Phạm Văn Đồng

Phạm Văn Đồng (listen; 1 March 1906 – 29 April 2000) was a Vietnamese politician who served as Prime Minister of North Vietnam from 1955 to 1976 and, following unification, as Prime Minister of Vietnam from 1976 until he retired in 1987 under the rule of Lê Duẩn and Nguyễn Văn Linh.[1] He was considered one of Hồ Chí Minh's closest lieutenants.[2]

Phạm Văn Đồng
Phạm Văn Đồng 1972
Phạm Văn Đồng in 1972
Chairman of the Council of Ministers
In office
2 July 1976 – 18 June 1987
Preceded byPost established
Succeeded byPhạm Hùng
Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
In office
20 September 1955 – 2 July 1976
Preceded byHồ Chí Minh
Succeeded byPost abolished
Deputy Prime Minister of Vietnam
In office
25 June 1947 – 20 September 1955
Member of the Politburo
In office
1951–1987
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
April 1954 – February 1961
Minister of Finance
In office
16 August 1945 – March 1946
Personal details
Born1 March 1906
Đức Tân village, Mộ Đức district, in Quảng Ngãi Province, Indochina
Died29 April 2000 (aged 94)
Hanoi, Vietnam
NationalityVietnamese
Political partyFlag of the Communist Party of Vietnam.svg Communist Party of Vietnam
AwardsVietnam Gold Star ribbon.png Gold Star Order

Early life

According to an official report, Dong was born into a family of civil servants in Đức Tân village, Mộ Đức district, in Quảng Ngãi Province on the central coast on 1 March 1906.

In 1925 at the age of 18, he joined fellow students to stage a school sit-in to mourn the death of the famous patriotic scholar Phan Chu Trinh. About this time he developed an interest in the Communist party and in the unification of Vietnam. In 1926, he traveled to Guangzhou in southern China to attend a training course run by Nguyen Ai Quoc (later to be known as Ho Chi Minh), before being admitted as a member of the Vietnam Revolutionary Youth Association, the predecessor of the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV).

In 1929, he worked for the revolutionary association in Saigon. In the same year, he was arrested, tried by the French colonial authorities and sentenced to ten years in prison. He served the term in Poulo Condor Island Prison until 1936 when he was released under the general amnesty granted by the government of the Popular Front in France after its recent electoral successes.

In 1936, he was released from prison, operating in Hanoi. In 1940, he secretly went to China with Võ Nguyên Giáp, joined the Indochinese Communist Party and was tasked by Ho Chi Minh to build a base at the Vietnam-China border.

In 1945, at the National People's Congress of Tân Trào, he was elected to the Standing Committee of 5 members of the National Committee for the Liberation, preparing for the August Revolution.

First Indochina War

Phạm Văn Đồng joined the Indochinese Communist Party in 1940 and then continued to take part in activities led by Ho Chi Minh. After Ho Chi Minh rose to power during the August Revolution in 1945, Phạm Văn Đồng was appointed minister of finance of the newly established government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV), a position he occupied until 1954. Before he assumed the position of Minister of Finance, On May 31, 1946, he was the head of the delegation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam at Fontainebleau (France) instead of Nguyễn Tường Tam who did not undertake the task, seeking an independent solution for Indochina. However, the conference failed because France did not give a definite answer to the deadline for the referendum in Cochinchina.

The first Indochina War erupted and Phạm Văn Đồng was appointed as the Special Envoy of the Central Committee of the Party and Government in South Central Vietnam. In 1947, he was elected as alternate member of the Central Committee of Indochinese Communist Party (official commissioner since 1949). From July 1949, he was appointed Deputy Prime Minister.[3]

In 1954, Phạm Văn Đồng was appointed Head of the Government delegation to the Geneva Conference on Indochina. The contribution of the Vietnamese delegation led by him was extremely important, creating breakthroughs that brought the Conference to success. Throughout the 8 plenary sessions and 23 very tense and complex sessions, with the spirit of initiative and efforts of the Vietnamese delegation, on July 20, 1954, the agreement was suspended in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos have been recognized for respecting the independence and sovereignty of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.

In September 1954, Phạm Văn Đồng served as Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Head of Foreign Affairs of the Central Party. From September 1955 he was the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and since 1976 has been the Prime Minister of Vietnam, the Vice President of the National Defense Council until his retirement in 1987. He was a member of the National Assembly from 1946 to 1987.

