Peter III of Aragon

Peter III of Aragon (1239–11 November 1285),[1] known as Peter the Great, was King of Aragon, King of Valencia, and Count of Barcelona from 1276 to his death, (this union of kingdoms was called the Crown of Aragon). At the invitation of some rebels, he conquered the Kingdom of Sicily and became King of Sicily in 1282, pressing the claim of his wife, Constance, uniting the kingdom to the crown. He was one of the greatest of medieval Aragonese monarchs.

Peter III
Pedro III rey de Aragón
Peter III depicted in the contemporary Florentine Nuova Cronica by Giovanni Villani.
King of Aragon and Valencia
Count of Barcelona
Reign27 July 1276 – 11 November 1285
CoronationNovember 1276 (Zaragoza)
PredecessorJames I
SuccessorAlfonso III
King of Sicily
Reign4 September 1282 – 11 November 1285
Coronation9 November 1282 (Palermo)
PredecessorCharles I
SuccessorJames II
Bornc. 1239
Valencia
Died11 November 1285 (aged 45–46)
Vilafranca del Penedès
Burial
ConsortConstance of Sicily
IssueAlfonso III of Aragon
James II of Aragon
Elizabeth, Queen of Portugal
Frederick III of Sicily
Yolande, Duchess of Calabria
Peter of Aragon
HouseBarcelona
FatherJames I of Aragon
MotherViolant of Hungary
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Youth and succession

Peter was the eldest son of James I of Aragon and his second wife Violant of Hungary. Among (opportunistic) betrothals of his youth, he was betrothed to Eudoxia, the youngest daughter of Emperor Theodore II Laskaris of Nicaea, in or before 1260. This contract was dissolved, however, after Eudoxia's brother lost the imperial throne in 1261, and Eudoxia was instead married to the Count of Tenda. On 13 June 1262, Peter married Constance, daughter and heir of Manfred of Sicily. During his youth and early adulthood, Peter gained a great deal of military experience in his father's wars of the Reconquista against the Moors.[2]

On James I's death in 1276, the lands of the Crown of Aragon were divided amongst his two sons. The Kingdom of Aragon, the Kingdom of Valencia and the Catalan counties went to Peter III as being the eldest son; while the Kingdom of Majorca (actual Balearic Islands) and the Catalan counties beyond the Pyrenees of Rousillon-Vallespir, Conflent and Capcir and the lordship of Montpellier (all his territories in the Languedoc), went to the second son, who became James II of Majorca.

Peter the Great and Constance of Sicily, Queen of Aragon were crowned in Zaragoza (capital of the Crown of Aragon) in November 1276 by the archbishop of Tarragona.

Early rebellions

Audience de pierre 3 d'aragon
Audience of Peter III of Aragon (Usatici et Constitutiones Cataloniae, 1315–25, BNF, Latin 4670 A)

Peter's first act as king was to complete the pacification of his Valencian territory, an action which had been underway before his father's death.

However, a revolt soon broke out in Catalonia, led by the viscount of Cardona and abetted by Roger-Bernard III of Foix, Arnold Roger I of Pallars Sobirà, and Ermengol X of Urgell.[2] The rebels had developed a hatred for Peter as a result of the severity of his dealings with them during the reign of his father. Now they opposed him for not summoning the Catalan corts (Royal Courts), and confirming its privileges after his ascension to the throne.

At the same time, a succession crisis continued in the County of Urgell. When Count Álvaro died in 1268, the families of his two wives, Constance, a daughter of Pedro Moncada of Béarn, and Cecilia, a daughter of Roger-Bernard II of Foix, began a long fight over the inheritance of his county. Meanwhile, a good portion of the county had been repossessed by Peter's father, James I, and was thus inherited by Peter in 1276. In 1278, Ermengol X, Álvaro's eldest son, succeeded in recovering most of his lost patrimony and came to an agreement with Peter whereby he recognised the latter as his suzerain.[2]

In 1280, Peter defeated the stewing rebellion led by Roger-Bernard III after besieging the rebels in Balaguer (main city of the County of Urgell) for a month. Most of the rebel leaders were imprisoned in Lleida until 1281, while Roger-Bernard was imprisoned until 1284.

