|Born||30 September 1930|
Ashton-under-Lyne, Lancashire, England, UK
|Died||18 December 1994 (aged 64)|
Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, UK
|Other names||Robert Myddleton (in The Tablet)|
|Education||Xaverian College; Jesuit novitiate|
|Alma mater||Xaverian College|
|Occupation||Jesuit priest, editor, journalist|
|The Month, The Tablet, The Observer, National Catholic Reporter|
Margaret Speaight (m. 1974)
Hebblethwaite was born in Ashton-under-Lyne, Lancashire, the son of Charles and Elsie Ann Hebblethwaite. He was educated by the De La Salle Brothers. He was a journalist on Vatican affairs (regarded by some during his lifetime as the leading English-language Vaticanologist) and for some years he was a Jesuit priest. He was educated at the parish primary school of St Anne's, Ashton-under-Lyne, and Xaverian College, Manchester, a Catholic grammar school.
He entered the Jesuit novitiate in 1948, and later studied in England and France. He was ordained a priest in 1963. Two years later he joined the staff of the Jesuit magazine The Month, covering the final session of the Second Vatican Council. In 1967 he was appointed editor of The Month, a post he held until leaving the priesthood to marry Margaret Speaight (born 1951, London), a British writer, journalist, activist and religious worker. The couple wed in 1974 and had three children.
From 1976 to 1979, he taught French at Wadham College, Oxford, specialising in the work of Catholic writer Georges Bernanos, before launching himself as a freelance journalist, concentrating on Catholic affairs and the Vatican in particular. He was the Vatican correspondent for the American liberal Catholic weekly National Catholic Reporter from 1979 to 1981. His numerous books brought him to a wider public. The Runaway Church (1975) looked at the changes in the Catholic Church since the Second Vatican Council. The Year of Three Popes covered the dramatic papal events of 1978, and was later followed by two papal biographies: John XXIII: Pope of the Council appeared in 1984 and Paul VI: The First Modern Pope in 1993.
Peter Hebblethwaite died in Oxford on 18 December 1994, aged 64.
The Brigate Fiamme Verdi (Green Flame Brigade) was an Italian Partisan Resistance Group, of predominantly Roman Catholic orientation, which operated in Italy during World War II.The armed Italian Resistance comprised a number of contingents of differing ideological orientation - the largest being the Communist Brigate Garibaldi. Tensions between Catholics and anarchists, Communists and socialists in the movement led Catholics to form the Fiamme Verdi as a separate brigade of Christian Democrats in Northern Italy. Peter Hebblethwaite wrote that, by early 1944, some 20,000 partisans had emerged from Catholic Action. Known as the "Green Flames", they were supported by sympathetic provincial clergy in the North, who pronounced the Germans to be "unjust invaders", whom it was lawful and meritorious to repel. "Bishops tended to be more cautious", wrote Hebblethwaite, Maurilio Fossati, the Cardinal Archbishop of Turin "visited partisan units in the mountains, heard their confessions and said Mass for them."The Fiamme Verdi did not belong to the approximately 4% of Italian Resistance groups that were formal Catholic organisations, but instead was classed in the 21% of resistance groups that were "independent", in which, like the Osoppo group and others, the Fiamme Verdi was not formally a Catholic group, but had a very strong Catholic presence. Nevertheless, just as there were militant Catholics within the Garibaldi Brigade, so there were non-Catholics within the Fiamme Verdi. 191 priests were killed by fascists and 125 by the Germans, while 109 were killed by partisans. Though some priests joined pro-fascist bands, the Vatican backed the so-called anti-Fascist 'partisan chaplains' and 'red priests' fighting with the partisans, hoping that they would provide religious guidance to partisans being exposed to Communist propaganda.The Fiamme Verdi was sometimes associated with the Democrazia Cristiana Party and was particularly active in Emilia and Lombardia. Notable members included Lionello Levi Sandri, who later served as a prominent Italian and European Commissioner.Domenico Tardini
Domenico Tardini (29 February 1888 – 30 July 1961) was a longtime aide to Pope Pius XII in the Secretariat of State. Pope John XXIII named him Cardinal Secretary of State and, in this position the most prominent member of the Roman Curia in Vatican City.Emmanuel Célestin Suhard
Emmanuel Célestin Suhard (French pronunciation: [emanɥɛl selɛstɛ̃ sɥaʁ]; April 5, 1874 – May 30, 1949) was a French Cardinal of the Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Paris from 1940 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1935. He was instrumental in the founding of the Mission of France and the Worker-Priest Movement, to bring the clergy closer to the people.Enrico Dante
Enrico Dante (5 July 1884 – 24 April 1967) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Papal Master of Ceremonies from 1947 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1965.
