rainy season.

Winter starts in Phaltan from November to February. The winter temperatures are significantly higher compared to other cities in Maharashtra such as Pune and Nasik. Lows range from 14–16 °C (57–61 °F), while highs are in the range of 29–32 °C (84–90 °F). Humidity is low in this season, making weather much more pleasant.

Phaltan crosses a drought-prone area, and going towards the south and south-west of Phaltan, a dry area begins. Water supply to Phaltan for drinking and irrigation is done by water from Veer Dam on the Nira river. Nira Right Bank Canal (NRBC) flows through Phaltan, making it a partially green town.

Dhumalwadi Waterfall
Dhumalwadi Waterfall
Jabreshwar Mandir,Phaltan
Jabareshwar Mandir


As of 2001 India census,[2] Phaltan had a population of 60,172. Males constituted 51% of the population and females 49%. Phaltan has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, and female literacy is 70%. In Phaltan, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age.


Phaltan is a very ancient city. The ancient name of Phaltan was Phalapattan (फलपट्टण ). As per local mythology, the origin of this name was taken from Saint Phalapattan Rishi. In literary sources Ramayna, Phaltan was part of Dandakaranya., and Shree Ram, Laxman, Seeta was came here in Vanvaasa. The Sri Ram Temple in Phaltan is the most important temple in the city. Shri Ram is the Gram daivat of the city. There is a Temple of lord shiva, which is called as Jabreshwar Mandir, this temple has stone carvings. Other temples in the city are Maljai Temple, Nageshwar temple, Sri Dnyaneshwar Mandir, Upalekar Maharaj Samadhi Mandir, Haribaba Samadhi mandir, Sai mandir in Jadhavwadi. There are many Jain temples in Phaltan. People of Mahanubhav panth identify Phaltan as South Kashi. The city has a mosque called Badshahi Masjid. A village named Rajale is home for an ancient temple of goddess Janai. Festivals like Diwali, Ganesh chaturthi, and Nagpanchami are celebrated here, mainly. In the month of November or December, the annual fair will be celebrated which is called as Shri Ram Rathostav. The idols of Lord Sri Ram and Sita made up of five metals (Panchdhatu) are placed in a decorated rath worshipped and is taken on a procession all over the city, this procession is called as Nagar pradakshina. The city is also an important center for Mahanubhav (Jaykrishni) Sampraday.

Places of entertainment at Phaltan are: Namvaibhav Theater or Namvaibhav theatre is good running by multiplex City Pride Cinea Namvebhav Chitramandir. Rajvaibhav Theater (Rajvaibhav theaters is non operative as of now) and Indira Gandhi Sanskritik Bhavan (for art and cultural celebrations).

Places of shopping are: Sriram Bazar, City Bazar, local shops near Ambedkar chowk and Shankar market.

Shriram,Laxman,Sita at Shriram Mandir Phaltan
Shriram Mandir


Phaltan Taluka has two Sugar Factories: New Phaltan Sugar Works Ltd., Sakharwadi[3] and Shri Ram Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Pvt. Ltd., Phaltan.[4] Sakharwadi's sugar factory is the 2nd sugar factory of Maharashtra and moreover, the 1st private sugar factory in Maharashtra State.

Cummins India Ltd.[5] has its 300-acre 'mega-site' plant in Phaltan, which is being used to manufacture engines.

Phaltan M I D C Surawadi (Cummins)
Cummins India Ltd.Phaltan MIDC All In One Communication Center


Most of the people prefer to use State Transport (Maharashtra Government) buses. Private vehicles, auto rickshaws can be used on rent basis. Traffic is quite chaotic, with no signals. Most of the people use two-wheelers or bicycles as a mode of transportation. The city has a nonfunctional airport, 2 km (1 mile) from the city. The airport has a facility to land 1 helicopter at a time. On the other hand, there is no flight landing facility. A few private buses also have daily service to Pune, Mumbai every night, with very affordable rates. There is no railway in Phaltan. The closest railway station is Lonand, 29 kilometres (18 mi) away. New highway construction has occurred from Phaltan to National Highway number 4.


