The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world. It also conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis, and other empirical social science research. The Pew Research Center does not take policy positions, and is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts.
|Pew Research Center|
|Chairman||Michael X. Delli Carpini|
(FYE June 2016)
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In 1990, the Times Mirror Company founded the Times Mirror Center for the People & the Press as a research project, tasked with conducting polls on politics and policy. Andrew Kohut became its director in 1993, and The Pew Charitable Trusts became its primary sponsor in 1996, when it was renamed the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press.
In 2004, the trust established the Pew Research Center in Washington, D.C. In 2013, Kohut stepped down as president and became founding director, and Alan Murray became the second president of the center. In October 2014, Michael Dimock, a 14-year veteran of the Pew Research Center, was named president.
The Pew Research Center is a nonprofit, tax-exempt 501(c)(3) organization and a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder. For its studies focusing on demographics of religions in the world, the Pew Research Center has been jointly funded by the Templeton Foundation.
The Center's research is divided into nine areas:
This effort is part of the Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures project, which analyzes religious change and its impact on societies around the world. The project is jointly and generously funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts and the John Templeton Foundation
Growth of religion is the spread of religions and the increase of religious adherents around the world. The statistics are commonly measured by the absolute number of adherents, the percentage of the absolute growth per year, and the growth of the number of converts in the world. Projections of future religious adherence are based on assumptions that trends, total fertility rates, life expectancy, political climate, conversion rates, secularization, etc will continue. Such forecasts cannot be validated empirically and are contentious, but are useful for comparison.Studies in the 21st century show that, in terms of percentage and worldwide spread, Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. A religious forecast for 2050 by Pew Research Center concludes that global Muslim population is expected to grow at a faster rate than the non-Muslim population due primarily to the young age and high fertility rate of Muslims. Religious conversion has little impact on Muslim population because the number of people who convert to Islam is nearly offset by those who leave Islam.Islam by country
Adherents of Islam constitute the world's second largest religious group. According to a study in 2015, Islam has 1.8 billion adherents, making up about 24.1% of the world population. Most Muslims are either of two denominations: Sunni (80–90%, roughly 1.5 billion people) or Shia (10–20%, roughly 170–340 million people). Islam is the dominant religion in Central Asia, Indonesia, Middle East, North Africa, the Sahel and some other parts of Asia. The diverse Asia-Pacific region contains the highest number of Muslims in the world, easily surpassing the Middle East and North Africa.South Asia contains the largest population of Muslims in the world. One-third of all Muslims are of South Asian origin. Islam is the largest religion in the Maldives, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, and second-largest in India.
The various Hamito-Semitic (including Arab, Berber), Turkic, and Iranic countries of the greater Middle East-North Africa (MENA) region, where Islam is the dominant religion in all countries other than Israel, hosts 23% of world Muslims.
The country with the single largest population of Muslims is Indonesia in Southeast Asia, which on its own hosts 13% of the world's Muslims. Together, the Muslims in the countries of Southeast Asia constitute the world's third-largest population of Muslims. In the countries of the Malay Archipelago Muslims are majorities in each country other than the Philippines, Singapore, and East Timor.
About 15% of Muslims reside in Sub-Saharan Africa, and sizeable Muslim communities are also found in the Americas, China, Russia, and Europe.Western Europe hosts many Muslim immigrant communities where Islam is the second-largest religion after Christianity, where it represents 6% of the total population or 24 million people. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world.Islam in Bhutan
According to adherents.com Muslims constitute over 5% of the population However the CIA factbook claims that Muslims are less than 1% in Bhutan. In 2009, the Pew Research Center estimated that 1% of the population, or 7,000 people, were Muslims.Islam in Gibraltar
According to a 2009 Pew Research Center report, there are 1,000 Muslims in Gibraltar who constitute approximately 4% of the population.Islam in Liechtenstein
According to a 2009 Pew Research Center report, there are an estimated 2,000 Muslims living in Liechtenstein who constitute approximately 4.8% of the general population (though that report is based on a census from the year 2000). A more recent estimate, as of July 2017, puts the number of Muslims at 5.4% of the population. The great majority of Muslims in Liechtenstein are Sunni, and are predominantly from Turkey, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia. The reports however, do no list whether the Muslims are citizens or expatriates.