Following the defeat of Japan, nationalist forces fought French colonial forces in the First Indochina War that lasted from 1945 to 1954. The French suffered a major defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 and peace was sought. In May 1954, he led the delegation of the Ho Chi Minh government to the Geneva Conference. After intense negotiations a peace treaty was signed and the French forces withdrew from direct conflict with the newly-independent North Vietnam. He signed the peace accords with French Premier Pierre Mendès France.

Second Indochinese War

During 1954 he served as Vice-Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs. At the 5th session of the DRV First National Assembly convocation (1955), Dong was appointed as Prime Minister. He is well known for being one of the leaders of North Vietnam during the war with the United States. He was known to have close links with the Chinese government, which helped fund the conflict with South Vietnam. He was also one of the figures involved in peace talks to end the conflict under the administrations of Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard Nixon.

Later life

In general, Phạm Văn Đồng was considered a staunch communist and a great nationalist leader, one of the most faithful disciples of Ho Chi Minh and a major figure in Vietnam's fight for independence and unity. He was known as a politician who tried to maintain a neutral position in the various conflicts within the party, particularly after the establishment of the Vietnamese Socialist Republic in 1976.

Although retired from public office, he served as an Adviser to the Party Central Committee from December 1986 to 1997. He often urged the party to make greater efforts to stop corruption, which is still a widespread problem in Vietnam today. He gave advice on similar issues, even after his term as an adviser to the Central Committee had ended.

As he became older, his vision deteriorated, and he was blind for the last 10 years of his life. After several months of illness, he died in Hanoi on 29 April 2000, at the age of 94. His death was announced by the Vietnamese Communist Party and the Vietnamese government a week later on 2 May. Commemoration and funeral services were held on 6 May 2000, in Hanoi.

References

  1. ^ Ronald B. Frankum Jr. (2011) "Phạm Văn Đồng", p. 141 in Historical Dictionary of the War in Vietnam. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810867966
  2. ^ David G. Marr (2013) Vietnam: State, War, and Revolution (1945–1946) University of California Press 0520954971. p. 166: "Replacing him with Phạm Văn Đồng, probably Hồ Chí Minh's closest lieutenant, would help to ensure that the ongoing struggle in south-central Vietnam served national strategic interests."
  3. ^ "trang 109, cuốn Phạm Văn Đồng Tiểu sử".
Preceded by
Ho Chi Minh
Prime Minister of North Vietnam
1955–1976
Succeeded by
Himself as Prime Minister of Vietnam
Preceded by
Vũ Văn Mẫu – Prime Minister of South Vietnam and Nguyễn Hữu Thọ – Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam and himself as Prime Minister of North Vietnam
Prime Minister of Vietnam

Vietnam
1976–87

Succeeded by
Phạm Hùng
Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam

The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Ban Chấp hành Trung ương Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam) established 1930, is the highest authority within the Communist Party of Vietnam elected by the Party National Congresses. The current Central Committee has about 175 full members and 25 alternate members and nominally appoints the Politburo of the Communist Party of Vietnam.

Chu Văn An High School (Hanoi)

Chu Van An High School (Vietnamese: Trường Trung học phổ thông Quốc gia Chu Văn An), also known as Chu Van An National School or Pomelo School (trường Bưởi, before 1945) one of the three national high schools for the gifted in Vietnam along with Le Hong Phong High School in Ho Chi Minh City and Quoc Hoc High School in Huế. It is also one of the three magnet high schools in Hanoi, Vietnam, along with Hanoi-Amsterdam High School and Nguyen Hue High School. Established by French authorities in 1908 as High School of the Protectorate (French: Lycée du Protectorat), this is one of the oldest institutions for secondary education in Indochina. Despite the initial purpose of the French government for this school which was training native civil servant to serve in their colonial establishments, Vietnamese students at Bưởi school, common name of the school, had many times struggled against colonial doctrine and the ruling power. With that patriotic and hard-working traditions, a lot of Bưởi alumni became renowned figures in many areas of Vietnamese society such as Prime Minister Phạm Văn Đồng, doctor Tôn Thất Tùng or poet Xuân Diệu.

In 1945, Bưởi school was renamed Chu Van An High School and continued to keep its tradition in education and patriotism.

Cầu Giấy District

Cầu Giấy (lit. Paper Bridge) is an urban district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. The district is named after the historic bridge where the famous 19th-century Battle of Cầu Giấy (Paper Bridge) was fought.

