Peter Pan

Peter Pan is a fictional character created by Scottish novelist and playwright J. M. Barrie. A free-spirited and mischievous young boy who can fly and never grows up, Peter Pan spends his never-ending childhood having adventures on the mythical island of Neverland as the leader of the Lost Boys, interacting with fairies, pirates, mermaids, Native Americans, and occasionally ordinary children from the world outside Neverland.

Peter Pan has become a cultural icon symbolizing youthful innocence and escapism. In addition to two distinct works by Barrie, the character has been featured in a variety of media and merchandise, both adapting and expanding on Barrie's works. These include the 1953 Disney animated film, a 2003 dramatic/live-action film, a television series and many other works.

Peter Pan
Peter Pan character
Peter pan 1911 pipes
Illustration of Peter Pan playing the pipes, by F. D. Bedford from Peter and Wendy (1911)
First appearanceThe Little White Bird (1902)
Created byJ. M. Barrie
Portrayed byNina Boucicault (Peter Pan (play, 1904)
Betty Bronson (1924 film)
Mary Martin (1954 Broadway Musical)
Robin Williams (Hook)
Jeremy Sumpter (2003 film)
Robbie Kay (Once Upon a Time)
Voiced byBobby Driscoll (Peter Pan Disney 1953 film)
Information
AliasThe Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up
SpeciesHuman
GenderMale
NationalityEnglish

Origin

Peter Pan, by Oliver Herford, 1907
1907 illustration of Peter Pan by Oliver Herford
Peter Pan 1915 cover
Cover of 1915 edition of J. M. Barrie's novel, first published in 1911, illustrated by F. D. Bedford[1]

J. M. Barrie first used Peter Pan as a character in a section of The Little White Bird (1902), an adult novel where he appears as a seven-day-old baby in the chapter entitled Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens. Following the success of the 1904 play, Barrie's publishers, Hodder and Stoughton, extracted chapters 13–18 of The Little White Bird and republished them in 1906 under the title Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, with the addition of illustrations by Arthur Rackham.[2]

He returned to the character of Peter Pan as the centre of his stage play entitled Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up, which premiered on 27 December 1904 in London. Barrie later adapted and expanded the play's story line as a novel, published in 1911 as Peter and Wendy.

Physical appearance

Barrie never described Peter's appearance in detail, even in his novel, leaving it to the imagination of the reader and the interpretation of anyone adapting the character. In the play, Peter's outfit is made of autumn leaves and cobwebs.[3] His name and playing the flute or pipes suggest the mythological character Pan. Barrie mentions in Peter and Wendy that Peter Pan still had all his "first teeth".[4] He describes him as a beautiful boy with a beautiful smile, "clad in skeleton leaves and the juices that flow from trees".[4]

Traditionally, the character has been played on stage by a petite adult woman.[5] In the original productions in the UK, Peter Pan's costume was a reddish tunic and dark green tights, such as that worn by Nina Boucicault in 1904. This costume is exhibited in Barrie's Birthplace.[6] The similar costume worn by Pauline Chase (who played the role from 1906 to 1913) is displayed in the Museum of London. Early editions of adaptations of the story also depict a red costume[7][8] but a green costume (whether or not made of leaves) becomes more usual from the 1920s,[9] and more so later after the release of Disney's animated movie.

In the Disney films, Peter wears an outfit that consists of a short-sleeved green tunic and tights apparently made of cloth, and a cap with a red feather in it. He has pointed elf-like ears, brown eyes and his hair is red. In Hook (1991), the character is played as an adult by Robin Williams, with blue eyes and dark brown hair; in flashbacks to him in his youth, his hair is light brown. In this film his ears appear pointed only when he is Peter Pan, not as Peter Banning. His Pan attire resembles the Disney outfit (minus the cap). In the live-action 2003 Peter Pan film, he is portrayed by Jeremy Sumpter, who has blond hair and blue-green eyes. His outfit is made of leaves and vines.

Age

Peter Pan statue in Kensington Gardens in the City of Westminster in London, spring 2013 (12)
Statue of Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, London, England

J.M. Barrie created his character based on his older brother, David, who died in an ice-skating accident the day before his 14th birthday. His mother and brother thought of him as forever a boy.[10]

Alternate depictions have described him as a variety of ages:

Personality

Peter is an exaggerated stereotype of a boastful and careless boy. He claims greatness, even when such claims are questionable (such as congratulating himself when Wendy re-attaches his shadow). In the play and book, Peter symbolises the selfishness of childhood, and is portrayed as being forgetful and self-centred.

Peter has a nonchalant, devil-may-care attitude, and is fearlessly cocky when it comes to putting himself in danger. Barrie writes that when Peter thought he was going to die on Marooners' Rock, he felt scared, yet he felt only one shudder. With this blithe attitude, he says, "To die will be an awfully big adventure". In the play, the unseen and unnamed narrator ponders what might have been if Peter had stayed with Wendy, so that his cry might have become, "To live would be an awfully big adventure!", "but he can never quite get the hang of it".[11]

Abilities

Peter's archetypal quality is his unending youth. In Peter and Wendy, it is explained that Peter must forget his own adventures and what he learns about the world in order to stay childlike.