Wars abroad

Africa

When Muhammad I al-Mustansir, the Hafsid Emir of Tunisia who had put himself under James the Conqueror, died in 1277, Tunisia threw off the yoke of Aragonese suzerainty.[3] Peter first sent an expedition to Tunis in 1280 under Conrad de Llansa designed to re-establish his suzerainty.[2] In 1281, he himself prepared to lead a fleet of 140 ships with 15,000 men to invade Tunisia on behalf of the governor of Constantine.[4] The fleet landed at Alcoyll (now Collo, Algeria) in 1282. It was these Aragonese troops that received a Sicilian embassy after the Vespers of 30 March asking Peter to take their throne from Charles of Anjou.

Italy

Nuova cronica. f.123r
King Peter III gives audience to ambassadors of Holy Roman Emperor Frederic II, King of Sicily and the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos, demanding Peter to intervene in the war against Charles of Anjou. (Nuova cronica. f.123r (1.VIII,59) ms. Chigiano L VIII 296)

In 1266, the French Charles I of Anjou, king of Naples with the approval of Pope Clement IV, invaded the Kingdom of Sicily, governed by the house of Hohenstaufen, which was the house of Peter III's wife, Constance of Sicily, oldest daughter of Manfred I of Sicily and rightful heir to the throne of Sicily after the deaths of her father and cousin Conradin fighting against Charles' invading forces (Manfred died at the battle of Benevento in 1266 and her cousin Conradin died in 1268). This made Peter III the heir of Manfred of Sicily in right of his wife.

Nuova cronica. f.123v
King Peter III is preparing his trip to the Kingdom of Sicily. The King receives the visit of two Dominican friars, envoyes of Pope Martin IV (supporter of Charles d'Anjou) trying to persuade him not to sail to Sicily. (Nuova cronica. f.123v (1.VIII,60) ms. Chigiano L VIII 296)
Nuova cronica. f.127r
Peter's fleet landing at Trapani, Sicily. The king is depicted directing the landing, second from left in the upper boat, wearing the crown and a red tunic, next to his wife Constance, rightful heir of Manfred of Sicily. Nuova cronica. f.127r (1.VIII,69) ms. Chigiano L VIII 296.

The Italian physician John of Procida acted on behalf of Peter in Sicily. John had fled to Aragon after Charles' success at Tagliacozzo. John travelled to Sicily to stir up the discontents in favour of Peter and thence to Constantinople to procure the support of Michael VIII Palaeologus.[5] Michael refused to aid the Aragonese king without papal approval, and so John voyaged to Rome and there gained the consent of Pope Nicholas III, who feared the ascent of Charles in the Mezzogiorno. John then returned to Barcelona but the pope died, to be replaced by Simon de Brion (as Pope Martin IV), a Frenchman and a staunch ally of Charles and the Anjou dynasty. This set the stage for the upcoming conflict.

Constance thus claimed to her father's throne, supported by her husband, but the claim was fruitless, as Charles was supported by the Papacy and his power remained stronger. The election of a new Pope Nicholas III in 1277 gave the king of Aragon a glimpse of hope, but Nicholas somehow died in 1280 and a pro-French Pope Martin IV dissipated hopes.

Peter nevertheless had begun making strategic alliances with his neighbouring monarchs. Peter made his brother James II of Majorca sign the treaty of Perpignan in 1279, in which he recognized the Kingdom of Majorca as a feudal kingdom of Peter III (making the Crown of Aragon an indissoluble unity). Peter pressed his advantage and by February 1283 had taken most of the Calabrian coastline. Charles, perhaps feeling desperate, sent letters to Peter demanding they resolve the conflict by personal combat. King Peter accepted and Charles returned to France to arrange the duel. Both kings chose six knights to settle on places and dates, and a duel was scheduled for 1 June at Bordeaux. A hundred knights would accompany each side and Edward I of England would adjudge the contest; the English king, heeding the pope, however, refused to take part. Peter left John of Procida in charge of Sicily and returned via his own kingdom to Bordeaux, which he entered in disguise to evade a suspected French ambush. Needless to say, no combat ever took place and Peter returned to find a very turbulent Aragon.[6]

He also had a long-lasting friendly relationship with the Kingdom of Castile (western frontier of the Crown of Aragon, towards the central Iberian Peninsula), establishing a strong alliance between realms by signing the treaties of Campillo and Ágreda in 1281 with king Alfonso X the Wise and infant Sancho (future Sancho IV of Castile).