In 2006, the government made a contribution of US$20,000 (25,000 Swiss francs) to the Muslim community.Since 2001, the government has granted the Muslim community a residency permit for one imam, plus one short-term residency permit for an additional imam during Ramadan. The government follows a policy of routinely granting visas to the imams in exchange for the agreement of both the Turkish Association and the Islamic community to prevent religious diatribes by the imams or the spread of religious extremism.Islam in Saint Kitts and Nevis
According to a 2009 Pew Research Center report, Muslims constitute approximately 0.1% of the population in Saint Kitts and Nevis. The islands are home to two Islamic centres/mosques and several Islamic organisations. Muslim Student Organisations are also present in the local universities like the Windsor University School of Medicine.Islam in Saint Lucia
According to a 2009 Pew Research Center report, Muslims constitute approximately 0.1% of the population in Saint Lucia.Islam in South Sudan
Islam is a minority religion in South Sudan. Most Muslims welcomed secession in the South Sudanese independence referendum. The last census to mention the religion of southerners dates back to 1956 where a majority were classified as following traditional beliefs or were Christian while 18% were Muslim. The most recent Pew Research Center on Religion and Public Life report from December 2012 estimated that in 2010, there were 610,000 Muslims in South Sudan, comprising 6.2% of the country's population.Islam in Tanzania
Islam one of the 2 major religions in Tanzania. There are no reliable statistics, figures claimed vary between 35% and 55% of the people of Tanzania. On the mainland, Muslim communities are concentrated in coastal areas, with some large Muslim majorities also in inland urban areas especially and along the former caravan routes. More than 99% of the population of the Zanzibar archipelago is Muslim. The majority of Muslims in Tanzania are Sunni of Shafi school of jurisprudence, with unusually significant Shia and Ahmadi minorities in sub-Saharan Africa. According to Pew research center, two-thirds of the Muslim population of Tanzania is Sunni, while the rest is either Shia (20%) or Ahmadi (15%).Islam in Tonga
Islam in Tonga is a small minority religion in the country. Muslims in Tonga belong to Sunni denomination. The number of Muslims was estimated at less than 1000 in 2010 by the Pew Research Center in a population of about 108,000, while a report by the Fiji Muslim League estimated that in 2002 there were about 70 Muslim Tongan nationals out of a Muslim population of 100.Islam in the Northern Mariana Islands
According to a 2009 Pew Research Center report, there are 1,000 Muslims in Northern Mariana Islands who constitute approximately 0.7% of the population.Level of support for evolution
The level of support for evolution among scientists, the public and other groups is a topic that frequently arises in the creation-evolution controversy and touches on educational, religious, philosophical, scientific and political issues. The subject is especially contentious in countries where significant levels of non-acceptance of evolution by general society exist although evolution is taught at school and university.
Nearly all (around 97%) of the scientific community accepts evolution as the dominant scientific theory of biological diversity. Scientific associations have strongly rebutted and refuted the challenges to evolution proposed by intelligent design proponents.There are religious sects and denominations in several countries for whom the theory of evolution is in conflict with creationism that is central to their beliefs, and who therefore reject it: in the United States, South Africa, India, South Korea, Singapore, the Philippines, and Brazil, with smaller followings in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Japan, Italy, Germany, Israel, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada.Several publications discuss the subject of acceptance, including a document produced by the United States National Academy of Sciences.List of countries by smartphone penetration
This is a list of countries by smartphone penetration in 2018. These numbers come from Statista's Smartphone penetration rate as share of connections in Pakistan and Newzoo's Global Mobile Market Report 2018 (the numbers were last updated in May 2018) and are based on a model which takes into account a country’s economic progression, demography, online population, and inequality.Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation founded in 1969 has 57 members, 56 of which are also member states of the United Nations with 47 countries being Muslim majority countries. Some, especially in West Africa, are – though with large Muslim populations – not necessarily Muslim majority countries. A few countries with significant Muslim populations, such as Russia and Thailand, sit as Observer States, while others, such as India and Ethiopia, are not members.
The collective population of OIC member states is over 1.6 billion as of 2011.Millennials
Millennials, also known as Generation Y or Gen Y, are the demographic cohort following Generation X and preceding Generation Z. There are no precise dates for when this cohort starts or ends; demographers and researchers typically use the early 1980s as starting birth years and the mid-1990s to early 2000s as ending birth years. Millennials are sometimes referred to as "echo boomers" due to a major surge in birth rates in the 1980s and 1990s, and because millennials are often the children of the baby boomers. Although millennial characteristics vary by region, depending on social and economic conditions, the generation has been generally marked by an increased use and familiarity with communications, media and digital technologies.Political ideologies in the United States
Political ideologies in the United States refers to the various ideologies and ideological demographics in the United States. Citizens in the United States generally classify themselves as adherent to positions along the political spectrum as either liberal, progressive, moderate, or conservative. Modern American liberalism aims at the preservation and extension of human, social and civil rights as well as the government guaranteed provision of positive rights. It combines social progressivism and to some extent ordoliberalism and is highly similar to European social liberalism. American conservatism commonly refers to a combination of economic liberalism and libertarianism and social conservatism. It aims at protecting the concepts of small government and individual liberty while promoting traditional values on some social issues.
