Petrozavodsk (Russian: Петрозаводск, IPA: [pʲɪtrəzɐˈvotsk]; Karelian, Vepsian & Finnish: Petroskoi; Finland Swedish: Petroskoj) is the capital city of the Republic of Karelia, Russia, which stretches along the western shore of Lake Onega for some 27 kilometers (17 mi). Population: 261,987 (2010 Census); 266,160 (2002 Census); 269,485 (1989 Census).
It was previously known as Petrovskaya Sloboda (until 1777), Petrozavodsk (until 1941), Äänislinna (until 1944).
Views of Petrozavodsk
Location of Petrozavodsk
Location of Petrozavodsk
|Federal subject||Republic of Karelia|
|City status since||March 21, 1777|
|• Body||City Council|
|• Mayor||Irina Miroshnik|
|• Total||135 km2 (52 sq mi)|
|Elevation||60 m (200 ft)|
|• Rank||71st in 2010|
|• Density||1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)|
|• Administratively subordinated to||city of republic significance of Petrozavodsk|
|• Capital of||Republic of Karelia|
|• Administrative center of||city of republic significance of Petrozavodsk, Prionezhsky District|
|• Urban okrug||Petrozavodsky Urban Okrug|
|• Administrative center of||Petrozavodsky Urban Okrug, Prionezhsky Municipal District|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
185000–185003, 185005, 185007, 185009–185016, 185019, 185023, 185026, 185028, 185030–185035, 185700, 185890, 185899, 185910, 185960–185963, 185965, 185970, 185980–185983, 185985
|Dialing code(s)||+7 8142|
|City Day||Last Saturday of June|
Archeological discoveries in the urban area indicate the presence of a settlement as far back as seven thousand years ago, and during the Middle Ages the site of modern city was marked by several lakeside villages. Within the city limits, the district of Solomennoje appears in surviving records dating back to the sixteenth century, and a map produced by the Flemish cartographer Abraham Ortelius at the end of that century places a settlement here called Onegaborg on the site of modern Petrozavodsk.
On September 11, 1703, Prince Menshikov founded the settlement of Petrovskaya Sloboda ("Petrine Sloboda"). He did so at the behest of Tsar Peter the Great, who needed a new iron foundry to manufacture cannons and anchors for the Baltic Fleet at the time of the Great Northern War (1700–1721). At first the foundry used the name Shuysky zavod (literally, "factory at the Shuya River"), but a decade later it became Petrovsky zavod ("Petrine factory"), after the name of the reigning monarch. From this form the present name of the city derives.
By 1717, Petrovskaya Sloboda had grown into the largest settlement in Karelia, with about 3,500 inhabitants, a timber fort, a covered market, and miniature palaces of the Tsar and Menshikov. The town's best-known landmark became the wooden church of Saints Peter and Paul, rebuilt in 1772 and renovated in 1789. The church retained its original iconostasis until this relic of Peter's reign was destroyed by fire on October 30, 1924.
After Peter's death, Petrovskaya Sloboda became depopulated and the factory declined. It closed down in 1734, although foreign industrialists maintained copper factories in the vicinity.
The industry revived in 1773 when Catherine the Great established a new iron foundry upstream the Lososinka River. Designed to provide cannons for the ongoing Russo-Turkish Wars, the foundry was named Alexandrovsky, after Alexander Nevsky, who was considered a patron saint of the region. The factory was modernized and expanded under supervision of Charles Gascoigne in 1787–96. Local pundits claim that the first railway in the world (чугунный колесопровод) was inaugurated for industrial uses of the Alexandrovsky foundry in 1788.
During Catherine's municipal reform of 1777, Petrovskaya Sloboda was incorporated as a town, whereupon its name was changed to Petrozavodsk. A new Neoclassical city center was then built, focused on the newly planned Round Square. In 1784 Petrozavodsk was large enough to supplant Olonets as the administrative center of the region. Although Emperor Paul abolished Olonets Governorate, it was revived as a separate guberniya in 1801, with Petrozavodsk as its administrative center.
During the Finnish military administration of East Karelia in the Continuation War (1941–1944), the city was styled as Äänislinna (or Ääneslinna), rather than the traditional Petroskoi. The new name was a literal translation of Onegaborg, the name of a settlement marked on a 16th-century map by Abraham Ortelius near the present-day city, Ääninen being the Finnish toponym for Lake Onega.
In 1977, Petrozavodsk was the epicenter of what is called the Petrozavodsk phenomenon.
Petrozavodsk is the capital of the republic and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Prionezhsky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of republic significance of Petrozavodsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the administrative divisions of the Republic of Karelia. As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Petrozavodsk is incorporated as Petrozavodsky Urban Okrug.
