Peter Damian

Peter Damian (Latin: Petrus Damianus; Italian: Pietro or Pier Damiani; c. 1007 – 21 or 22 February 1072 or 1073)[1] was a reforming Benedictine monk and cardinal in the circle of Pope Leo IX. Dante placed him in one of the highest circles of Paradiso as a great predecessor of Saint Francis of Assisi and he was declared a Doctor of the Church in 1828. His feast day is 21 February.

Saint Peter Damian
Peter Damian bust
Bust of Peter Damian. Santa Maria degli Angeli, Florence.
Bishop, Confessor and Doctor of the Church
Bornc. 988
Ravenna
Died22 February 1072 or 1073[1]
Faenza
Venerated inRoman Catholic Church
Feast21 February
earlier 23 February (General Roman Calendar, 1823-1969)
Attributesrepresented as a cardinal bearing a knotted rope in his hand; also as a pilgrim holding a papal Bull; Cardinal's hat, Benedictine monk's habit

Early life

Peter was born in Ravenna around 988[2], the youngest of a large noble, but poor family. Orphaned early, he was at first adopted by an elder brother, who ill-treated and under-fed him while employing him as a swineherd. After some years, another brother, Damianus, who was archpriest at Ravenna, had pity on him and took him away to be educated. Adding his brother's name to his own, Peter made such rapid progress in his studies of theology and canon law, first at Ravenna, then at Faenza, and finally at the University of Parma, that, around the age of 25, he was already a famous teacher at Parma and Ravenna.[3]

Religious life

Ercole de' Roberti 007
Saint Peter Damian (far right), depicted with Saints Augustine, Anne, and Elizabeth

About 1035, however, he gave up his secular calling and, avoiding the compromised luxury of Cluniac monasteries, entered the isolated hermitage of Fonte Avellana, near Gubbio. Both as novice and as monk, his fervor was remarkable but led him to such extremes of self-mortification in penance that his health was affected, and he developed severe insomnia.[3]

On his recovery, he was appointed to lecture to his fellow monks. Then, at the request of Guy of Pomposa (Guido d'Arezzo) and other heads of neighboring monasteries, for two or three years he lectured to their brethren also, and (about 1042) wrote the life of St Romuald for the monks of Pietrapertosa. Soon after his return to Fonte Avellana he was appointed economus (manager or housekeeper) of the house by the prior, who designated him as his successor. In 1043 he became prior of Fonte Avellana, and remained so until his death in February 1072.[3]

Subject-hermitages were founded at San Severino, Gamogna, Acerreta, Murciana, San Salvatore, Sitria and Ocri. A zealot for monastic and clerical reform, he introduced a more-severe discipline, including the practice of flagellation ("the disciplina"), into the house, which, under his rule, quickly attained celebrity, and became a model for other foundations, even the great abbey of Monte Cassino. There was much opposition outside his own circle to such extreme forms of penitence, but Peter's persistent advocacy ensured its acceptance, to such an extent that he was obliged later to moderate the imprudent zeal of some of his own hermits.[4]

Another innovation was that of the daily siesta, to make up for the fatigue of the night office. During his tenure of the priorate a cloister was built, silver chalices and a silver processional cross were purchased, and many books were added to the library.[4]

Reformer

Sancti Petri Damiani Opera Omnia
Sancti Petri Damiani Opera Omnia (1743)

Although living in the seclusion of the cloister, Peter Damian closely watched the fortunes of the Church, and like his friend Hildebrand, the future Pope Gregory VII, he strove for reforms in a deplorable time. After almost two centuries of political and social upheaval, doctrinal ignorance, and the petty venality among the clergy had reached intolerable levels. When the scandalous Benedict IX resigned the pontificate into the hands of the archpriest John Gratian (Gregory VI) in 1045, Peter hailed the change with joy and wrote to the new pope, urging him to deal with the scandals of the church in Italy, singling out the wicked bishops of Pesaro, of Città di Castello and of Fano.[4]

Extending the area of his activities, he entered into communication with the Emperor Henry III. He was present in Rome when Clement II crowned Henry III and his consort Agnes, and he also attended a synod held at the Lateran in the first days of 1047, in which decrees were passed against simony.