With the Kingdom of Portugal, Peter established a marital alliance by which his eldest daughter Elizabeth of Aragon married the King of Portugal, Denis I.

Peter III also made alliance with England, engaging his heir Alfonso III with Eleanor of England, daughter of Edward I of England. Despite all these alliances, Peter kept his bad relationship with the Kingdom of France.

On 30 March 1282 there was a popular uprising in the Kingdom of Sicily called the Sicilian vespers, against the government of Charles I d'Anjou. The noble sicilian rebels asked for help to Peter III and offered him the crown as they considered his wife Constance their rightful Queen, and after receiving an embassy from the people of Palermo at Alcoy, Peter landed at Trapani on 30 August 1282.[5] He was proclaimed king in Palermo on 4 September. Charles was forced to flee across the Straits of Messina and be content with his Kingdom of Naples. Simon de Brion, now Pope Martin IV, excommunicated both king Peter and the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII for providing Peter with 60,000 gold pieces to invade Sicily (18 November).[7]

Catalan ground troops were commanded by Guillem Galceran de Cartellà, and were formed by the famous and feared almogavars, crossbowmen and lancers. Peter's powerful fleet was commanded by Roger of Lauria (serving the Crown of Aragon since Constance became queen), and constantly repelled angevin attacks to the island. Roger de Lauria defeated the French forces at the port of Malta in 1283 (Malta and Gozo became associated with Sicily), and at the Bay of Naples in 1284, where Charles of Anjou was made prisoner.

The conquest of Sicily was financed by Jewish contributions and taxes charged to the aljamas. The infant Alfonso demanded them an allowance of 200.000 sous in 1282. The aljamas from the Kingdom of Valencia gave 25.000 sous, the Aragonese 75.000 and 100.000 were charged to the Catalan aljamas. The Kingdom of Sicily was to be a tenaciously-pursued inheritance for the Aragonese royal house and its heirs for the next five centuries.

Pedro III croat 612529
A croat minted at Barcelona, bearing the image of Peter and the words Petrus Dei gracia rex (Peter by the grace of God king) and civitas Barcenona (city of Barcelona)

Later domestic unrest

Peter was dealing with domestic unrest at the time when the French were preparing an invasion of Aragon. He took Albarracín from the rebellious noble Juan Núñez de Lara, he renewed the alliance with Sancho IV of Castile, and he attacked Tudela in an attempt to prevent Philip the Fair, the king of Navarre and the son of the French king Philip III the Bold, from invading on that front. Peter held meetings of the cortes at Tarragona and Zaragoza in 1283. He was forced to grant the Privilegio General to the newly formed Union of Aragon.[6]

Also in 1283, Peter's brother James II of Majorca joined the French and recognised their suzerainty over Montpellier. This gave the French free passage into Catalonia through Roussillon as well as access to the Balearic Islands. In October, Peter began preparing the defences of Catalonia. In 1284, Pope Martin IV granted the Kingdom of Aragon to Charles, Count of Valois, another son of the French king and great-nephew of Charles of Anjou. Papal sanction was given to a war – crusade – to conquer Aragon on behalf of Charles of Valois.

Aragonese Crusade

Pedro III el Grande en el collado de las Panizas
Peter III at Col de Panissars by Mariano Barbasán (1889)

In 1284, the first French armies under King Philip and Count Charles entered Roussillon. They included 16,000 cavalry, 17,000 crossbowmen, and 100,000 infantry, along with 100 ships in south French ports.[8] Though the French had James's support, the local populace rose against them. The city of Elne was valiantly defended by the so-called bâtard de Roussillon ("bastard of Roussillon"), the illegitimate son of Nuño Sánchez, late count of Roussillon (1212–1242). Eventually he was overcome and the cathedral was burnt; the royal forces progressed.