Petrozavodsk is distinguished among other towns of North Russia by its Neoclassical architectural heritage, which includes the Round Square (1775, reconstructed in 1789 and 1839) and the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (consecrated in 1832). Among the town's landmarks are the outdoor statues of Peter I (bronze and granite, Ippolit Monighetti, 1873), Gavrila Derzhavin (a Russian poet who was the governor of Olonets in the 18th century), and Alexander Nevsky (erected outside Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in 2010).
The city has a fine frontage on the Gulf of Petrozavodsk. The modern embankment, inaugurated in 1994, displays an assortment of Karelian granites and marbles. It is lined with extravagant postmodernist sculptures presented by sister cities of Petrozavodsk from around the world. There is also a birch copse, where the first church of Petrozavodsk was built in 1703.
Petrozavodsk is home to the Karelia Philharmonic Orchestra (1933), the Karelian Musical Theater (1955, statuary by Sergey Konenkov), National Library of Karelia (1959), Finnish-speaking National Theatre of Karelia (1965), Petrozavodsk State University, a conservatory, a city museum founded in 1871, and a branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
One of the city's central landmarks is Lenin Square, an oval space with a large Soviet-era statue of Lenin in the center. The square is especially notable for English-speaking visitors because it is also called "round square" - an oxymoron in English, but not in Russian (kruglaya ploshad).
The village of Shoksha near Petrozavodsk contains a quarry of red and pink quartzite which was used in construction of Saint Isaac's Cathedral and Lenin Mausoleum, among many other notable structures. There are also other quarries in the region excavating road aggregates (Goloday Gora – gabbro-diabase) near Derevyanka.
The suburb of Martsialnye Vody is the oldest spa in Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1714 and visited by the Tsar on four occasions. Its name means "The Waters of Mars" in Russian. Although Peter's palace at Martsialnye Vody has not survived, there is a museum devoted to the spa's history.
An international tourist route Blue Highway goes through Petrozavodsk.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Petrozavodsk experiences a subarctic climate (Dfc), though unlike most localities with this type of climate there is no permafrost and relatively moderate temperatures thanks to the moderating influence of the Baltic Sea and the many nearby lakes. Winters, though long and cold, are mild for the high latitude, while summers are short and warm. Precipitation averages 611 millimetres or 24.06 inches annually.
|Climate data for Petrozavodsk|
|Record high °C (°F)||5.4
|Average high °C (°F)||−6.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−9.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−12.6
|Record low °C (°F)||−41.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||36
|Average rainy days||4||3||6||11||16||18||18||18||20||19||11||6||150|
|Average snowy days||26||24||20||10||4||0||0||0||1||8||20||27||140|
|Average relative humidity (%)||87||85||80||70||66||71||75||80||84||86||89||89||80|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||28||70||118||178||265||282||287||218||126||65||25||11||1,673|
|Source #1: Погода и Климат (Weather and Climate)|
|Source #2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)|
Petrozavodsk is twinned with:
The 313th Rifle Division was a standard Red Army rifle division formed on July 15, 1941 in the Udmurt ASSR before being sent to the vicinity of Leningrad, first in the 7th Separate Army east of Lake Ladoga, and later in 32nd Army of Karelian Front, where it spent most of the war facing the Finnish Army in East Karelia. In consequence the division saw relatively uneventful service on this mostly quiet front until the summer of 1944, when it took part in the offensive that drove Finland out of the war. When this was accomplished, the division was redeployed to take the fight into Poland and then into the German heartland in the winter and spring of 1945. It ended the war north of Berlin after compiling a very distinguished record of service.99th Guards Rifle Division
The 99th Guards Rifle Division was a Red Army division of World War II. It was formed from the 14th Guards Airborne Division in January 1944. It fought in the Svir-Petrozavodsk Offensive between June and August 1944. It became the 99th Guards Airborne Division in August but was converted into infantry again in December 1944 and January 1945. The division fought in the Budapest Offensive and in the defense against Operation Spring Awakening. At the end of the war it participated in the Vienna Offensive and the Prague Offensive. In August 1945 it transferred to the Far East and was converted into an airborne division in 1946. The division served in the Far East for the next decade and was disbanded in 1956.Aleksei Anatolyevich Kozlov
Aleksei Anatolyevich Kozlov (Russian: Алексей Анатольевич Козлов; born 25 December 1986) is a Russian professional footballer. He plays as right back for FC Dynamo Moscow.FC Karelia-Discovery Petrozavodsk
FC Karelia-Discovery (Russian: «Карелия-Дискавери») is a Russian football team from Petrozavodsk. As of 2009, it plays in the Amateur Football League.FC Karelia Petrozavodsk
FC Karelia Petrozavodsk (Russian: ФК «Карелия Петрозаводск») is an association football team from Petrozavodsk (in 2011 temporarily played in Saint Petersburg at Petrovsky Small Arena), Russia founded in 2011. It played in the Russian Second Division from 2011 to 2012–13 season, after which it dropped the professional status. It returned to the third-level Russian Professional Football League for the 2015–16 season, after which it dropped out of professional-level competitions once again.Kirov Railway
Kirov Railway (Russian: Кировская железная дорога, Kirovskaya zheleznaya doroga, to 1935 Murman Railway) is a 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) broad gauge Russian railway network that links the Murman Coast and Murmansk city (in the north) and Saint Petersburg (in the south). The railway is operated by the Arktika passenger train, see List of named passenger trains of Russia.