Peter's ability to fly is explained, but inconsistently. In The Little White Bird, he is able to fly because he is said to be part bird, like all babies. In the play and novel, he teaches the Darling children to fly using a combination of "lovely wonderful thoughts" and fairy dust. In Barrie's Dedication to the play Peter Pan, The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow up,[12] the author attributes the idea of fairy dust being necessary for flight to practical needs:

...after the first production I had to add something to the play at the request of parents (who thus showed that they thought me the responsible person) about no one being able to fly until the fairy dust had been blown on him; so many children having gone home and tried it from their beds and needed surgical attention. – J.M. Barrie

Peter has an effect on the whole of Neverland and its inhabitants when he is there. Barrie states that although Neverland appears different to every child, the island "wakes up" when Peter returns from his trip to London. In the chapter "The Mermaids' Lagoon" in the book Peter and Wendy, Barrie writes that there is almost nothing that Peter cannot do. He is a skilled swordsman, rivalling even Captain Hook, whose hand he cut off in a duel. He has remarkably keen vision and hearing. He is skilled in mimicry, copying the voice of Hook and the ticking of the clock in the crocodile.

Peter has the ability to imagine things into existence and he is able to feel danger when it is near.

In Peter and Wendy, Barrie states that the Peter Pan legend Mrs Darling heard as a child was that when children died, he accompanied them part of the way to their destination so they would not be frightened.

In the original play, Peter states that no one must ever touch him (though he does not know why). The stage directions specify that no one does so throughout the play. Wendy approaches Peter to give him a "kiss" (thimble), but is prevented by Tinker Bell. However, John Caird and Trevor Nunn's introduction to the script for the 1997 Royal National Theatre production, states that this was never Barrie's original intention, and was only added for a production in 1927, where Jean Forbes-Robertson took the title role, and played the part with a lighter, more fairy-like, physicality. Robertson was to play the part almost every year until 1939.

Cultural allusions

The character's name comes from two sources: Peter Llewelyn Davies, one of the five Llewelyn Davies boys who inspired the story, and Pan, a minor deity of Greek mythology who plays pipes to nymphs and is part human and part goat. This is referenced in Barrie's works (particularly Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens) where Peter Pan plays pipes to the fairies and rides a goat. The god Pan represents Nature or Man's natural state in contrast to Civilisation and the effects of upbringing on human behaviour. Peter Pan is a free spirit, being too young to be burdened with the effects of education or to have an adult appreciation of moral responsibility. As a 'betwixt-and-between', who can fly and speak the language of fairies and birds, Peter is part animal and part human. According to psychologist Rosalind Ridley, by comparing Peter's behaviour to adults and to other animals, Barrie raises many post-Darwinian questions about the origins of human nature and behaviour. As 'the boy who wouldn't grow up', Peter exhibits many aspects of the stages of cognitive development seen in children and can be regarded as Barrie's memory of himself as a child, being both charmingly childlike and childishly solipsistic.[13]

Relationships

Bruxelles Parc d'Egmont 803
Statue in Brussels, Belgium

Family

Peter Pan ran away from his parents when he was a baby as told in Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens and Peter and Wendy. Finding the window closed and seeing a new baby in the house when he returned some time later, he believed his parents no longer wanted him and never came back. This younger sibling is referred to in the chapter "Lock-Out Time" in Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens but is not mentioned again.

Friends

Maimie Mannering

While in Kensington Gardens, Peter meets a lost girl named Maimie Mannering and the two quickly become friends. Peter proposes marriage to Maimie. While Maimie wants to stay in the Gardens with Peter, she comes to realise that her mother is so worried that she must return to her. Maimie promises to always remember Peter and goes back to her mother. When Maimie grows up, she continues to think of Peter, dedicating presents and letters to him. To remember Maimie, Peter rides the imaginary goat that Maimie created for him. She is considered to be the literary predecessor of Wendy Darling.[14]

The Darlings

Wendy is hinted to have romantic feelings for Peter, but cannot be with him because of his inability to love back. In the 2003 film Peter Pan, the feeling is mutual. Captain Hook can only take away Peter's ability to fly by thoughts of Wendy leaving him, growing up, and replacing him with a husband. Wendy saves Peter by giving him her hidden kiss (signifying he is her true love); this gives him the will to live. In the movie Hook, an older Wendy implies that she used to (and perhaps, still does) have feelings for Peter, saying that she was shocked that he did not prevent her wedding day. In the sequel to the 1953 Disney film, Return to Neverland, Peter and a grown-up Wendy are briefly, but happily, reunited after many years and continue to show feelings for each other.

In the original novel, Peter later befriends Wendy's daughter Jane (and her subsequent daughter Margaret), and it is implied that this pattern will go on forever. From time to time Peter visits the real world, and befriends children. Wendy Darling, whom he recruited to be his "mother", is the most significant of them; he also brings her brothers John and Michael to Neverland at her request. It is mentioned that Wendy was the only girl who captured his attention.

John, the older brother of the Darlings, proves to be extremely mature for his age. He becomes fascinated with piracy and imitates Captain Hook while playing at home with his siblings. Not only sophisticated, John is also courageous and smart. Peter typically tasks John with the responsibility of directing the Lost Boys when Peter is absent. Michael, the youngest of the Darlings, is convinced that Peter Pan is a real person after hearing Wendy's passionate narratives about him. During nursery games, it's Michael who plays the role of Peter Pan whom he looks up to.