After this he returned to his hermitage. Damian published a constant stream of open letters on a variety of theological and disciplinary controversies. About 1050, during the pontificate of he wrote Liber Gomorrhianus addressed to Pope Leo IX, containing a scathing indictment of the practice of sodomy, as threatening the integrity of the clergy. Meanwhile, the question arose as to the validity of the ordinations of simoniacal clerics. Peter Damian wrote (about 1053) a treatise, the Liber Gratissimus, in favor of their validity, a work which, though much combatted at the time, was potent in deciding the question in their favor before the end of the 12th century. Pope Benedict XVI described him as "one of the most significant figures of the 11th century ... a lover of solitude and at the same time a fearless man of the Church, committed personally to the task of reform."[5]

Philosophy

Peter often condemned philosophy. He claimed that the first grammarian was the Devil, who taught Adam to decline deus in the plural. He argued that monks should not have to study philosophy, because Jesus did not choose philosophers as disciples, and so philosophy is not necessary for salvation. But the idea (later attributed to Thomas Aquinas) that philosophy should serve theology as a servant serves her mistress originated with him.[6] However, this apparent animosity may reflect his view that logic is only concerned with the validity of argument, rather than the nature of reality. Similar views are found in Al-Ghazali and Wittgenstein.

Damian's tract De divina omnipotentia is frequently misunderstood. Damian's purpose is to defend the "doctrine of omnipotence", which he defines as the ability of God to do anything that is good, i.e., God cannot lie. Toivo J. Holopainen identifies De divina omnipotentia as "an interesting document related to the early developments of medieval discussion concerning modalities and divine omnipotence."[3] Peter also recognized that God can act outside time, as Gregory of Rimini later argued.[7]

Papal envoy and Cardinal

During his illness the pope died, and Frédéric, abbot of Monte Cassino, was elected pope as Stephen IX. In the autumn of 1057, Stephen IX determined to make Damian a cardinal. For a long time Damian resisted the offer, for he was more at ease as an itinerant hermit-preacher than a reformer from within the Curia, but was finally forced to accept, and was consecrated Cardinal Bishop of Ostia on 30 November 1057.[8]

In addition he was appointed administrator of the Diocese of Gubbio. The new cardinal was impressed with the great responsibilities of his office and wrote a stirring letter to his brother-cardinals, exhorting them to shine by their example before all. Four months later Pope Stephen died at Florence, and the Church was once more distracted by schism. Peter was vigorous in his opposition to the antipope Benedict X, but force was on the side of the intruder and Damian retired temporarily to Fonte Avallana.

Milan

About the end of the year 1059 Peter was sent as legate to Milan by Pope Nicholas II. So bad was the state of things at Milan, that benefices (a reward received in exchange for services rendered and as a retainer for future services) were openly bought and sold, and the clergy publicly married the women with whom they lived. The resistance of the clergy of Milan to the reform of Ariald the Deacon and Anselm of Lucca rendered a contest so bitter that an appeal was made to the Holy See.

Nicholas II sent Damian and the Bishop of Lucca as his legates. The party of the irregular clerics took alarm and raised the cry that Rome had no authority over Milan. Peter boldly confronted the rioters in the cathedral, he proved to them the authority of the Holy See with such effect that all parties submitted to his decision.[5]

He exacted first a solemn oath from the archbishop and all his clergy that for the future no preferment should be paid for; then, imposing a penance on all who had been guilty, he reinstated in their benefices all who undertook to live in celibacy. This prudent decision was attacked by some of the rigorists at Rome, but was not reversed. Unfortunately, on the death of Nicholas II, the same disputes broke out; nor were they finally settled till after the martyrdom of St Ariald in 1066. Meanwhile, Peter was pleading in vain to be released from the cares of his office. Neither Nicholas II nor Hildebrand would consent to spare him.