In 1285, Philip entrenched himself before Girona in an attempt to besiege it. The resistance was strong, but the city was taken. Charles was crowned there, but without an actual crown. The French soon experienced a reversal, however, at the hands of Roger de Lauria, back from the Italian theatre of the drawn-out conflict. The French fleet was defeated and destroyed at the Battle of Les Formigues on 4 September 1285. In addition, the French camp was hit hard by an epidemic of dysentery.

The King of France himself was afflicted. The King of Navarre, the heir apparent to the French throne, opened negotiations with Peter for free passage for the royal family through the Pyrenees. But the troops were not offered such passage and were decimated at the Battle of the Col de Panissars. Philip III of France died in October at Perpignan, the capital of James II of Majorca (who had fled in fear after being confronted by Peter), and was buried in Narbonne. James was declared a vassal of Peter.

Peter III of Aragon
Peter III (Usatici et Constitutiones Cataloniae, 1315–25, BNF, Latin 4670 A)

Troubadour works

Peter matched his father in patronage of the arts and literature, but unlike him he was a lover of verse, not prose. He favoured the troubadours, having himself created two sirventesos. The first is in the form of an exchange between himself and Peironet, a troubadour. The second is part of a compilation of five compositions from Peter himself, Bernat d'Auriac, Pere Salvatge (perhaps the same as Peironet), Roger-Bernard III of Foix, and an anonymous contributor.

As well, the wars with Philip of France and James of Majorca furnished material for new sirventesos and during this period the sirventes was converted into a convenient tool of political propaganda in which each side could, directly or allegorically, present its case and procure sympathy propitious to its cause.

Death and legacy

Peter died from unknown causes at Vilafranca del Penedès on 11 November 1285,[1] just one month after his royal foe Philip III of France, and was buried in the Monastery of Santes Creus.[9] His deathbed absolution occurred after he declared that his conquests had been in the name of his familial claims and never against the claims of the church. His remains are entombed in a porphyry sarcophagus at the monastery.

Like his father, Peter divided his kingdoms between his sons. He left Aragon to his eldest son, Alfonso, and Sicily to his second son, James. Peter's third son, Frederick, in succession to his brother James, became regent of Sicily and in due course its king. Peter did not provide for his illegitimate youngest son and namesake, Peter (1275 – 25 August 1296), who married Constança Mendes da Silva, daughter of Soeiro Mendes Petite, governor of Santarém in Portugal. This Peter left Spain for Portugal with his half-sister Elizabeth.

Peter also had two daughters, Elizabeth, who married Denis of Portugal, and Yolanda, who married Robert of Naples.

In the Divine Comedy, (Purgatory, Canto VII) Dante Alighieri sees Peter "singing in accord" (d'ogni valor portó cinta la corda) with his former rival, Charles I of Sicily, outside the gates of Purgatory.

Notes

  1. ^ a b Cabrera Sánchez 2011, pp. 112–113.
  2. ^ a b c d Chaytor 1933, p. 97.
  3. ^ Chaytor 1933, p. 101.
  4. ^ Chaytor 1933, p. 102.
  5. ^ a b Chaytor 1933, p. 103.
  6. ^ a b Harris 2003, p. 104.
  7. ^ Harris 2003, p. 180.
  8. ^ Harris 2003, p. 106.
  9. ^ El País, news on discovery of mummy of Peter III at Monastery of Santes Creus

Bibliography

  • Cabrera Sánchez, Margarita (2011). "La muerte de los miembros de la realeza hispánica medieval a través de los testimonios historiográficos". En la España medieval (in Spanish) (34). Madrid: Universidad Complutense. pp. 97–132. ISSN 0214-3038.
  • Chaytor, H.J. (1933). A History of Aragón and Catalonia. London: Methuen. ISBN 9780404014797.
  • Harris, Jonathan (2003). Byzantium and the Crusades. London: Hambledon. ISBN 9781852852986.
  • Runciman, Steven (1958). The Sicilian Vespers; a history of the Mediterranean world in the later thirteenth century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43774-1.
  • Riquer, Martín de (1951). "Un trovador valenciano: Pedro el Grande de Aragón". Revista Valenciana de Filología. 1 (4).
Peter III of Aragon
Born: c. 1239 Died: 2 November 1285
Regnal titles
Preceded by
James I
King of Aragon and Valencia
Count of Barcelona

1276–1285
Succeeded by
Alfonso III
Preceded by
Charles I
King of Sicily
1282–1285
Succeeded by
James
1282

Year 1282 (MCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Alfonso III of Aragon

Alfonso III (4 November 1265, in Valencia – 18 June 1291), called the Liberal (el Liberal) or the Free (also "the Frank," from el Franc), was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona (as Alfons II) from 1285. He conquered the Kingdom of Majorca between his succession and 1287.