The parents of Wendy, John and Michael. Mr Darling works as a clerk in the City, and is named after George Llewelyn Davies. Mrs Darling is named after Mary Ansell, Barrie's wife.

Neverland inhabitants

Tiger Lily is the daughter of Great Big Little Panther, the chief of the Piccaninny Native American tribe resident in Neverland. Barrie refers to her as "a princess in her own right", and she is often described as such. She is kidnapped by the pirates and left to die on Marooners' Rock, but is rescued by Peter. It is hinted later that she may have romantic feelings for Peter but he does not return them, as he is completely oblivious of other people's feelings. In the Disney film, Tiger Lily shows her gratitude by performing a dance for Peter and kissing him. The kiss makes him turn bright red, and makes Wendy jealous of Tiger Lily.

Tinker Bell is a common fairy who is Peter Pan's best friend and often jealously protective of him. She is the friend who helps him in his escapades. As his fairy, Tink’s malicious actions are usually caused by her jealousy which leads to the Lost Boys shooting arrows at Wendy (or nearly stoning her to death in the Disney film), and eventually even reveals Peter’s hideout to Captain Hook, thinking that Wendy will be captured rather than Peter. When Tink realises her serious mistake, she risks her own life by drinking the poison Hook has left for Peter (or pushing Hook’s bomb away in Disney's movie). Her extreme loyalty and dedication to Peter is everlasting.

Peter is the leader of the Lost Boys, which include Tootles, Nibs, Slightly, Curly, and The Twins. The Lost Boys is a band of boys who were lost by their parents after they "fall out of their perambulators" and came to live in Neverland. In Barrie's novel Peter and Wendy (but not the original play Peter Pan), it is stated that Peter "thins them out" when they start to grow up. This is never fully explained, but it is implied that he either kills them or banishes them.

In the song "I Won't Grow Up" from the 1954 musical, the boys sing "I will stay a boy forever" to which Peter replies "and be banished if I don't".

In Peter Pan in Scarlet (2006), the official sequel to Barrie's Peter and Wendy, what happens to the Lost Boys when they begin to grow up is revealed when Slightly starts to grow older, as Peter banishes him to Nowhereland (which basically means that he and all his allies will ignore the banished person's existence), the home of all the Long Lost Boys whom Peter has banished in times past.

The crocodile (Tick-Tock in the Disney film) is Captain Hook's nemesis. After Peter Pan cut off Captain Hook's hand in a fight and threw it into the sea, the crocodile swallowed it and got a taste for Hook. It also swallowed a ticking clock, which alerts Hook of its presence.

Adversaries

Captain Hook

Captain Hook, whose right hand was cut off in a duel, is Peter Pan's arch-enemy. Hook's crew, including Smee and Starkey, also consider him a foe. Captain Hook's two principal fears are the sight of his own blood (which is supposedly an unnatural colour) and one crocodile. His name plays on the iron hook that replaced his hand cut off by Peter Pan and eaten by a saltwater crocodile, which continues to pursue Hook.

In the 1953 animated film, Hook seeks revenge on Peter Pan for having fed the crocodile his hand, and refuses to leave Neverland without satisfaction.[15] Hook is supported by Mr. Smee. After promising Tinker Bell 'not to lay a finger (or a hook) on Peter Pan', he lays a bomb in Peter's hideout. At the conclusion of the film, Hook is chased by the crocodile into the distance. Walt Disney insisted on keeping Hook alive, as he said: "The audience will get to liking Hook, and they don't want to see him killed."[16] In the sequel Return to Never Land, Hook mistakes Wendy's daughter Jane for Wendy, and uses her as bait to lure Peter Pan to his death.

Mr. Smee

Mr. Smee is Captain Hook's boatswain ("bo'sun") and right-hand man in J. M. Barrie's play Peter Pan and the novel Peter and Wendy. Mr. Smee is Captain Hook’s direct confidant. Unlike the other pirates, Smee is often clumsy and incapable of capturing any of the Lost Boys. Rather than engaging in Hook’s evil schemes, Smee finds excitement in bagging loot and treasures.

Publications

Original works

  • 1904 – Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up (play): Peter brings Wendy and her brothers to Neverland, where he has a showdown with his nemesis, Captain Hook. This play was adapted as a novel by Barrie. Variations and adaptations have been produced in various media.
  • 1906 – Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens: an origin story where the infant Peter flies away from his home, takes up residence in Kensington Gardens and makes friends with the fairies. It is a "book-within-a-book" that was first published in Barrie's The Little White Bird in 1902.
  • 1908 – When Wendy Grew Up – An Afterthought
  • 1911 – Peter and Wendy (novel), later published as Peter Pan and Wendy, adapted as a novel from the play, it also incorporates events of Barrie's sequel play, An Afterthought.