Schools and Colleges in Phaltan

  • SK Eduaction Group Phaltan
  • Phaltan Education Society College of Engineering, Phaltan[1]
  • Mudhoji High School and Junior College[2]
  • Mudhoji college[3]
  • MalojiRaje Agriculture College, Phaltan
  • Shrimant Shivajiraje English Medium School (SSEMS)
  • Borawake ITI college
  • Kamla Nimbkar Bal Bhawan a school run by Pragat Shikshan Sanstha [4]
  • Yashwantrao Chavan College, Phaltan
  • Rajiv Gandhi Polytechnic, Phaltan [5]
  • Sakharwadi Vidyalay
  • Sardar vallabhbhai Patel high school, Sakharwadi
  • Jaybhavani high school, Tirakwadi
  • Government D.Ed. college for girls
  • Law college, Girvi Naka
  • Brilliant Academy
  • Industrial Training institute (ITI)
  • Sahakar Maharshi Hanmantrao Pawar High School, Phaltan
  • wunderbarkids, phaltan
  • vishwajyot international school
  • Shrimat Jayshreemaladevi Naik-Nimbalkar Institute of Management Studies, Phaltan

Phaltan is also the home of the Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute(NARI), focusing on agriculture, renewable energy, animal husbandry and sustainable development.NARI's work on energy self-sufficient taluka (which became a national policy) was based on the extensive research on biomass availability in Phaltan Taluka.[6][7]

Mudhioji High School
Mudhoji Highschool
Mudhoji college
मुधोजी महाविद्यालय

Ideal Kids International School

Notable residents


  1. ^ Long term weather trends in western Maharashtra
  2. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  3. ^ sakharwadi
  4. ^ sugar
  5. ^ cummins map
  6. ^ Taluka's can provide critical mass for sustainable development of India
  7. ^ Energy Self Sufficient Talukas - A solution to National Energy Crisis; EPW, Vol. 30, Issue No. 51, 23 Dec, 1995

External links


Aradgaon is a village in Phaltan Tehsil, Satara district, Maharashtra.

Bhor State

Bhor State was one of the 9-gun salute Maratha princely states of British India. It was the only state belonging to the Poona Agency under the Bombay Presidency, which became later part of the Deccan States Agency. Along with Akkalkot State, Aundh State, Phaltan State and Jath State, it was one of the Satara Jagirs.

Situated among the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, the state covered an area of 2,396 square kilometres, and had a population of 137,268 in 1901.The town of Bhor, once the capital of the princely state, is located about 51 kilometres south of Pune, adjacent to Bhatghar Dam. The royal palace is still present.Also present in the vicinity is the temple of Bhoreshwar, dedicated to Lord Shiva. A temple dedicated to goddesses Janubai and Khiloba is located in Mhalawadi, a village close to the Bhatghar Dam.


Hingangaon is a small town and Gram panchayat in Phaltan Tehsil, District Satara of Maharashtra, India. It is strategically situated in mountainous parts of the region and is approximately 6–8 km from the Pune-Pandharpur Highway and Phaltan-Satara Roads mounted on Deccan Plateau.

It is one of the renowned villages in Tehsil.

Jawali, Maharashtra

There is a water fall named Bhair Kunda in Jaoli. There is a big lake situated between hills in jaoli.

Jawali, Maharashtra (Jaoli or Javali ) is a small village located in the Mahadeva Mountain range of Phaltan Tehsil of the Satara district of the Indian state of Maharashtra. The village is also known as Siddhanathachi Jawali / Jaoli / Javli.

Jayappaji Rao Scindia

Jayappaji Rao Scindia (Sindhia, Shinde) (ca 1720 - 25 July 1755) also known as Jayappa Dada Sahib, was a Maratha general. He ruled Gwalior State in northern India from 1745 to 1755, succeeding his father Ranoji Rao Scindia who had founded it.He was killed by two

khokar and charan adherents of Maharaja Vijay Singh of Jodhpur before the walls of Nagaur in Rajasthan on 25 July 1755, after entanglement in the affairs of JodhpurHe was succeeded by his son Jankoji Rao Scindia, killed at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761.

Jayappa had four daughters who married in the knight families of Shinde includes Nimbalkar, Two in Ghorpades and last one in the house of Savant - Bhonsle family. Jankoji Shinde married to Kashibai Nimbalkar, sister of Vyankatrao and Janrao Nimbalkar of Phaltan, both Sardars of Nizam of Hyderabad hailing from Phaltan.


Khatav is a town and taluka (administrative division) located in the Phaltan subdivision of the Satara district, India. Khatav has a population of about 10,000.


Lonand is a city and municipal council in Satara district, Maharashtra. It is 227km from Mumbai, 81km from Pune, 47km from Wai & Satara, 30km from Phaltan.

Man (Vidhan Sabha constituency)

Man (Vidhan Sabha constituency) of Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha is one of the constituencies located in the Satara district.

It is a part of the Madha (Lok Sabha constituency), along with five other assembly constituencies, namely Phaltan in the Satara district and Karmala, Madha, Sangole, Malsiras in the Solapur district

National Highway 965 (India)

National Highway 965, commonly called NH 965 is a national highway in India. It is a spur road of National Highway 65. NH-965 traverses the state of Maharashtra in India.