The total distance between Saint Petersburg and Murmansk is 1,448 km, the part between Petrozavodsk and Kola has a length of 1,054 km. It has 52 stations. The line is of vital military importance because of Murmansk being an ice-free port on the Arctic Sea.
The northern part between Petrozavodsk and Kola was built in 1915–17, due to a lack of workers under assignment of an increasing number of German and Austrian war prisoners.
Originally named Murman Railway, the line was in 1935 given the name Kirov Railway, in honor of Sergei Kirov – a prominent Bolshevik leader of the Russian revolution, who had been assassinated the year before.
The railway was electrified in 2005.Lake Onega
Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Russian: Оне́жское о́зеро, tr. Onezhskoe ozero, IPA: [ɐˈnʲɛʂskəɪ ˈozʲɪrə]; Finnish: Ääninen or Äänisjärvi; Karelian: Oniegu or Oniegu-järve; Veps: Änine or Änižjärv) is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast. It belongs to the basin of the Baltic Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and is the second largest lake in Europe after Lake Ladoga. The lake is fed by about 50 rivers and is drained by the Svir River.
There are about 1,650 islands on the lake. They include Kizhi, which hosts a historical complex of 89 orthodox wooden churches and other wooden constructions of the 15th–20th centuries. The complex includes a UNESCO World Heritage site, Kizhi Pogost. Eastern shores of the lake contain about 1,200 petroglyphs (rock engravings) dated to the 4th–2nd millennia BC. The major cities on the lake are Petrozavodsk, Kondopoga and Medvezhyegorsk.Northwest Air Base
NW Avia was an airline based at Peski (airport) in Petrozavodsk. It was the only air company in the Republic of Karelia. Its main purpose was aerial fire-fighting (for which it is licensed, it was part of Avialesookhrana) although it did perform other typical aerial services (including pipeline and forest patrols, medical flights and search-and-rescue), scheduled and charter passenger flights (commenced in 2009) and charter cargo services. NW Avia was undergoing reorganization with massive debts (~10 million rubles, it peaked at ~22 million rubles) and was the largest debtor in the Republic of Karelia. The airlines ceased to exist on July, 1, 2014.Petrozavodsk Airport
Petrozavodsk Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Петрозаводск, Karelian: Petroskoin lendoazema; (IATA: PES, ICAO: ULPB); ex: Besovets, Petrozavodsk-2) is a joint civil-military airport in Russia located 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) northwest of Petrozavodsk in Besovets, Shuya Rural Settlement (municipality). It services small airliners. It is a minor airfield with 12 parking stands and a small amount of tarmac space.
The airfield has seen military use as an interceptor base. During the 1960s or 1970s Sukhoi Su-15 aircraft were based at Besovets. During the 1970s it was home to the 991st Fighter Aviation Regiment (991 IAP), which flew Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 'Foxbat' aircraft. In 1992-93, the 159th Fighter Aviation Regiment (159 IAP) transferred in from Poland, having left the 4th Air Army. It flies the Sukhoi Su-27 aircraft and is now part of the 54th Air Defence Corps, 6th Air and Air Defence Forces Army.Petrozavodsk phenomenon
The Petrozavodsk phenomenon was a series of celestial events of a disputed nature that occurred on September 20, 1977. The sightings were reported over a vast territory, from Copenhagen and Helsinki in the west to Vladivostok in the east. It is named after the city of Petrozavodsk in Russia (then in the Soviet Union), where a glowing object was widely reported that showered the city with numerous rays.