In popular culture

  • Since their 1953 animated film, Walt Disney has continued to use Peter Pan as a character. The studio featured him in the sequel film Return to Neverland, in their parks as a meetable character, and as the protagonist of the dark ride, Peter Pan's Flight. He also appears in House of Mouse, Mickey's Magical Christmas, and the Kingdom Hearts video games.
  • J. R. R. Tolkien's biographer Humphrey Carpenter has speculated that Tolkien's impressions of a 1910 production of Barrie's Peter Pan in Birmingham "may have had a little to do with" his original conception of the Elves of Middle Earth.[17]
  • He appears in the Italian comic series Martin Mystère.
  • In the television series Once Upon a Time, a malevolent version of Peter Pan, portrayed by Robbie Kay, appears as the main villain in the first half of the show's third season. and in the second half of the fifth season.
  • In the anime-styled web series RWBY, the character Scarlet David is based on Peter Pan.
  • In the 2001 animated film Shrek, Peter Pan is seen in a line ready to sell Tinker Bell to Duloc authorities. His only line in the film is "He can fly!", as a response to seeing Donkey flying thanks to Tinker Bell's fairy dust.
  • British musician Kate Bush included her song "In Search of Peter Pan" on her second album Lionheart in 1978.
  • Singer-songwriter Ruth B released the piano ballad “Lost Boy” in 2015 featuring Peter Pan and Neverland.
  • Country singer-songwriter Kelsea Ballerini released a top-charting country single and song titled "Peter Pan" in 2016.
  • Singer-songwriter Troye Sivan released his debut studio album "Blue Neighbourhood" in 2015. The eleventh track was entitled “Lost Boy”, inspired by Peter Pan.
  • Korean boy-band EXO released a track called "Peter Pan" on both the Mandarin and Korean versions of the "XOXO" album in 2013.
  • South Korean boy-band BTS released a music video called 'Adult Child', the song makes reference to the Peter Pan story.

The name Peter Pan has been adopted for various purposes over the years:

  • Three thoroughbred racehorses have been given the name, the first born in 1904.
  • Several businesses have adopted the name, including Peter Pan Bus Lines, Peter Pan peanut butter, Peter Pan Records and Peter Pan Seafoods.
  • In the early 1960s, some Cuban families sent their children to resettle in Miami in an emergency effort calculated to save the children from perceived potential mistreatment under the Castro socialist regime; the program was called Operation Peter Pan (or Operación Pedro Pan).
  • American psychologist Dr. Dan Kiley popularised the Peter Pan syndrome (puer aeternus) in his 1983 book, The Peter Pan Syndrome: Men Who Have Never Grown Up.[18] He described individuals (usually male) with underdeveloped maturity.[19] His next book, The Wendy Dilemma (1984), advises women romantically involved with "Peter Pans" how to improve their relationships.[20]
  • Japanese manga artist, Mayu Sakai, appropriated the English term for her series, Peter Pan Syndrome.[21]
  • Peterpan is the former name for an Indonesian pop-rock band, now called Noah.

Public sculptures

Audio description of the statue by Susan Greenfield

Barrie commissioned a statue of Peter Pan by sculptor George Frampton which was erected overnight in Kensington Gardens on 30 April 1912 as a May Day surprise to the children of London. Seven statues have been cast from the original mould.[22] The other six are located in:

Other statues are:

  • The town council of Melbourne, Australia, commissioned a statue of Peter Pan by Paul Montfort in 1925[28]; it is now located in Melbourne Zoo.[29]
  • A bronze statue by Charles Andrew Hafner was originally created in 1928 for a fountain in the lobby of the old Paramount Theater in Times Square but is now situated in Carl Schurz Park, New York.[30]
  • A statue of Pan by Alex Proudfoot RSA, Principal of Glasgow School of Art, was erected at the Mearnskirk Hospital for children in Glasgow in 1949, commissioned by Alfred Ellsworth in memory of his friend Dr John A Wilson, first superintendent of Mearnskirk Hospital. Wilson had also been a school friend of J.M. Barrie.[31]
  • A statue by Ivan Mitford-Barberton was commissioned by Vyvyan and Gwen Watson in remembrance of their son Peter and given in 1959 to the Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital in Western Cape, South Africa.[32]
  • A pair of statues by Cecil Thomas, one showing Peter Pan and Tinker Bell, and the other Wendy and the Darling children, are located in Dunedin Botanic Gardens in Dunedin, New Zealand since the 1960s.[33]
  • Two bronze casts of a statue by Alistair Smart, originally commissioned by the Angus Milling Company in 1972, are in Kirriemuir, Scotland, one in the main town square and the other in the Peter Pan Garden by Barrie's Birthplace, now owned by the National Trust of Scotland.[34]
  • A bronze statue in front of the Weatherford, Texas public library honouring Weatherford native Mary Martin, sculpted by Ronald Thomason in 1976. Martin had portrayed Peter Pan in the 1954 Broadway Musical production and several subsequent telecasts.
  • A bronze statue by Diarmuid Byron O'Connor was commissioned by Great Ormond Street Hospital in London and unveiled in 2000, showing Peter blowing fairy dust, with Tinker Bell added in 2005.[35]
Kirriemuir, Peter Pan Statue

Statue in Kirriemuir, Scotland

Public art - Peter Pan, Queens Gardens, Perth

Statue in Perth, Australia

Peter Pan Statue

Statue in St. John's, Canada

Statue of Peter Pan and Tinkerbell in Dunedin Botanic Gardens, Dunedin, New Zealand