Many new urban developments are located in Cau Giay. Among them, Trung Hoà - Nhân Chính is emerging as the new city's commercial center. It lies partly in the southern part of the district (Trung Hoà ward). The massive Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower, the tallest building in Vietnam, is also located in this area.

Deputy Prime Minister of Vietnam

The Deputy Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Phó Thủ tướng Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam), known as Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Vietnamese: Phó Chủ tịch Hội đồng Bộ trưởng) from 1981 to 1992, is one of the highest offices within the Central Government. The deputy prime minister has throughout its history been responsible for helping the prime minister to handle Vietnam's internal policies. Since Vietnam is a one-party state, with the Communist Party of Vietnam being the sole party allowed by the constitution, all the deputy prime ministers of the Democratic Republic and the Socialist Republic have been members of the party while holding office. There are currently five deputy prime ministers; Trương Hòa Bình, Phạm Bình Minh, Vũ Đức Đam, Vương Đình Huệ, and Trịnh Đình Dũng.

The Permanent Deputy Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, known as The First Deputy Prime Minister (Vietnamese: Phó Thủ tướng Thường trực Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam), is a member of the Central Government and a member of the Politburo. The Permanent Deputy Prime Minister (1st) is elected and determined by the Prime Minister.

Le Travail movement

The Le Travail movement was an anti-French-colonialism movement led by the intellectuals of Vietnam in 1936 by means of Le Travail (French: [lə tʁavaj], Labor) newspaper. The movement lasted only seven months, from September 1936 to April 1937. However, many participants of this movement went on to fulfil their historical oaths.

List of Légion d'honneur recipients by name (D)

The following is a list of some notable Légion d'honneur recipients by name. The Légion d'honneur is the highest order of France. A complete, chronological list of the members of the Legion of Honour nominated from the very first ceremony in 1803 to now does not exist. The number is estimated at one million including about 3,000 Grand Cross.

Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie (1810–1897) French explorer, geographer, and astronomer

William G. Dabney American soldier

Leon Dabo (1865–1960), American painter

Jan Henryk Dąbrowski

Stefan Dąb-Biernacki

Artin Dadyan Paşa (1830–1901), Ministre of Foreign affairs of Ottoman

Saro Dadyan Turkish Ottoman Historian

Edouard Daladier (1884–1970), Prime Minister of France

Salvador Dalí

Ahmad Hasan Dani (b. 1920), Pakistani archaeologist

Barney Danson (b. 1921), Canadian World War II veteran, former Minister of Defense

Robert Darnton (b. 1939), American cultural historian

Robert Darnton (b. 1939), American cultural historian

André Darrigade, cyclist

Raymond Daudel (1920–2006), French chemist

Madeleine Hamm Dautartas

Paul Davenport

Walter J. Davey (1897–2001), British World War I Veteran for service in France

Athanase David

Michel David-Weill

Miles Davis

Michael S. Davison

Louis Nicolas Davout (1770–1823), Marshal of France

Marcel Déat

Francois Debat (1785–1861)

Alma de Bretteville Spreckels

André Debry

Clara Longworth de Chambrun

George W. Deckard (1896–2001), American World War I veteran

Odile Decq (b. 1955), architect

Reza Deghati (b. 1952), Iranian-French photojournalist.

Simone Del Duca

Cino Del Duca

Percival Alfred Delafield (1897–1999) UK recipient. Royal Engineers.

Léon Delagrange, (1873–1910), French aviator

Sonia Delaunay

Alain Delon

Eugène Deloncle

Mimi Denisi (Μιμή Ντενίση), Greek actress

Gérard Depardieu

William E. DePuy

Georges Descrières

Catherine Destivelle

Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe

Gabriel Devéria (1844–1899)

Louis Dewis

Harry DeWolf

Douglas Dickerson, World War II 82nd Airborne Veteran

Joseph T. Dickman

William Didier-Pouget, (1864–1959) French artist, named Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur in 1901, Officier de la Legion d'Honneur in 1933

Laure Diebold

Marlene Dietrich

Céline Dion

Jacques Diouf

Walt Disney, American animator and filmmaker

Abdelkader El Djezairi

Do Cao Tri (1923–1971), General in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN)

Douglas Dodds-Parker

Robert Doisneau (1912–1994), photographer

Arnold Dolmetsch

Arielle Dombasle (b. 1953), French actress, singer, producer

Phạm Văn Đồng (ARVN general) (1919–2008), General of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Vietnam