The Nimbalkar is a Maratha clan, which derives its surname from the forest of Nimbalak in Phaltan taluka, Satara district, Maharashtra, India.Some Nimbalkars served as head of the deshmukhs (sardeshmukhs or sardars) during the period of the Deccan Sultanates and Mughal empire.

Paldang Bridge

The Paldang Bridge (Korean pronunciation: [pʰalt͈aŋ]) crosses the Han River in South Korea and connects the cities of Hanam and Namyangju. Excluding the single-lane bridge built on top of the Paldang Dam, it is the easternmost bridge on the Han River.Construction on the bridge began in May 1986 as the second concrete bridge over the Han River after Olympic Bridge. Construction was halted in March 1991, however, when a portion of the bridge collapsed due to strong winds and killed one construction worker on site. Inspections revealed structural damage, prompting a change in construction methods. Construction resumed in October 1991, but was halted again in May 1992 after further structural damage was discovered. Initial designs were scrapped, and the bridge was opened as a girder bridge on April 25, 1995.

Paldang station

Paldang Station (Korean pronunciation: [pʰalt͈aŋ]) is a station on the Jungang Line, located in the city of Namyangju by the northern banks of the Han River. Although it is one of the older train stations in Korea (built prior to the 1945 liberation), the area around the station is not developed to a great degree, and only a few passenger trains stop at the station every day.

Phaltan (Vidhan Sabha constituency)

Phaltan (Vidhan Sabha constituency) of Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha is one of the constituencies located in the Satara district.This constituency presently, after delimitation of Legislative Assembly constituencies in 2008, is reserved for the candidates belonging to the SC

It is a part of the Madha (Lok Sabha constituency), along with five other assembly constituencies, namely Man in the Satara district and Karmala, Madha, Sangole, Malsiras in the Solapur district

Phaltan State

Phaltan State was one of the non-salute Maratha princely states of British India. It was under the central division of the Bombay Presidency, under the states of the Kolhapur-Deccan Residency, Satara Agency and later the Deccan States Agency. Its capitan was Phaltan town, located in present-day Maharashtra.

It had been one of the Satara Jagirs, which included Bhor, Aundh, Phaltan, Jath, Daphlapur and Akalkot. Its flag was a rectangular bicolor, orange over green.

Pune railway division

Pune railway division is one of the five railway divisions of Central Railway (India) Zone of Indian Railways located at Pune of Maharashtra state in western India. The other railway divisions are Mumbai CSTM, Nagpur, Solapur and Bhusawal. There are 71 railway stations in Pune railway division.

Sai Bhosale

Sai Bhosale (née Sai Nimbalkar) (c. 1633 – 5 September 1659) was the first wife and chief consort of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, the founder of the Maratha Empire. She was the mother of her husband's successor and the second Chhatrapati, Sambhaji.


Sakharwadi is a town and Gram Panchayat of Phaltan tehsil, Satara district, Maharashtra, India. It is situated at about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) north-east of Phaltan city and approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) north-west of Satara city.


Santoshgad (also referred to as Tathavade, the name of the closest village) is a fort in Phaltan taluka of Satara districtin Maharashtra, India