Statue in Dunedin, New Zealand

Brussel, Egmontpark-PM 57638

Statue in Egmont Park, Brussels, Belgium

Peter Pan Statue, Liverpool

Peter Pan statue, Sefton Park, Liverpool

Peter Pan statue by Diarmuid Byron O'Connor

Peter Pan statue at Great Ormond Street Hospital, London

Carl Schurz Park Peter Pan statue

Peter Pan statue at Carl Schurz Park, New York, NYC

See also

References

  1. ^ Francis Donkin Bedford died in 1954 and his works are in copyright until 2024 in Europe. If this work is not "work for hire" then it is fair use.
  2. ^ Birkin, Andrew (2003). J.M. Barrie & the Lost Boys. Yale University Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-300-09822-7.
  3. ^ Barrie, J.M. Peter Pan (play). Hodder & Stoughton, 1928, Act I, Scene 1
  4. ^ a b Barrie, J M. Peter and Wendy. Hodder & Stoughton, 1911, Chapter 1
  5. ^ Bruce K. Hanson. Peter Pan on Stage and Screen 1904–2010. McFarland, 2011
  6. ^ "J M Barrie's Birthplace". Nts.org.uk. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
  7. ^ Daniel O'Connor, illustrated by Alice B. Woodward. The Peter Pan Picture Book. Bell & Sons, 1907
  8. ^ Peter Pan's ABC illustrated by Flora White. Hodder & Stoughton, 1913
  9. ^ May Byron illustrated by Mabel Lucie Atwell, Peter Pan and Wendy. Hodder & Stoughton, 1921
  10. ^ Birkin, Andrew. J.M. Barrie and the Lost Boys. Yale University Press, 1986.
  11. ^ Barrie, J M. Peter Pan. Hodder & Stoughton, 1928, Act V, Scene 2
  12. ^ Barrie, J M. Peter Pan. Hodder & Stoughton, 1928, To the Five – A Dedication
  13. ^ Ridley, Rosalind (2016). Peter Pan and the Mind of J. M. Barrie. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-9107-3.
  14. ^ Rose, Jacqueline. The Case of Peter Pan, Or, The Impossibility of Children's Fiction, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1984, Pg. 28
  15. ^ "Captain Hook: Character History". Disney Archives.
  16. ^ Thomas, Frank & Johnston, Ollie (1993) Disney Villain "Chapter 4: Nine Old Men," section: "Peter Pan", pages 109–113. ISBN 978 1562827922
  17. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey (1977), Tolkien: A Biography, New York: Ballantine Books, ISBN 0-04-928037-6
  18. ^ Kiley, Dr. Dan, The Peter Pan Syndrome: Men Who Have Never Grown Up. Avon Books, 1983, ISBN 978 0380688906
  19. ^ Various materials compiled from University of Granada (3 May 2007). "Overprotecting Parents Can Lead Children To Develop 'Peter Pan Syndrome'". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  20. ^ Kiley, Dr. Dan (1984). The Wendy Dilemma: When Women Stop Mothering Their Men. Arbor House Publishing. ISBN 9780877956259.
  21. ^ "Peter Pan Syndrome". 20 September 2010. Archived from the original on 30 December 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  22. ^ "Peter Pan Statue". Public Art Around the World. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  23. ^ "Peter Pan statue regains panflute". City of Brussels. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  24. ^ "Johnson Park Restoration". Johnson-park.camden.rutgers.edu. 24 September 1926. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  25. ^ "Perth Vista-Queens Gardens". Globe Vista. 2008.
  26. ^ "Peter Pan". Liverpoolmuseums.org.uk. 16 June 1928. Archived from the original on 28 February 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  27. ^ Cities of the World, Lostrivers.ca
  28. ^ https://melbourneartcritic.wordpress.com/2015/11/07/10-melbourne-public-sculptures-intended-for-children/
  29. ^ Peter Pan Statue Melbourne Zoo
  30. ^ "Carl Schurz Park Monuments – Peter Pan : NYC Parks". nycgovparks.org. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  31. ^ "Mearnskirk Hospital". Portal to the Past. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
  32. ^ "Story of the Peter Pan Statue". Childrenshospitaltrust.org.za. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
  33. ^ "New life for Peter Pan and Wendy – the art and science of bronze conservation in Dunedin". nzine.co.nz. 3 December 2002. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  34. ^ West, Mark I. (2003). A Children's Literature Tour of Great Britain. Scarecrow Press p. 17.
  35. ^ "The Great Ormond Street Hospital "Tinker Bell" by Diarmuid Byron-O'Connor". Fairiesworld.com. 29 September 2005. Retrieved 17 June 2014.

External links

Captain Hook

Captain James Hook is a fictional character, the main antagonist of J. M. Barrie's play Peter Pan; or, the Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up and its various adaptations, in which he is Peter Pan's archenemy. The character is a pirate captain of the brig Jolly Roger. His two principal fears are the sight of his own blood (supposedly an unnatural colour) and the crocodile who pursues him after eating the hand cut off by Pan. An iron hook replaced his severed hand, which gave the pirate his name.