He was a son of King Peter III of Aragon and Constance, daughter and heiress of King Manfred of Sicily.

Soon after assuming the throne, he conducted a campaign to reincorporate the Balearic Islands into the Kingdom of Aragon - which had been lost due to the division of the kingdom by his grandfather, James I of Aragon. Thus in 1285 he declared war on his uncle, James II of Majorca, and conquered both Majorca (1285) and Ibiza (1286), effectively reassuming suzerainty over the Kingdom of Majorca. He followed this with the conquest of Menorca - until then, an autonomous Muslim state (Manûrqa) within the Kingdom of Majorca - on 17 January 1287, the anniversary of which now serves as Menorca's national holiday.

He initially sought to maintain Aragonese control over Sicily early in his reign by supporting the claims to the island of his brother, James II of Aragon. However, he later retracted the support for his brother shortly before his death and instead tried to make peace with the Papal States France.His reign was marred by a constitutional struggle with the Aragonese nobles, which eventually culminated in the articles of the Union of Aragon - the so-called "Magna Carta of Aragon", which devolved several key royal powers into the hands of lesser nobles. His inability to resist the demands of his nobles was to leave a heritage of disunity in Aragon and further dissent amongst the nobility, who increasingly saw little reason to respect the throne, and brought the Kingdom of Aragon close to anarchy.

During his lifetime a dynastic marriage with Eleanor, daughter of King Edward I of England, was arranged. However Alfonso died before meeting his bride. He died at the age of 26 in 1291, and was buried in the Franciscan convent in Barcelona; since 1852 his remains have been buried in Barcelona Cathedral.

Dante Alighieri, in the Divine Comedy, recounts that he saw Alfonso's spirit seated outside the gates of Purgatory with the other monarchs whom Dante blamed for the chaotic political state of Europe during the 13th century.

Barcelona Royal Shipyard

The Barcelona Royal Shipyard (Catalan: Drassanes Reials de Barcelona; Spanish: Atarazanas Reales de Barcelona) is a shipyard and former military building of Gothic architecture placed at the Port Vell area of the Port of Barcelona. Nowadays it houses the Barcelona Maritime Museum. Construction started during the 13th century under the rule of Peter III of Aragon. During excavations in 2012

it was discovered that in the late 16th century a new building was constructed on top of the old medieval dockyard, giving the building its current structure. This excavations also uncovered a Roman graveyard. The shipyard's restoration was finished in early 2013. The museum was reopened in 2014.

Battle of the Col de Panissars

The Battle of the Col de Panissars was fought on 30 September and 1 October 1285 between the forces of Philip III of France and Peter III of Aragon. It was a severe defeat for the French, who were already retiring over the Pyrenees when the Aragonese fell on them.

It was the last battle of the Aragonese Crusade, a papally-sanctioned war on behalf of Charles of Valois to secure the Aragonese throne from the excommunicated king Peter III, who had conquered Sicily against papal interests. The battle followed on the heels of the naval victory at Les Formigues on 4 September.

Beatrix of Sicily (1260–1307)

Beatrix of Sicily or Beatrice di Sicilia (Palermo, 1260 – Marquisate of Saluzzo, 1307) was a Sicilian princess, daughter of the King Manfred of Sicily and his wife Helena Angelina Doukaina. In 1296 she became Marchioness consort of Saluzzo.

After the battle of Benevento (26 February 1266) and the death of her father, Beatrix was imprisoned in Naples together with her family by Charles of Anjou. She regained her freedom only in 1284, after the Battle of the Gulf of Naples, thanks to her brother-in-law Peter III of Aragon.