Tathavade or Santoshgad hill fort (Phaltan T; 17� 57' N, 74� 20' E; RS. Lonand, 2.9 m.) lies in the north-west corner of the Phaltan Taluka, about 12 miles south-west of Phaltan, the taluka headquarters! The fort is now easily approachable throughout the year as the Public Works Department has recently constructed a pucca road from village Tathavade lying at the foot of the hill. The fort is roughly triangular in shape. The hill on which it stands is a little lower than the main range. The apices of the triangle are north-west and south-east making it nearly equilateral. At the foot on the northern side lies the village of Tathavade (p. 1,001) with people nearly all cultivators mostly Ramoshis and Marathas. The defences consist of three walls, the top wall going all round the hill and forming what may be called the citadel. It surmounts a perpendicular scarp of black rock about thirty feet high, and is itself about fifteen feet higher. In thickness it is twenty feet and had originally a parapet about six feet high and three feet thick, all of which has broken down. It is made of laterite blocks from one or two cubic feet each, and solidly set in mortar, lined with small stones and mud. It is carefully provided at intervals with secret escape doors for the garrison should the fort be successfully taken. It is especially strong at the three angles from which project triangular outworks about sixty feet lower than the citadel. The outworks are of unequal size, but built of the same materials and more strongly even than the citadel. The sides of the south-west out-work are not more than thirty yards long but it is perhaps the most solid of the three; the sides of the north-east outwork are about fifty yards, and those of the north-west out-work about seventy yards long. The first two out-works communicated with the citadel by a small door not more than two feet wide built through the walls, which led on to the steps cut in the scarp. The citadel wall has a gap at the north-west angle which formed the communication with the north-west out-work. On the north-east side of this was the main gateway about five feet wide, also made of laterite, of beautifully cut massive masonry. It faced, and was sheltered by a projecting bastion. The north side of the hill was partly protected for about a hundred feet by two lower walls or terraces, the one below the other with bastions at intervals. They are of much lighter workmanship than the blocks in rough mortar and the lining of uncut stones and mud. These walls both run east and west along the entire length of the northern face of the hill. They then turn through an angle of over 90 degrees, and are taken up the hill to meet the walls above them. The upper of the two is broken by a gateway of trap facing east, like the upper gateway, similarly sheltered, and otherwise like it, but of far less strength and of much rougher workmanship. The lowest wall is divided by a gap of full thirty feet in the centre flanked by two strong bastions, but no gateway. The ascent between these three entrances and from the north-west out-work on to the citadel is by a winding path with steps at intervals where, not unfrequently, the naked scarp of the rock has to be surmounted. The steps are nearly everywhere broken down and the way generally blocked with prickly pear. The above description will show that the hill was unprotected below the citadel and its out-works on the south-west and south-east sides, and that elaborate care was taken to protect the north side. There seems to be no special reason for this difference except that the entrance and therefore the weakest point of the citadel was on the north side. By making the two gateways face east and protecting them with projections of the wall, their assault was impeded while it was impossible to hit them directly with cannon shot from the plain below, which, according to tradition, was a special point in the fortification of the day. In sieges it was apparently the fashion to direct a cannonade first against the gate and to provide a force to rush through if the besiegers succeeded in bursting it. The difficulties of elsewhere penetrating or escalading hill forts such as these, were probably and not wrongly thought insuperable, bribery and stratagem apart. The citadel is not more than 600 yards round and its area not much more than twenty acres. There were originally but few buildings. The headquarters or sadar was a building about fifty feet by thirty feet including its two otas or verandahs. It opened to the north and besides accommodating the treasury, was used as a sort of court-house for the subhedar in charge of the fort. Next to it on the west was a stone building about forty feet by twenty, with walls three feet thick, and a roof on the south side made of brick coated with cement. It contained three chambers for storage of grain, treasure and gunpowder. The east chamber still remains. Immediately south of the east chamber is the great pond, cut some sixty to seventy feet down into the rock, and the sides smoothed off with great care. It holds a tolerable supply of water, but is fed by no spring. It is about twenty-five to thirty feet square and has steps on the eastern side leading down to the water's edge. Halfway down at a landing and turn of the steps is a small temple of Tatoba Mahadev from whom the fort takes its name. This large pond was apparently the only source of the water-supply of the citadel. It has been much choked with silt, and is said to hold much less water than before, much probably leaking down through the laterite. The rest of the citadel is so blocked with prickly pear that no other buildings can be distinguished. The hill top has room only for very few. One is a mosque for Musalmans. The north-east out-work has some buildings while, inside the two lower walls, are others all in ruins. Outside the lowest entrance is pointed out the side of the elephant-house, fit for not more than two beasts. On the saddle back between the southern angle and the main range of hills has been cut a gap with remains of buildings said to have been the grass stacks of the fort. The grass was supplied chiefly from lands on the plateau above the Mahadev range and brought for storage to this spot. It is more than two hundred yards from the fort and is hardly convenient than the village itself which is at least as accessible as the fort. Immediately inside and directely facing the lowest entrance is a large cave pond. Its mouth has been almost wholly blocked with rubbish. A descent of some six feet is therefore necessary to reach the water. The excavation is partly natural but evidently enlarged artificially. The exact size of the cave pond cannot be made out. Three massive pillars appear supporting the roof. The rock is laterite and hence no doubt the abundant supply of excellent water filters from above. The upper fort is nearly all made of laterite with no traces of quarrying about. It seems therefore not improbable that the ponds were excavated by the fort builders and the stone used for the fort walls. There are four other similar ponds completely blocked up. Their stone and that of the big pond on the top would amply suffice for the external work considerable as it is. The mildew of this laterite is used by the people as a tonic for women after child-birth. It probably contains some principle of iron. It is a belief in the village that the large pond in the citadel and this cave pond are connected by a passage now choked up, and that a lemon thrown into the water of the one used in former times to appear on the surface of the other. These ponds show that the hill internally is made of laterite with an outer coating of trap, thin at the sides but on the top some forty feet thick.