Characters of Peter Pan

The works of J. M. Barrie about Peter Pan feature many characters. The numerous adaptations and sequels to those stories feature many of the same characters, and introduce new ones. Most of these strive for continuity with Barrie's work, developing a fairly consistent cast of characters living in Neverland and the real-world settings of Barrie's stories.

Disney on Ice

Disney on Ice, originally Walt Disney's World on Ice, is a series of touring ice shows produced by Feld Entertainment's Ice Follies And Holiday on Ice, Inc. under agreement with The Walt Disney Company. Aimed primarily at children, the shows feature figure skaters portraying the roles of Disney characters in performances derived from various Disney films. Feld Entertainment licensed the rights to Disney material for ice shows and includes shared merchandising revenue between Disney and Ice Follies.

Hook (film)

Hook is a 1991 American fantasy adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by James V. Hart and Malia Scotch Marmo. It stars Robin Williams as Peter Banning / Peter Pan, Dustin Hoffman as Captain Hook, Julia Roberts as Tinker Bell, Bob Hoskins as Smee, Maggie Smith as Wendy, Caroline Goodall as Moira Banning, and Charlie Korsmo as Jack Banning. It acts as a sequel to J. M. Barrie's 1911 novel Peter and Wendy focusing on an adult Peter Pan who has forgotten all about his childhood. In his new life, he is known as Peter Banning, a successful but unimaginative and workaholic corporate lawyer with a wife (Wendy's granddaughter) and two children. However, when Captain Hook, the enemy of his past, kidnaps his children, he returns to Neverland in order to save them. Along the journey, he reclaims the memories of his past and becomes a better person.

Spielberg began developing the film in the early 1980s with Walt Disney Productions and Paramount Pictures, which would have followed the storyline seen in the 1924 silent film and 1953 animated film. It entered pre-production in 1985, but Spielberg abandoned the project. James V. Hart developed the script with director Nick Castle and TriStar Pictures before Spielberg decided to direct in 1989. It was shot almost entirely on sound stages at Sony Pictures Studios in Culver City, California. Released on December 11, 1991, Hook received mixed reviews from critics, and while it was a commercial success, its box office take was lower than expected. It was nominated in five categories at the 64th Academy Awards. It also spawned merchandise, including video games, action figures, and comic book adaptations.

J. M. Barrie

Sir James Matthew Barrie, 1st Baronet, (; 9 May 1860 – 19 June 1937) was a Scottish novelist and playwright, best remembered today as the creator of Peter Pan. He was born and educated in Scotland and then moved to London, where he wrote a number of successful novels and plays. There he met the Llewelyn Davies boys, who inspired him to write about a baby boy who has magical adventures in Kensington Gardens (included in The Little White Bird), then to write Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up, a "fairy play" about an ageless boy and an ordinary girl named Wendy who have adventures in the fantasy setting of Neverland.

Although he continued to write successfully, Peter Pan overshadowed his other work, and is credited with popularising the name Wendy. Barrie unofficially adopted the Davies boys following the deaths of their parents. Barrie was made a baronet by George V on 14 June 1913, and a member of the Order of Merit in the 1922 New Year Honours. Before his death, he gave the rights to the Peter Pan works to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children in London, which continues to benefit from them.

Millennials

Millennials, also known as Generation Y or Gen Y, are the demographic cohort following Generation X and preceding Generation Z. Researchers and popular media typically use the early 1980s as starting birth years and the mid-1990s to early 2000s as ending birth years. Millennials are sometimes referred to as "echo boomers" due to a major surge in birth rates in the 1980s and 1990s, and because millennials are often the children of the baby boomers. The characteristics of millennials vary by region and by individual, and the group experiences a variety of social and economic conditions.

Neverland

Neverland is a fictional island featured in the works of J. M. Barrie and those based on them. It is an imaginary faraway place, where Peter Pan, Tinker Bell, the Lost Boys and other mythical creatures and beings live. Although not all people who come to Neverland cease to age, its best known resident famously refused to grow up. The term is often used as a metaphor for eternal childhood (and childishness), immortality, and escapism. The concept was first introduced as "the Never Never Land" in the theatre play Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up by Scottish writer J. M. Barrie, first staged in 1904.

In his 1911 novelisation Peter and Wendy, Barrie referred to "the Neverland", and its many variations "the Neverlands", although the caption to one of F. D. Bedford's illustrations calls it "The Never Never Land". In the earliest drafts of Barrie's play, the island was called "Peter's Never Never Never Land", a name possibly influenced by "the Never Never", a contemporary term for outback Australia. In the 1928 published version of the script, the name was shortened to "the Never Land". Neverland has been featured prominently in subsequent works that either adapted Barrie's works or expanded upon them. These Neverlands sometimes vary in nature from the original.

Operation Peter Pan

Operation Peter Pan (or Operación Pedro Pan) was a mass exodus of over 14,000 unaccompanied Cuban minors to the United States between 1960 and 1962. Father Bryan O. Walsh of the Catholic Welfare Bureau created the program to provide air transportation to the United States for Cuban children. It operated covertly out of fear that it would be viewed as an anti-Castro political enterprise.

