Phaedon Gizikis

Phaedon Gizikis (Greek: Φαίδων Γκιζίκης [ˈfeðon ɟiˈzicis]; June 16, 1917 – July 27, 1999) was a Greek army general, and the second and last President of Greece under The Junta, from 1973 to 1974.

Phaedon Gizikis
Φαίδων Γκιζίκης
Phaedon Gizikis
President of Greece
In office
25 November 1973 – 17 December 1974
Preceded byGeorgios Papadopoulos
Succeeded byMichail Stasinopoulos
Personal details
BornJune 16, 1917
Volos, Greece
DiedJuly 27, 1999 (aged 82)
Athens, Greece
NationalityGreek
Alma materHellenic Military Academy
Military service
AllegianceGreece
Branch/serviceHellenic Army
Years of service1939–1974
RankGeneral
Battles/warsGreco-Italian War
Greek Civil War
1967 Greek coup d'état

Early life and military career

Born on June 16, 1917, in Volos, Greece, Phaedon Gizikis was a career Hellenic Army officer. He graduated from the Hellenic Military Academy in 1939, achieving the rank of second lieutenant in artillery, and participated in the Greco-Italian War and the Greek Civil War. In 1967, he supported the Georgios Papadopoulos coup d'état and received a number of senior military posts during the dictatorship that followed.[1]

Later life

He was given the title of President of the Republic on 25 November 1973, after Papadopoulos was ousted by Dimitrios Ioannides as head of the regime in an internal power struggle. After the fall of the dictatorship in 1974, he retained his post for four months pro tempore, until a new constitution could be enacted during metapolitefsi; he was then replaced by Michail Stasinopoulos.

Gizikis retired from the army in 1974, on the same day he resigned from his position as head of state. In 1976, a military judicial council dropped proceedings against him and 88 other former officers charged with treason and mutiny for collaborating with the former junta.[2] He died on July 27, 1999 at the NIMTS military hospital in Athens.[3]

References

  1. ^ "Phaedon Gizikis 1917 - 1999". 2002. Retrieved November 2014. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  2. ^ Pace, Eric. "Phaidon Gizikis, '73 Greek Junta Officer, 82." The New York Times 30 July 1999
  3. ^ "Phaedon Gizikis 1917 - 1999". 2002. Retrieved November 2014. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
Political offices
Preceded by
Georgios Papadopoulos
President of Greece
25 November 1973 – 17 December 1974
Succeeded by
Michail Stasinopoulos
1968 Greek constitutional referendum

A constitutional referendum was held in Greece on 15 November 1968. Voters were asked whether they wished to ratify a new constitution prepared by the dictatorial regime. It was approved by 92.1% of voters, with a voter turnout of 77.7%.

1973 Greek republic referendum

A constitutional referendum was held in Greece on 29 July 1973. The amendments would abolish the monarchy and establish a republic. The proposal was approved by 78.6% of voters with a turnout of 75.0%. This initiated the first period of the Metapolitefsi.

1973 in Greece

The following lists events that happened during 1973 in Greece.

1974 Greek presidential election

An indirect election for the position of President of the Hellenic Republic was held by the Hellenic Parliament on 18 December 1974.

Following the restoration of democracy in Greece, the 17 November 1974 election, and the abolition of the Greek monarchy in the 8 December 1974 referendum, distinguished jurist and former president of the Council of State Michail Stasinopoulos was elected as the first, President of the Third Hellenic Republic on 18 December with 206 votes. He served as an president until July 1975, when Konstantinos Tsatsos replaced him as the first regular President with the full five-year term.

1974 Greek republic referendum

A referendum on retaining the republic was held in Greece on 8 December 1974. After the collapse of the military junta that ruled the country from 1967, the issue of the form of government remained unsolved. The Junta had already staged a plebiscite held on 29 July 1973, which resulted in the establishment of the Republic. However, after the fall of the military regime, the new government, under Constantine Karamanlis, decided to hold another one, as Junta legal acts were considered illegal. Constantine II, the former King, was banned by the new government from returning to Greece to campaign in the referendum, but the Karamanlis government allowed him to make a televised address to the nation. The proposal was approved by 69.2% of voters with a turnout of 75.6%.

1974 in Greece

The following lists events that happened during 1974 in Greece.