Kees van Dongen

Francis Patrick Donovan

William J. Donovan (1883–1959), American World War I veteran

Gustave Doret

Henri Lucien Doucet, French painter

Kirk Douglas, American actor

Henry Doulton

Mahmoud Dowlatabadi, Iranian writer

Wayne A. Downing

Jacques Drabier, pilot in the Free French Air Force during the Nazi Occupation

Normand Drapeau, U.S. WWII veteran

Alfred Dreyfus

Louis Auguste Dubuisson

Marcel Louis Célestin Dubuisson

Gustave Duchesne de Bellecourt

Gustave Duclos

René Ducourtieux (1924-2013), French NCO Army (1944–1962)

Francis P. Duffy

Margot Duhalde

Guy Duhoux Legion

Alexandre Dumas, fils

Dr. Allen B. Du Mont

François Joseph Dumont (1918-1997), Free French Air Force

Jules Dumont d'Urville

Richard Saunders Dundas

John Dunmore (b. 1923) New Zealand historian

Anny Duperey

Charles-Edmond Duponchel (1804-last mention 1860) for military service to France

Charles François Dupuis

Durga Charan Rakshit – India

Charles Durning (1923–2012)

Bob Dylan, U.S. recording artist

List of Prime Ministers of Vietnam

The Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Thủ tướng Chính phủ nước Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam), known as Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch Hội đồng Bộ trưởng) from 1981 to 1992, is the highest office within the Central Government. The prime minister is simultaneously the Secretary of the Government Caucus Commission, a Party organ on government affairs, and Deputy Chairman of the Council for Defence and Security, an organ of the National Assembly. Throughout its history, the office has been responsible, at least in theory but not always in practice, for handling Vietnam's internal policies. Since Vietnam is a one-party state, with the Communist Party of Vietnam being the sole party allowed by the constitution, all the prime ministers of the Democratic Republic and the Socialist Republic have been members of the party while holding office. The current prime minister is Nguyễn Xuân Phúc, since 7 April 2016. He is sixth-ranked in the Political Bureau (Politburo).[note 1]The Office of the Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic traces its lineage back to Hồ Chí Minh, the first Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic. The office has no official connection, or lineage, to the heads of government of the former South Vietnam (with the exception of Huỳnh Tấn Phát, a communist and the last head of government of South Vietnam). Officially there have been 8 prime ministers of Vietnam, but there have been 29 prime ministers of Vietnam if the prime ministers of the Empire of Vietnam and South Vietnam are counted.The Prime Minister is elected by the proposal of the President of Vietnam to the National Assembly and is responsible to the National Assembly, which elects all ministers to government. Activity reports by the Prime Minister must be given to the National Assembly, while the Standing Committee of the National Assembly supervises the activities of the Central Government and the Prime Minister. Finally, the deputies of the National Assembly have the right to question the Prime Minister and other members of government.

List of ambassadors of China to Vietnam

The Chinese ambassador in Hanoi is the official representative of the government in Beijing to the government of Vietnam.

List of ambassadors of Vietnam to China

The Vietnamese ambassador in Beijing is the official representative of the Government in Hanoi to the Government of the People's Republic of China.

List of central officeholders in the Communist Party of Vietnam

List of important leaders of the Communist Party of Vietnam and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Mexico–Vietnam relations

Mexico–Vietnam relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Mexico and Vietnam. Both nations are members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Forum of East Asia-Latin America Cooperation and the United Nations.

Minister of Defence (Vietnam)

The Minister of Defence is the Government of Vietnam member in charge of the Ministry of Defence. The Minister of Defence directs the management functions of state for defense; responsible organization, construction, management and the highest commander of the Vietnam People's Army and Militia. Moreover, the Minister of Defence is the Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission, a Member of the Politburo and Member of Council for National Defense and Security. The current Vietnamese Minister of Defence is 4 star Army General Ngô Xuân Lịch, since 9 April 2016.