Peter Pan (1953 film)

Peter Pan is a 1953 American animated fantasy adventure film produced by Walt Disney and based on the play Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up by J. M. Barrie. It is the 14th Disney animated feature film and was originally released on February 5, 1953, by RKO Radio Pictures. Peter Pan is the final Disney animated feature released through RKO before Walt Disney's founding of his own distribution company, Buena Vista Distribution, later in 1953 after the film was released. Peter Pan is also the final Disney film in which all nine members of Disney's Nine Old Men worked together as directing animators. It is also the second Disney animated film starring Kathryn Beaumont, Heather Angel, and Bill Thompson after their roles in the animated feature Alice in Wonderland.

The film was entered into the 1953 Cannes Film Festival. A sequel titled Return to Never Land was released in 2002, and a series of direct-to-DVD prequels produced by DisneyToon Studios focusing on Tinker Bell began in 2008.

Peter Pan (1954 musical)

Peter Pan is a musical based on J. M. Barrie's 1904 play Peter Pan and Barrie's own novelization of it, Peter and Wendy. The music is mostly by Mark "Moose" Charlap, with additional music by Jule Styne, and most of the lyrics were written by Carolyn Leigh, with additional lyrics by Betty Comden and Adolph Green.

The original 1954 Broadway production, starring Mary Martin as Peter and Cyril Ritchard as Captain Hook, earned Tony Awards for both stars. It was followed by NBC telecasts of it in 1955, 1956, and 1960 with the same stars, plus several rebroadcasts of the 1960 telecast. In 2014, the musical was broadcast on NBC featuring several new numbers, and starring Allison Williams and Christopher Walken. The show has enjoyed several revivals onstage.

Peter Pan (2003 film)

Peter Pan is a 2003 fantasy adventure film released by Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures, and Revolution Studios. It was the first authorised and faithful film or television adaptation of J.M. Barrie's play Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up in half a century, after Disney's version in 1953. P. J. Hogan directed a screenplay co-written with Michael Goldenberg which is based on the play and novel by J. M. Barrie. Jason Isaacs plays the dual roles of Captain Hook and George Darling, Olivia Williams plays Mrs. Darling, while Jeremy Sumpter plays Peter Pan, Rachel Hurd-Wood plays Wendy Darling, and Ludivine Sagnier plays Tinker Bell. Lynn Redgrave plays a supporting role as Aunt Millicent, a new character created for the film.

Contrary to the traditional stage casting, the film featured a young boy in the title role. Since the first stage production of the story, the title role has usually been played by a woman, a tradition followed in the first film adaptation. Two subsequent animated adaptations have featured a male voice actor as Peter Pan, and a Soviet live-action film adaptation for television cast a boy to play the role. This film was the first live-action theatrical release with a boy playing the part. The casting of a single actor to play both George Darling and Captain Hook follows a tradition also begun in the first staging of the play.

Peter Pan received positive reviews from critics, but was a box office bomb, grossing $48.5 million in the United States and Canada, and $122 million worldwide, from a $130.6 million budget. resulting in a $70-95 million dollar loss.

Peter Pan Bus Lines

Peter Pan Bus Lines is a long-distance/commuter bus carrier headquartered in Springfield, Massachusetts. It operates in the northeastern United States. As of Fall 2014, Peter Pan operated bus lines in Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. Over four million passengers per year travel on Peter Pan's bus routes.

The company was founded as Yellow Cab Air Line in Springfield, where the company remains based, and was purchased by Peter Carmen Picknelly in 1933. The Picknelly family still owns the company. The company logo is based on an illustration by Roy Best. Each bus, in addition to a number, is also given a name based on the Peter Pan stories.

Peter Pan was affiliated with Trailways beginning in the 1990s, but ended that affiliation in 2005. In 1999, an alliance was formed with Greyhound Lines, coordinating schedules, marketing, and ticket sales. In August 2017, it was announced that this partnership would cease effective September 27, 2017.

Peter Pan statue

The Peter Pan statue is a bronze sculpture of J. M. Barrie's character Peter Pan. It was commissioned by Barrie and made by Sir George Frampton. The original statue is displayed in Kensington Gardens in London, to the west of The Long Water, close to Barrie's former home on Bayswater Road. Barrie's stories were inspired in part by the gardens: the statue is located at the place where Peter Pan lands in Barrie's book The Little White Bird after flying out of his nursery. Six other casts made by the original artist have been erected in other locations around the world.

Peter Pan syndrome

Peter Pan syndrome is an inability to grow up or engage in behaviour usually associated with adulthood. The term comes from the fictional children's character Peter Pan, who never ages. While transageism, or adults regarding themselves as juveniles or adolescents (also referred to as "juvenilism" and "adolescentilism", respectively) is not listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and is not recognized by the American Psychiatric Association as a specific mental disorder, the concept is falsely modelled on transgenderism. This transeageist concept has garnered a great deal of controversy. People who exhibit characteristics associated with the Peter Pan syndrome are sometimes referred to as Peter Panners.The concept gained popularity through Dr. Dan Kiley (psychoanalyst) in his book The Peter Pan Syndrome: Men Who Have Never Grown Up first published in 1983. His book became an international best seller and led to a wave of copycat pop-psychology books. Dr. Kiley got the idea for "The Peter Pan Syndrome" after noticing that, like the famous character in the J. M. Barrie play, many of the troubled teenage boys he treated had problems growing up and accepting adult responsibilities. This trouble continued on into adulthood.