In 1286 Beatrix married Manfred IV, son of Thomas I, Marquess of Saluzzo. In 1296, because of the Thomas I's death, she became Marchioness consort of Saluzzo.

Beatrix died in 1307.

Bernard Desclot

Bernard Desclot (in Catalan: Bernat Desclot) was a Catalan chronicler whose work covering the brief reign of Peter III of Aragon (1276–85) forms one of the four Catalan Grand Chronicles through which the modern historian views thirteenth- and fourteenth century military and political matters in the Kingdom of Aragon and the Principality of Catalonia, including the "Aragonese Crusade". Desclot's Chronicle begins in the eleventh century but gains especial interest when he comes to describe events current within living memory. Bernard's literary model was Romance, and his account is spiced with dramatic monologues of the central characters and thrilling episodes, such as the escape of Peter's brother, James II of Majorca, from the fortress of Perpignan, through the castle's drains.

Nothing of Bernard himself is known save what little can be gleaned through his Chronicle.

F.L. Critchlow provided an English translation of the section covering the reign of Peter III in Chronicle of the Reign of King Peter III of Aragon, 1276-85 (Princeton University Press) 1928.

Charles II of Naples

Charles II, also known as Charles the Lame (French: Charles le Boiteux; Italian: Carlo lo Zoppo; 1254 – 5 May 1309), was King of Naples, Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1285–1309), Prince of Achaea (1285–1289), and Count of Anjou and Maine (1285–1290); he also styled himself King of Albania and claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1285. He was the son of Charles I of Anjou—one of the most powerful European monarchs in the second half of the 13th century—and Beatrice of Provence. His father granted Charles the Principality of Salerno in the Kingdom of Sicily (or Regno) in 1272 and made him regent in Provence and Forcalquier in 1279.

After the riot known as the Sicilian Vespers against Charles' father, the island of Sicily became an independent kingdom under the rule of Peter III of Aragon in 1282. A year later, his father made Charles regent in the mainland territories of the Regno (or the Kingdom of Naples). Charles held a general assembly where unpopular taxes were abolished and the liberties of the noblemen and clerics were confirmed. He could not prevent the Aragonese from occupying Calabria and the islands in the Gulf of Naples. The Sicilian admiral, Roger of Lauria, captured him in a naval battle near Naples in 1284. For he was still in prison when his father died on 7 January 1285, his realms were ruled by regents.

Constance of Aragon, Lady of Villena

Constance of Aragon (1239–1269) was a daughter of James I of Aragon and his second wife Yolanda of Hungary. She was a member of the House of Barcelona and was Infanta of Castile by her marriage to Manuel of Castile.

Her maternal grandparents were Andrew II of Hungary and his second wife Yolanda de Courtenay. Her paternal grandparents were Peter II of Aragon and Marie of Montpellier. Constance's siblings included: James II of Majorca, Peter III of Aragon, Yolanda, Queen of Castile and Isabella, Queen of France.

In 1260 and in Soria, Constance married Infante Manuel of Castile, the second son of Ferdinand III and his first wife Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen. The couple had at least two children:

Alfonso Manuel (born 1260/1261, died in Montpellier, France in 1276) Died without issue.

Violante Manuel (born 1265, died in Lisbon, Portugal in 1314), lady of Elche and Medellín. Married circa 1287 to Afonso of Portugal, son of Afonso III of Portugal.Constance died in 1269, leaving her husband a widower. He remarried in 1274/5 to Beatrice of Savoy. Their son was Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena, who was successor to his father since Constance's son, Alfonso died young.

Frederick III of Sicily

Frederick II (or III) (13 December 1272 – 25 June 1337) was the regent (from 1291) and subsequent King of Sicily from 1295 until his death. He was the third son of Peter III of Aragon and served in the War of the Sicilian Vespers on behalf of his father and brothers, Alfonso ΙΙΙ and James ΙΙ. He was confirmed as King of Trinacria (another name for the island of Sicily) by the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302. His reign saw important constitutional reforms: the Constitutiones regales, Capitula alia, and Ordinationes generales.