Government officials from northern European countries sent letters to Anatoly Aleksandrov, president of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, expressing concern about whether the observed phenomenon was caused by Soviet weapons testing and whether it constituted a threat to the region’s environment. Since 1977, the phenomenon has been often (though not universally) attributed to the launch of the Soviet satellite Kosmos-955. In the same year, a preliminary report for the Academy of Sciences of the USSR contained an immense body of visual observations, radiolocation reports, physical measurements, and accompanying meteorological data. It concluded that "based on the available data, it is unfeasible to satisfactorily understand the observed phenomenon". The Petrozavodsk phenomenon contributed to the creation of Setka AN, a Soviet research program for anomalous atmospheric phenomena.RusAir Flight 9605
RusAir Flight 9605 (also RusLine Flight 243) was a passenger flight which crashed near Petrozavodsk Airport, Petrozavodsk, Russia, on 20 June 2011. 47 of the 52 on board died. The aircraft involved, a Tupolev Tu-134A-3, was operating a RusAir scheduled domestic flight (as a RusLine service) from Domodedovo International Airport, Moscow, to Petrozavodsk. It crashed on approach in bad weather, coming down on A133 highway about 1,200 m (3,900 ft) short of the runway, shortly after 23:40 local time (19:40 UTC). As a result of the crash, all Tu-134s were to be withdrawn from commercial service in Russia.RusLine
RusLine (Russian: Авиакомпания «РусЛайн», Aviakompanija «RusLajn») is a regional airline from Russia, which operates mostly domestic regional flights, as well as holiday charters. Its headquarters are located in the Omega Plaza (Омега Плаза) business centre in Moscow, Russia, with the city's Domodedovo International Airport serving as most important base for flight operations.Tamara Manina
Tamara Ivanovna Manina (Russian: Тама́ра Ива́новна Ма́нина, born 16 September 1934) is a retired Soviet Olympic gymnast and a sports scientist.Timur Dibirov
Timur Anatolyevich Dibirov (Russian: Тимур Анатольевич Дибиров; born 30 July 1983) is a Russian handball player for RK Vardar and the Russian national team.He competed at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where the Russian team placed sixth.Dibirov is all-time top scorer for RK Vardar in the EHF Champions League having scored 299 goals as of 2016-17 season.
RK VardarEHF Champions League: 2016-17UFO sightings in Russia
The following are some of the significant alleged sightings of unidentified flying objects in Russia:
The Tunguska event of 1908, is considered to have been the explosion of a comet, though some regard it as an explosion of a UFO.
The Petrozavodsk phenomenon on September 20, 1977.
The Height 611 UFO incident on January 29, 1986, was a supposed UFO crash which happened in Dalnegorsk, Primorsky Krai.
The Voronezh UFO incident of 1989.
The Sassowo explosions were two mysterious explosions which occurred on April 12, 1990, and July 8, 1992, equivalent to 25 tons TNT.
Early in 2012 a crashed titanium object, described as a "UFO fragment", was retrieved from a forest in the vicinity of Otradnenskoye, a rural locality in Novosibirsk Oblast, after strange sounds were heard there in December 2011. The smooth, silvery and U-shaped device, attached to a rounded section, and was not deemed to be related to space technology.Vadim Sashurin
Vadim Leonidovich Sashurin (Belarusian: Вадзім Леанідавіч Сашурын; born 19 February 1970) is a former Soviet and Belarusian biathlete and current coach. In the lead-up to the 2002–03 season, Sashurin was caught using the banned steroid nandrolone. He was initially banned for 15 months, but the ban was extended to 24 months after Sashurin failed to take part in an anti-doping campaign, as mandated by the IBU.
Since retirement as an athlete, Sashurin has become a physio or fitness coach.Vladimir Drachev
Vladimir Petrovich Drachev (Russian: Владимир Петрович Драчёв, born 7 March 1966) is a former Soviet, Russian and Belarusian biathlete. He formerly had Russian citizenship and started for Russia until 2002. Drachev has four world championship titles in his career (two individually and two for teams). He also has two olympic relay medals for Russia (silver in 1994, and bronze in 1998).Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive
The Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive or Karelian offensive was a strategic operation by the Soviet Leningrad and Karelian Fronts against Finland on the Karelian Isthmus and East Karelia fronts of the Continuation War, on the Eastern Front of World War II. The Soviet forces captured East Karelia and Viborg. After that, however, the fighting reached a stalemate.
The operations of the strategic offensive can be divided into the following offensives:
Vyborg (10–20 June) by the Leningrad Front
Virojoki-Lappeenranta (21 June – 15 July) by the Leningrad Front
Koivisto landing (20–25 June) by the Baltic Fleet
Svir–Petrozavodsk (21 June – 9 August) by the Karelian Front
Tuloksa landing (23–27 June) by the Soviet Ladoga Flotilla