National Economics University

National Economics University (NEU) (Vietnamese: Đại học Kinh tế Quốc dân) is a reputable public research university in Hanoi, Vietnam. Founded in 1956, its history and influence have made it one of the leading universities in Economics, Public Administration and Business Administration in Vietnam. The former Prime Minister of Vietnam, Phạm Văn Đồng, was the honorary president of the university when it was established.NEU is now chairing a network of more than 40 universities in Vietnam in economics and business administration. It is also a prestigious research and consultation center with its publications and consulting works to the government of Vietnam on policy making and to the business community on business development.Since its establishment, NEU has paid special attention to developing international academic cooperation. It has formed partnership relationship with over 100 institutions and organizations from 30 countries, including Australia, Belgium, Cambodia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Japan, Laos, Netherlands, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The university has been involved in research projects in cooperation with large governmental organizations and international financial institutions such as the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the Foundation of Vietnam Development Forum (VDF), the National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS), the World Bank (WB), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Department for International Development (DFID - UK), and Ausaid (Australia).Many of the university's alumni have a strong track record of success and hold important positions in public and private sectors. The current Prime Minister of Vietnam, Nguyễn Xuân Phúc, is an alumni.

Phạm

Phạm is the fourth most common Vietnamese family name.

Phạm Hùng

Phạm Hùng (June 11, 1912 – March 10, 1988) was a Vietnamese politician and the 2nd Prime Minister of the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam from 1987 to 1988.

Phạm Văn Đổng

Phạm Văn Đổng (listen; 1919–2008) was a South Vietnamese general. In 1965, as military governor of Saigon, he had successfully repressed Buddhist mobs instigated by Thích Trí Quang of the Ấn Quang group and Thích Tâm Châu of Việt Nam Quốc Tự. With his commanding skills and knowledge, Đổng was regarded highly by American and French officers, and well respected by many ARVN officers. A staunch nationalist and anti-communist, he was considered an ally to the labor union, the Northern Catholics, several Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng (Việt Quốc) factions, multiple Đại Việt groups, Việt Nam Cách Mạng Đồng Minh Hội (Việt Cách) high-ranking members, Duy Dân and Hòa Hảo leaders.

South China Sea Islands

The South China Sea Islands consist of over 250 islands, atolls, cays, shoals, reefs, and sandbars in the South China Sea, none of which have indigenous people, few of which have any natural water supply, many of which are naturally under water at high tide, while others are permanently submerged.

Thích Huyền Quang

Thích Huyền Quang (19 September 1919 – 5 July 2008) was a Vietnamese Buddhist monk, dissident and activist. At the time, he was the Patriarch of the Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam, a currently banned organisation in his homeland. He was notable for his activism for human and religious rights in Vietnam.

In 1977, Quang wrote a letter to then-Prime Minister Phạm Văn Đồng detailing counts of oppression by the communist regime. For this, he and five other senior monks were arrested and detained. In 1982, he was arrested and put on permanent house arrest for opposition to governmental policy after publicly denouncing the establishment of the state-controlled Vietnam Buddhist Church.In 2002, he was awarded the Homo Homini Award for his human rights activism by the Czech group People in Need, which he shared with Thích Quảng Độ and Father Nguyễn Văn Lý.

Việt Minh

Việt Minh (Vietnamese: [vîət mīŋ̟] (listen); abbreviated from Việt Nam độc lập đồng minh, French: "Ligue pour l'indépendance du Viêt Nam", English: "League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on May 19, 1941. The Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội had previously formed in Nanjing, China, at some point between August 1935 and early 1936 when Vietnamese Nationalist or other Vietnamese nationalist parties formed an anti-imperialist united front. This organization soon lapsed into inactivity, only to be revived by the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP) and Hồ Chí Minh in 1941. The Việt Minh established itself as the only organized anti-French and anti-Japanese resistance group. The Việt Minh initially formed to seek independence for Vietnam from the French Empire. The United States supported France. When the Japanese occupation began, the Việt Minh opposed Japan with support from the United States and the Republic of China. After World War II, the Việt Minh opposed the re-occupation of Vietnam by France and later opposed South Vietnam and the United States in the Vietnam War.

The political leader and founder of Việt Minh was Hồ Chí Minh. The military leadership was under the command of Võ Nguyên Giáp. Other founders were Lê Duẩn and Phạm Văn Đồng.

The Việt Minh was considered by the Communist Party of Vietnam as a form of national independence front in Vietnam, it was also known as the Việt Minh's Independent Allied Front, Việt Minh Front.

Empire of Vietnam (1945)
Republic of Cochinchina (1946–49)
Provisional Central Government of Vietnam
(1948–49)
State of Vietnam (1949–55)
Republic of Vietnam (1955–75)
Democratic Republic of Vietnam (1945–76)
Republic of South Vietnam (1975–76)
Socialist Republic of Vietnam (1976–)

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