Anthem of the 21st of April

The Anthem of the 21st of April (Greek: Ύμνος της 21ης Απριλίου) was the anthem of the ruling military regime during the Greek military junta of 1967–74, de facto used as an unofficial co-national anthem along with the Hymn to Liberty. The anthem glorifies the "national revolution" begun by the regime, which took power with the Coup d'état of 21 April 1967.

Athens Polytechnic uprising

The Athens Polytechnic uprising occurred in November 1973 as a massive demonstration of popular rejection of the Greek military junta of 1967–1974. The uprising began on November 14, 1973, escalated to an open anti-junta revolt, and ended in bloodshed in the early morning of November 17 after a series of events starting with a tank crashing through the gates of the Polytechnic.

Dimitrios Ioannidis

Dimitrios Ioannidis (Greek: Δημήτριος Ιωαννίδης [ðimiˈtros ʝoaˈniðis]; 13 March 1923 – 16 August 2010), also known as Dimitris Ioannidis, was a Greek military officer and one of the leading figures in the Greek military junta of 1967–1974.

Greek Constitution of 1968

The Greek Constitution of 1968 (Greek: Σύνταγμα του 1968) was a largely unimplemented constitution of Greece promulgated in May 1968 by the military regime which had been ruling Greece since 21 April 1967. It was confirmed by a plebiscite in September 1968 following an intensive three-month propaganda campaign by the regime.

It retained the Greek monarchy, and envisaged a return to a parliamentary system. The parliament was to be reduced to 150 members. King Constantine II, who had been in self-imposed exile since his failed 13 December 1967 counter-coup, would be allowed to return after the first parliamentary election unless the government called him back sooner. However, the junta, headed by Prime Minister Georgios Papadopoulos, stated that elections would not be held until the "Greek mentality" had been sufficiently reformed. Most of the guarantees of civil rights were suspended until civilian rule could be restored.

The constitution explicitly reserved a regulatory role for the Greek military, which was tasked with the "maintenance of the social and political order". Further watchdogs were envisaged in the form of a constitutional court and a powerful National Security Council. In the event, as elections were never held and military rule continued, the constitution was never fully implemented. It was replaced by the Greek Constitution of 1973, again drafted by the junta, which abolished the monarchy and created a presidential republic (see Metapolitefsi).

Greek Constitution of 1973

The Greek Constitution of 1973 (Greek: Σύνταγμα του 1973) was an amended version of the Greek Constitution of 1968 (which was never fully enacted) by Greek dictator Georgios Papadopoulos, with the aim of abolishing the Greek monarchy. Papadopoulos's rewrite of the 1968 constitution replaced the terms "parliamentary monarchy" and "king" with "republican democracy" and "president of Greece". The constitution was never enacted due to Papadopoulos's failed attempt at liberalisation of his regime.

Greek Junta Trials

The Greek Junta Trials (Greek: Οι Δίκες της Χούντας translated as: The Τrials of the Junta) were the trials involving members of the military junta that ruled Greece from 21 April 1967 to 23 July 1974. These trials involved the instigators of the coup as well as other junta members of various ranks who took part in the events of the Athens Polytechnic uprising and in the torture of citizens.

The military coup leaders were formally arrested during the metapolitefsi period that followed the junta, and in early August 1975 the government of Konstantinos Karamanlis brought charges of high treason and insurrection against Georgios Papadopoulos and other co-conspirators. The mass trial, described as "Greece's Nuremberg" and known as "The Trial of the Instigators", was staged at the Korydallos Prison amidst heavy security.The principal leaders of the 1967 coup, Georgios Papadopoulos, Stylianos Pattakos and Nikolaos Makarezos, were sentenced to death for high treason, following the trial. Shortly after the sentences were pronounced, they were commuted to life imprisonment by the Karamanlis government.

The trial of the instigators was followed by a second trial which investigated the events surrounding the Athens Polytechnic uprising known as "The Trial of the Polytechnic" and, finally, a series of trials involving incidents of torture known in Greece as "The Trials of the Torturers".Journalist and author Leslie Finer, who was expelled by the junta from Greece in 1968, reporting in 1975 on the trials for New Society wrote: "The trial of 20 ringleaders of the 1967 coup is a test of democratic justice. Among its other functions, this is a mode of exorcism and education." The trials exposed the pettiness, conspiracies, corruption, and incompetence, within the regime, and served to demystify it, and with it, destroy the myth of the junta strongman. The corruption, which came to light during the trials, was so widespread that it surprised even the military. The details of torture of senior officers by their subordinates, revealed during the trials, offended the career officer class. The invasion of Cyprus was the final straw which led to the military withdrawing its support for the junta and abandoning any notion of supporting any military men acting as politicians.