James II of Aragon

James II (10 April 1267 – 2 or 5 November 1327), called the Just, was the King of Aragon and Valencia and Count of Barcelona from 1291 to 1327. He was also the King of Sicily (as James I) from 1285 to 1295 and the King of Majorca from 1291 to 1298. From 1297 he was nominally the King of Sardinia and Corsica, but he only acquired the island of Sardinia by conquest in 1324. His full title for the last three decades of his reign was "James, by the grace of God, king of Aragon, Valencia, Sardinia and Corsica, and count of Barcelona" (Latin: Iacobus Dei gracia rex Aragonum, Valencie, Sardinie, et Corsice ac comes Barchinone).

Born at Valencia, James was the second son of Peter III of Aragon and Constance of Sicily. He succeeded his father in Sicily in 1285 and his elder brother Alfonso III in Aragon and the other Spanish territories, including Majorca, in 1291. He was forced to cede Sicily to the papacy in 1295, after which it was seized by his younger brother, Frederick III, in 1296. In 1298 he returned Majorca to the deposed king of Majorca, a different James II, having received rights to Sardinia and Corsica from Pope Boniface VIII. On 20 January 1296, Boniface issued the bull Redemptor mundi granting James the titles of Standard-bearer, Captain General and Admiral of the Roman church.

Joanna of Aragon, Countess of Foix

Joanna of Aragon (October 1375 - September 1407) was the only surviving child of John I of Aragon and his first wife Martha of Armagnac. She was a member of the House of Aragon and was Countess of Foix by her marriage to Matthew of Foix.

Joanna was born at Daroca, the second of five children born into her father's first marriage. With his second wife, Violant of Bar, John had only one daughter who lived to adulthood, Yolande.

In Barcelona, on 4 June 1392, Joanna married Matthew of Foix, son of Roger Bernard II, Viscount of Castelbon. He was her fourth cousin, both being descendants of Peter III of Aragon. They were married for fifteen years but in this time they had no children.

In 1396 King John died. He was succeeded by his brother, Joanna's uncle Martin. However, Sicilian nobles were causing unrest and Martin was kept in Sicily. In the meanwhile, Martin's wife Maria de Luna claimed the throne on his behalf and acted as his representative until he arrived in 1397. Still, the delay opened the way for more problems and quarrels to surface in Aragon. His right to the throne was contested by Matthew and Joanna. However, Martin succeeded in quashing the invasion by the troops of Matthew and Joanna.Joanna's younger half-sister Yolande claimed the throne with the support of her mother, despite Joanna still being alive. They also failed but Yolande married Louis II of Naples and had children who all challenged Martin's rights to the throne.Joanna, who failed to become Queen of Aragon, died childless in Valencia on September 1407. After Martin's death Yolande tried again to claim Aragon but failed.

Kingdom of Majorca

The Kingdom of Majorca (Catalan: Regne de Mallorca, IPA: [ˈreŋnə ðə məˈʎɔɾkə]; Spanish: Reino de Mallorca; Latin: Regnum Maioricae) was founded by James I of Aragon, also known as James The Conqueror. After the death of his firstborn son Alfonso, a will was written in 1262 and created the kingdom to cede it to his son James. The disposition was maintained during successive versions of his will and so when James I died in 1276, the Crown of Aragon passed to his eldest son Peter, known as Peter III of Aragon or Peter the Great. The Kingdom of Majorca passed to James, who reigned under the name of James II of Majorca. After 1279, Peter III of Aragon established that the king of Majorca was a vassal to the king of Aragon. The title continued to be employed by the Aragonese and Spanish monarchs until its dissolution by the 1715 Nueva Planta decrees.

Peter III

Peter III may refer to:

Pope Peter III of Alexandria (477)

Peter III of Raqqa, Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch in 581–591

Peter III of Bulgaria (ruled in 1072)

Peter III (bishop of Lugo) (r. from 1113 until 1133)

Peter III of Aragon (1239–1285)

Peter III of Arborea (died 1347)

Peter III Aaron (died 1467)

Pedro III of Kongo (ruler in 1669)

Peter III of Russia (1728–1762)

Peter III of Portugal (1717–1786)

Peter III is the current Pope of the Palmarian Catholic Church (2016–present)

Philip III of France

Philippe III redirects here. It can also refer to Philippe III de Croÿ and Philippe III, Duke of Orléans.Philip III (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold (French: le Hardi), was King of France from 1270 to 1285, the tenth from the House of Capet.