His face became very familiar after assisting the popes at their Masses and other ceremonies for nearly twenty years.Giuliano Vassalli
Giuliano Vassalli (25 April 1915 – 21 October 2009) was an Italian politician, lecturer and lawyer.Hebblethwaite
Hebblethwaite may refer to :
James Hebblethwaite (22 September 1857 – 13 September 1921) was an English-born Australian poet, teacher and clergyman.
Peter Hebblethwaite (September 30, 1930, Ashton-under-Lyne, Lancashire - December 18, 1994, Oxford), was a British journalist and biographer.Humanae vitae
Humanae vitae (Latin: Of Human Life) is an encyclical written by Pope Paul VI and dated 25 July 1968. The text was issued at a Vatican press conference on 29 July. Subtitled On the Regulation of Birth, it re-affirmed the orthodox teaching of the Catholic Church regarding married love, responsible parenthood, and the rejection of artificial contraception. In formulating his teaching he explained why he did not accept the conclusions of the Pontifical Commission on Birth Control established by his predecessor, Pope John XXIII, a commission he himself had expanded.Mainly because of its prohibition of artificial contraception (some licit therapeutic procedures with the sole intent to cure bodily diseases are excepted), the encyclical was politically controversial. It affirmed traditional Church moral teaching on the sanctity of life and the procreative and unitive nature of conjugal relations.
It was the last of Paul's seven encyclicals.International Theological Commission
The International Theological Commission (ITC) of the Roman Catholic Church advises the Magisterium of the Church, particularly the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF), a dicastery of the Roman Curia. Its memberships consists of no more than 30 Catholic theologians appointed by the pope at the suggestion of the Prefect of the CDF for renewable five year terms. They tend to meet annually for a week in Rome, where the Commission is based.The Prefect of the CDF is ex officio the president of the ITC.L'Eco di Bergamo
L'Eco di Bergamo is an Italian language daily newspaper published in Bergamo, Italy.Margaret Hebblethwaite
Margaret Isabella Mary Speaight Hebblethwaite (born 16 June 1951, London) is a British writer, journalist, activist and religious worker.Maurilio Fossati
Maurilio Fossati, O.SS.G.C.N., (24 May 1876 – 30 March 1965) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Turin from 1930 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1933.Pacem in terris
Pacem in terris (lit. Peace on Earth) was a papal encyclical issued by Pope John XXIII on 11 April 1963 on the rights and obligations of individuals and of the state, as well as the proper relations between states. It emphasized human dignity and equality among all people, and made mention of issues such as the rights of women, nuclear non-proliferation, and the United Nations, all of which it endorsed. It was the last encyclical drafted by John XXIII, who had been diagnosed with cancer in September 1962 and died two months after the encyclical's completion. Biographer Peter Hebblethwaite called it Pope John's "last will and testament". Published on Holy Thursday, the Pope called it his "Easter gift".
Due to its importance and popularity, Pacem in Terris is deposited at the UN archives.Pius XII and the German Resistance
During the Second World War, Pope Pius XII maintained links to the German resistance to Nazism against Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime. Although remaining publicly neutral, Pius advised the British in 1940 of the readiness of certain German generals to overthrow Hitler if they could be assured of an honourable peace, offered assistance to the German resistance in the event of a coup and warned the Allies of the planned German invasion of the Low Countries in 1940. The Nazis considered that the Pope had engaged in acts equivalent to espionage.Riccardo Galeazzi-Lisi
Riccardo Galeazzi-Lisi (26 July 1891 – 29 November 1968) was an Italian medical doctor who served as Pope Pius XII's personal physician from 1939 until his dismissal in 1958. During his service in the Vatican he was officially titled "Archiatra Pontificio". The pope also made him an honorary member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. He managed to be present at the 1958 death of Pius XII and created a scandal in this context with his attempt to publish pictures and stories about the dying pontiff. He was also a member of the International Society for the History of Medicine.The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church is a 1981 non-fiction book by Catholic priest and author Malachi Martin.The European Journal of International Affairs
The European Journal of International Affairs was established in 1988 by Giuseppe Sacco and covers international relations from a European perspective. It is published by the European Centre for International Affairs.The Month
The Month was a monthly review, published from 1864 to 2001, which, for almost all of its history, was owned by the English Province of the Society of Jesus and was edited by its members.Vaticanology
Vaticanology is term coined in the 20th century to describe the field of journalism and research studying and reporting about how the Holy See and the Roman Catholic Church operate. It is named after the Vatican City, the Holy See's sovereign territory enclaved with in Rome, Italy. Particular emphasis tend to be placed on the selection and appointment mechanisms by which the Church's leadership emerges.
A journalists or scholar focusing on this area of expertise is sometimes referred to as a Vaticanologist or Vaticanist.Xaverian College
Xaverian College is a Roman Catholic college in Manchester, England, founded by the Xaverian Brothers in 1862.