Greek military junta of 1967–1974

The Greek military junta of 1967–1974, commonly known as the Regime of the Colonels (Greek: καθεστώς των Συνταγματαρχών, kathestós ton Syntagmatarchón [kaθesˈtos ton sinˈdaɣ.matarˈxon]), or in Greece simply The Junta ( or ; Greek: Χούντα, translit. Choúnta [ˈxunda]), The Dictatorship (Η Δικτατορία, I Diktatoría) and The Seven Years (Η Επταετία, I Eptaetía), was a series of far-right military juntas that ruled Greece following the 1967 Greek coup d'état led by a group of colonels on 21 April 1967. The dictatorship ended on 24 July 1974 under the pressure of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. The fall of the junta was followed by the Metapolitefsi ("regime change"), and the establishment of the current Third Hellenic Republic.

List of Presidents of Greece by longevity

This is a list of the Presidents of Greece since 1924, in order of longevity. There are currently twelve Presidents on the list and three living Presidents. The list is in descending order and is correct as of 14 February 2019. The oldest president is Michail Stasinopoulos (1903–2002), who died at the age of 99 years, 96 days. The oldest living president is Christos Sartzetakis. He is currently 89 years, 314 days old and has held the title of oldest living president of Greece since 31 October 2002.

To account for the different number of leap days within the life of each president, two measure of longevity are given. The first is the number of whole years the president lived, and the number of days past their last birthday. The second list the total number of days lived by the president, accounting for differing numbers of leap years within the lifespans of different presidents.

Michail Stasinopoulos

Michail Stasinopoulos (Greek: Μιχαήλ Στασινόπουλος; 27 July 1903 – 31 October 2002) was a Greek jurist. He served as President of Greece

between 18 December 1974 and 19 July 1975.

Odysseas Angelis

Odysseas Angelis (Greek: Οδυσσέας Αγγελής, 1912–1987) was a Greek military officer, who served as head of the Greek military during the Greek military junta of 1967–1974, and was selected by junta principal Georgios Papadopoulos as vice president of the junta-proclaimed republic in 1973. He was deposed along with Papadopoulos by junta hardliners in November 1973, and sentenced to 20 years imprisonment for high treason in the Greek Junta Trials in 1975.

Panagiotis Kanellopoulos

Panagiotis Kanellopoulos or Panayotis Kanellopoulos (Greek: Παναγιώτης Κανελλόπουλος; Patras, Achaea, 13 December 1902 – Athens, 11 September 1986) was a Greek author, politician and Prime Minister of Greece. He was the Prime Minister of Greece deposed by the Greek military junta of 1967-1974.

Phaedon (name)

Phaedon (Greek: Φαίδων) is a Greek given name. It can also be transliterated as Phaedo, Fedon, or Faidon.

The meaning of Phaedon comes from the Greek words "φαι>φη>φως" which means "light" and "διδοναι>δων" which means "giving". Free translated as "He who gives the light"

Notable people with the name include:

Phaedo of Elis (4th century BC), ancient Greek philosopher

Phaedon Gizikis (1917–1999), Greek general who was President of Greece from 1973 to 1974

Faidon Matheou (1924–2011), Greek rower, basketball coach, and basketball player

Phaedon Avouris (born 1945), Greek chemical physicist

President of Greece

The President of the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Πρόεδρος της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας, Próedros ti̱s Elli̱nikí̱s Di̱mokratías), colloquially referred to in English as the President of Greece, is the head of state of Greece. The President is elected by the Hellenic Parliament, and his role is mostly ceremonial since the 1986 constitutional reform. The office was formally established by the Constitution of Greece in 1975, but has antecedents in the Second Hellenic Republic of 1924–1935 and the republic established by the Greek military junta in 1973–1974. The incumbent, since 2015, is Prokopis Pavlopoulos, serving his first term in office.

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