The name of this village is traditionally derived from Tatoba, a sage who took up his abode on the fort hill. The cave pond is said to have been made by him, and the small temple of Mahadev in the big pond is named after him. The local tradition is that this fort was built by Shivaji the Great (1630–80). In 1666 it was in the hands of Bajaji Naik Nimbalkar. In the same year Chhatrapati Shivaji after the treaty of Purandhar served under Jaysing, the Rajput general of Aurangzeb's army, against Bijapur and with his Mavlas escaladed Tathavade. [Grant Duffs Marathas, Vol. I, 165.] The Bijapur Government again apparently got it back from the Moghals probably by treaty. Chhatrapati Shivaji retook it for himself in 1673 [Grant Duffs Marathas, Vol. I, 202.] and in 1676 he had to retake the open country in its neighbourhood, the estate-holders of which were always ready to rebel against him.[ Grant Duffs Marathas, Vol. I, 209.] The fort was taken by the Moghals in 1689. [Grant Duffs Marathas, Vol. I, 273.]. but was ceded to Shahu in 1720 in the imperial grants made to him in that year. [Grant Duffs Marathas, Vol. I, 339] In a revenue statement of about 1790 Tathora appears as the head of a sub-division in the Nahisdurg sarkar with a revenue of Rs. 1,120. [Warring's Marathas, 244.] The fort remained in the hands of the Marathas till 1818 when it was shelled by a detachment of General Pritzler's army from the plateau and a spur pointed out about half a mile to the west. A good many of the buildings and part of the walls are said to have been injured by the shelling. The commandant fled at the first few shots, the garrison followed, and the fort was taken. Its elaborate design and considerable strength for the times in which it was built may be explained by the fact that it was close to the Nizam Shahi frontier and of some importance therefore to the Bijapur government, while the constant disturbances in the neighbourhood in Chhatrapati Shivajis time would amply account for any additions he made to it.

A story is told that the famous dacoit Umaji Naik (1827) was resting at a spring in the ravine which leads down to the fort from the plateau and that a Brahman on his way to Tathavad passed by with a little grain given him in charity. Umaji called on him to stand and give up what he had. But when he learnt that it was only grain sent him off in peace, entreated his blessings, and gave him Rs. 25.

Satara district

Satara district is a district of Maharashtra state in western India with an area of 10,480 km² and a population of 3,003,741 of which 14.17% were urban (as of 2011). Satara is the capital of the district and other major towns include Wai, Karad, ,Koregaon, Dahiwadi, Koynanagar, Rahimatpur, Phaltan, Mahabaleshwar, Vaduj and Panchgani. This district comes under Pune Administrative Division along with Pune, Sangli, Solapur and Kolhapur. The district of Pune bounds it to the north, Raigad bounds it to the North-West, Solapur the east, Sangli to the south, and Ratnagiri to the west.The Sahyadri range, or main range of the Western Ghats, runs north and south along the western edge of the district, separating it from Ratnagiri District. The Mahadeo range starts about 10 m. north of Mahabaleshwar and stretches east and south-east across the whole of the district. The Mahadeo hills are bold, presenting bare scarps of black rock like fortresses. The Satara district is part of two main watersheds. The Bhima River watershed, which is a tributary of the Krishna, includes the north and northeast of the district, north of the Mahadeo hills. The rest of the district is drained by the upper Krishna and its tributaries. The hill forests have a large store of timber and firewood. The whole of Satara district falls within the Deccan Traps area; the hills consist of trap intersected by strata of basalt and topped with laterite, while, of the different soils on the plains, the commonest is the black loamy clay containing carbonate of lime. This soil, when well watered, is capable of yielding heavy crops. Satara contains some important irrigation works, including the Krishna canal. In some of the western parts of the district the average annual rainfall exceeds 5 m.; but on the eastern side water is scanty, the rainfall varying from 1 m in Satara town to less than 30 cm in some places farther east. The district is traversed from north to south by a railway line, which passes 15 km east of Satara town.The Mandher Devi temple in Mandhradevi, near Wai, is the Kalubai temple. Located on a hill 4,650 feet above sea level, the temple, some 20 km from Wai, overlooks the picturesque Purandhar fort. Devotees attribute miraculous properties to a grove around the shrine. Lore has it that the temple is more than 400 years old and was built during Shivaji's Maratha rule. However, no definite date on the temple's construction is available. It was the scene of a tragic stampede on 25 January 2005.

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