The ideological position a person or party takes may be explained in terms of social and economic policy. The ideological positions a person assumes on social and economic policy issues may differ in their position on the political spectrum. For example, Milton Friedman, was left-of-center on social issues, but right-of-center on fiscal matters and thus is often identified as libertarian. Several ideological demographics may be identified in addition to or as subgroups of liberals and conservatives, with nearly every possible ideology being found in the general population. In the United States, the major parties overlap heavily in terms of ideology, with the Democrats more to the left and the Republicans more to the right. Social scientists Theodore Caplow et al. argue that "the Democratic party, nationally, moved from left-center toward the center in the 1940s and 1950s, then moved further toward the right-center in the 1970s and 1980s". Small parties such as the Libertarian Party play a minor role in American politics.
The size of ideological groups varies slightly depending on the poll. Gallup/USA Today polling in June 2010 revealed that 42% of those surveyed identify as conservative, 35% as moderate and 20% as liberal. In another polling in June 2010, 40% of American voters identify themselves as conservatives, 36% as moderates and 22% as liberals, with a strong majority of both liberals and conservatives describing themselves as closer to the center than to the extremes. As of 2013, self-identified conservatives stand at 38%, moderates at 34% and liberals at 23%.In a 2005 study, the Pew Research Center identified nine typological groups. Three groups were identified as part of each, "The Left", "The Political Middle" and "The Right". In this categorization system, the right roughly represents the Republican base, those on the left the Democratic base and those in the middle independents. Within the left are the largely secular and anti-war "Liberals", the socially conservative yet economically left "Conservative Democrats" and the economically "Disadvantaged Democrats" who favor extended government assistance to the needy. In the middle are the optimistic and upwardly mobile "Upbeats", the discouraged and mistrusting "Disaffecteds" and the disenfranchised "Bystanders". The right comprises the highly pro-business "Enterprisers", the highly religious "Social Conservatives" (also known as the Christian right) and the "Pro-Government Conservatives" who are largely conservative on social issues, but support government intervention to better their economic disposition.Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States
Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States has shifted rapidly since polling of the American people regarding the issue first began on an occasional basis in the 1980s and a regular basis in the 1990s, with support having consistently risen while opposition has continually fallen. National support for the legal recognition of same-sex marriage rose above 50% for the first time in 2011 and has not gone below that mark since then. National support rose to 60% for the first time in 2015 and has not gone below that mark since then. Support continues to rise while opposition continues to fall each year, driven in large part by a significant generational gap in support.From 1988 to 2009, support for same-sex marriage increased between 1% and 1.5% per year and accelerated thereafter.As of 2016, 83% of Americans aged 18–29 support the right to enter a same-sex marriage.As of 2017, there is majority support for same-sex marriage in 44 states, plurality support in 4 states, plurality opposition in 1 state, and majority opposition in 1 state.As of 2018, 60% of Americans said they would not mind if their child married someone of the same gender.Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe
Debate has occurred throughout Europe over proposals to legalise same-sex marriage as well as same-sex civil unions. Currently 29 of the 50 countries and 8 of the 9 dependent territories in Europe recognise some type of same-sex unions, among them most members of the European Union (23/28).
As of January 2019, sixteen European countries legally recognise and perform same-sex marriages: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. An additional twelve European countries legally recognise some form of civil union, namely Andorra, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Liechtenstein, San Marino, Slovenia, and Switzerland. Poland and Slovakia recognise cohabitation for very limited purposes. Armenia and Estonia recognise same-sex marriages performed in any foreign jurisdiction where they are permitted, and Slovakia recognises same-sex marriages performed within the EU and including an EU citizen.
Of the countries that recognise and perform same-sex marriages some still allow couples to enter civil unions, e.g. Benelux countries, France and the United Kingdom, whereas Germany, Ireland and the Nordic countries have terminated their pre-marriage civil union legislation so that existing unions remain but new ones are not possible.
Several European countries do not recognise any form of same-sex unions. Marriage is defined as a union solely between a man and a woman in the constitutions of Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovakia and Ukraine. Of these, however, Armenia recognises same-sex marriages performed abroad, and Croatia and Hungary recognise same-sex partnerships.Religion in Haiti
Haiti, for much of its history and including present-day has been prevailingly a Christian country, primarily Roman Catholic, although in some instances it is profoundly modified and influenced through syncretism. A common syncretic religion is Vodou, which combined the West African religions of the African slaves with Catholicism and some Native American strands; it shows similarities to Cuban Santería.
The largest Christian denomination in the country is Roman Catholicism, which is estimated to be about 55 percent of the population according to the 2018 CIA World Factbook, and 57 percent according to the Pew Research Center. The historical background is very much due to the French influence brought about through the newly conquered territories.
Protestantism has grown in recent years and Protestants are currently estimated by the CIA World Factbook to form 28.5% of the population, while the Pew Research Center estimates their share to be nearly 30 percent.
Social survey research