Philip proved indecisive, soft in nature, and timid. The strong personalities of his parents apparently crushed him, and policies of his father dominated him. People called him "the Bold" on the basis of his abilities in combat and on horseback and not on the basis of his political or personal character. He was pious but not cultivated. He followed the suggestions of others, first of Pierre de La Broce and then of his uncle King Charles I of Naples, Sicily, and Albania.

His father, Louis IX, died in Tunis during the Eighth Crusade. Philip, who was accompanying him, came back to France to claim his throne and was anointed at Reims in 1271.

Philip made numerous territorial acquisitions during his reign, the most notable being the County of Toulouse which was annexed to the Crown lands of France in 1271. Following the Sicilian Vespers, a rebellion triggered by Peter III of Aragon against Philip's uncle Charles I of Naples, Philip led an unsuccessful Aragonese Crusade in support of his uncle. Philip was forced to retreat and died from dysentry in Perpignan in 1285. He was succeeded by his son Philip the Fair.

Saint Elizabeth of Portugal (Zurbarán)

Saint Elizabeth of Portugal is a 1630-1635 painting by Francisco de Zurbarán of Elizabeth of Aragon, daughter of Peter III of Aragon. Since 1818 it has been in the Prado Museum in Madrid.

Siege of Albarracín (1284)

The Siege of Albarracín was a battle fought during the reign of Peter III of Aragon, King of Aragón from the months of April to September 1284. Albarracín, which had for some time belonged to Juan Núñez I de Lara, the head of the House of Lara, was besieged by an Aragonese force. The siege resulted in the successful taking of the city by Aragonese forces after which, Peter III handed gifted the city to his illegitimate son, Ferdinand of Aragón.

Treaty of Anagni

The Treaty of Anagni was an accord between the Pope Boniface VIII, James II of Aragon, Philip IV of France, Charles II of Naples, and James II of Majorca. It was signed on 20 June 1295 at Anagni, in central Italy. The chief purpose was to confirm the Treaty of Tarascon of 1291, which ended the Aragonese Crusade. It also dealt with finding a diplomatic solution to the conquest of Sicily by Peter III of Aragón in 1285.

Neither Frederick II of Sicily, James of Aragon's brother, nor the Sicilian people accepted the treaty and instead pursued a war against the Angevin forces of Charles of Naples. Charles was, as per the respective clause of the treaty, assisted by the fleet of James of Aragón. This war did not end until the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302.

Yolande of Aragon, Duchess of Calabria

Yolanda of Aragon (1273 – August 1302) was the daughter of Peter III of Aragon and Constance of Sicily. She married Robert of Naples, but was never Queen of Naples since she died before her husband inherited the throne.

On 23 March 1297, in Rome, Yolanda married Robert. He was the third born son of Charles II of Naples and Maria Arpad of Hungary. Robert married Yolanda in exchange for James II of Aragon's renouncing of Sicily (James was Yolanda's brother).

Yolanda was then escorted to Naples by her new brother-in-law, Raymond Berengar of Andria.

Yolanda and Robert had two sons:

Charles (1298–1328), Duke of Calabria (1309), Viceroy of Naples (1318), who was the father of Queen Joan I of Naples

Louis (1301–10)The same month as Yolanda's death was the peace of Caltabellotta, which ended the war of the Vespers. Her husband inherited the throne seven years later.

On Yolanda's death, Robert married Sancha of Majorca. This marriage was childless.

Ancestors of Peter III of Aragon
8. Alfonso II of Aragon
4. Peter II of Aragon
9. Sancha of Castile
2. James I of Aragon
10. William VIII of Montpellier
5. Marie of Montpellier
11. Eudokia Komnene
1. Peter III of Aragon
12. Béla III of Hungary
6. Andrew II of Hungary
13. Agnes of Antioch
3. Violant of Hungary
14. Peter II of Courtenay
7. Yolanda de Courtenay
15. Yolanda of Flanders
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House of Jiménez
House of Barcelona
House of Trastámara
House of Habsburg

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