Peter and Wendy

Peter Pan; or, the Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up or Peter and Wendy is J. M. Barrie's most famous work, in the form of a 1904 play and a 1911 novel. Both versions tell the story of Peter Pan, a mischievous yet innocent little boy who can fly, and has many adventures on the island of Neverland that is inhabited by mermaids, fairies, Native Americans and pirates. The Peter Pan stories also involve the characters Wendy Darling and her two brothers, Peter's fairy Tinker Bell, the Lost Boys, and the pirate Captain Hook. The play and novel were inspired by Barrie's friendship with the Llewelyn Davies family. Barrie continued to revise the play for years after its debut until publication of the play script in 1928.

The play debuted in London on 27 December 1904 with Nina Boucicault, daughter of playwright Dion Boucicault, in the title role. A Broadway production was mounted in 1905 starring Maude Adams. It was later revived with such actresses as Marilyn Miller and Eva Le Gallienne. The play has since been adapted as a pantomime, stage musical, a television special, and several films, including a 1924 silent film, Walt Disney's 1953 animated full-length feature film, and a 2003 live action production. The play is now rarely performed in its original form on stage in the United Kingdom, whereas pantomime adaptations are frequently staged around Christmas. In the U.S., the original version has also been supplanted in popularity by the 1954 musical version, which became popular on television.

The novel was first published in 1911 by Hodder & Stoughton in the United Kingdom and Charles Scribner's Sons in the United States. The original book contains a frontispiece and 11 half-tone plates by artist F. D. Bedford (whose illustrations are still under copyright in the EU). The novel was first abridged by May Byron in 1915, with Barrie's permission, and published under the title Peter Pan and Wendy, the first time this form was used. This version was later illustrated by Mabel Lucie Attwell in 1921. In 1929, Barrie gave the copyright of the Peter Pan works to Great Ormond Street Hospital, a children's hospital in London.

Puer aeternus

Puer aeternus (sometimes shortened to puer), Latin for "eternal boy", in mythology is a child-god who is forever young. In psychology it is an older person whose emotional life has remained at an adolescent level, also known as Peter Pan syndrome. The puer typically leads a provisional life due to the fear of being caught in a situation from which it might not be possible to escape. He or she covets independence and freedom, opposes boundaries and limits, and tends to find any restriction intolerable.

Return to Never Land

Return to Never Land (also known as Peter Pan in Disney's Return to Never Land and later retitled Peter Pan: Return to Never Land on current home video release) is a 2002 American animated fantasy-adventure film produced by Walt Disney Television Animation, and released by Walt Disney Pictures and distributed by Buena Vista Pictures. The film is a sequel to Walt Disney Feature Animation 1953 film Peter Pan, It is based on J. M. Barrie's novel Peter and Wendy, and had a worldwide gross of $109 million.The film follows Wendy's daughter who refuses to believe in her mother's story during the Blitz in London, only to be mistakenly brought to Neverland by the pirates. In order for her to get home, she meets Peter Pan, Tinker Bell and the Lost Boys who encourage her to fly and make her believe.

The Adventures of Peter Pan

The Adventures of Peter Pan (ピーターパンの冒険, Pītā Pan no Bōken) is an anime series by Nippon Animation, directed by Yoshio Kuroda, which first aired in Japan on Fuji Television between January 15, 1989 and December 24, 1989. An adaptation of the classic Peter Pan novel by James Matthew Barrie, the series spanned a total of 41 episodes. It was scheduled to start on January 8, 1989, but due to the death of Emperor Shōwa, the premiere got postponed for a week.

It was part of the World Masterpiece Theater, a famed animation staple by Nippon Animation, which produced an animated version of a different classical book or story each year. The anime, while adapting material from the original novel, also adds numerous original story arcs.

The series was also later translated and released in several international audiences worldwide in 1990, sometimes under the name Peter Pan: The Animated Series. In Europe, it was broadcast on the television networks: Telecinco (Spain), SIC (Portugal), RTL Television (Germany), KiKA (Germany), Italia 1 (Italy), TV3 (Sweden) and Fox Kids (Sweden), Yleisradio (Finland) and TVP 2 (Poland). It also aired in numerous other countries, such as Israel (on IETV and Fox Kids), Brazil and later United States on Nick Jr. From 1990 to 1995: Brazil (Rede Globo), Mexico (XHGC), Philippines (ABS-CBN) and the From 2009 to 2012 Indonesia (Spacetoon).

Tinker Bell

Tinker Bell is a fictional character from J. M. Barrie's 1904 play Peter Pan and its 1911 novelization Peter and Wendy. She has appeared in multiple film and television adaptations of the Peter Pan stories, in particular the 1953 animated Walt Disney picture Peter Pan. She also appears in the official sequel Peter Pan in Scarlet by Geraldine McCaughrean commissioned by Great Ormond Street Hospital as well as the "Peter and the Starcatchers" book series by Ridley Pearson and Dave Barry.

At first only a supporting character described by her creator as "a common fairy", her animated incarnation was a hit and has since become a widely recognized unofficial mascot of The Walt Disney Company, and the centrepiece of its Disney Fairies media franchise including the direct-to-DVD film series Tinker Bell and Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color.

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