Later career

He rendered valuable assistance to Pope Alexander II in his struggle with the antipope, Honorius II. In July 1061 Pope Nicholas II died and once more a schism ensued. Peter Damian used all his powers to persuade the antipope Cadalous to withdraw, but to no purpose. Finally Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne and acting regent in Germany, summoned a council at Augsburg at which a long argument by Peter Damian was read and greatly contributed to the decision in favor of Alexander II.[5]

In 1063 the pope held a synod at Rome, at which Peter Damian was appointed legate to settle the dispute between the Abbey of Cluny and the Bishop of Mâcon. He proceeded to France, summoned a council at Chalon-sur-Saône, proved the justice of the contentions of Cluny, settled other questions at issue in the Church of France, and returned in the autumn to Fonte Avellana.

While he was in France the antipope Cadalous had again become active in his attempts to gain Rome, and Peter Damian brought upon himself a sharp reproof from Alexander and Hildebrand for twice imprudently appealing to the royal power to judge the case anew. In 1067, the cardinal was sent to Florence to settle the dispute between the bishop and the monks of Vallombrosa, who accused the former of simony. His efforts, however, were not successful, largely because he misjudged the case and threw the weight of his authority on the side of the bishop. The matter was not settled until the following year by the pope in person.

Having served the papacy as legate to France and to Florence, he was allowed to resign his bishopric in 1067. After a period of retirement at Fonte Avellana, he proceeded in 1069 as papal legate to Germany, and persuaded the emperor Henry IV to give up his intention of divorcing his wife Bertha. He accomplished this task at a council in Frankfurt before returning to Fonte-Avellana.

Early in 1072 or 1073[1] he was sent to Ravenna to reconcile its inhabitants to the Holy See, they having been excommunicated for supporting their archbishop in his adhesion to the schism of Cadalous. On his return thence he was seized with fever near Faenza. He lay ill for a week at the monastery of Santa Maria degl'Angeli, now Santa Maria Vecchia. On the night preceding the feast of the Chair of St. Peter at Antioch, he ordered the office of the feast to be recited and at the end of the Lauds he died. He was at once buried in the monastery church, lest others should claim his relics.

During his concluding years he was not altogether in accord with the political ideas of Hildebrand. He died the year before Hildebrand became pope, as Gregory VII. "It removed from the scene the one man who could have restrained Gregory", Norman F. Cantor remarked (Civilization of the Middle Ages, p 251).

Veneration

Peter Damian is a saint and was made a Doctor of the Church by Pope Leo XII in 1828 with a feast day which is now celebrated on 21 February (Ordinary calendar).[8] Although it was traditionally given as 23 February, this was using the Roman calendar which had 29 days in January. So in 1970, his feast was moved to 21 February, to align it with the ordinary calendar.

His body has been moved six times. Since 1898, Peter Damian has rested in a chapel dedicated to the saint in the cathedral of Faenza. No formal canonization ever took place, but his cult has existed since his death at Faenza, at Fonte-Avellana, at Monte Cassino, and at Cluny.

The saint is represented in art as a cardinal bearing a knotted rope (the disciplina) in his hand; also sometimes he is depicted as a pilgrim holding a papal Bull, to signify his many legations.

Works

Petrus - Vita Beati Romualdi, 1982 - 4919471
Vita Beati Romualdi

Peter Damian's voluminous writings, including treatises (67 survive), letters, sermons, prayers, hymns and liturgical texts (though, in a departure from many early medieval monks, no biblical commentaries)[9] reflect the spiritual conditions of Italy: the groundswell of intense personal piety that would overflow in the First Crusade at the end of the century, and his Latin abounds in denunciatory epithets.

His works include:

  • His most famous work is De Divina Omnipotentia, a long letter in which he discusses God's power.
  • In the short treatise Dominus vobiscum (The Book of "The Lord be with You") (PL 145:231-252), he questions whether a hermit praying in solitude should use the plural; Damian concludes that the hermit should use the plural, since he is linked to the whole church by faith and fellowship.
  • His Life of Romauld and his treatise The Eremitical Order demonstrate his continuing commitment to solitude and severe asceticism as the ultimate form of Christian life.
  • He was especially devoted to the Virgin Mary, and wrote an Officium Beatae Virginis
  • The treaty about sodomy and insiders of the Catholic Church called Liber Gomorrhianus

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Howe, John (June 2010). "Did St. Peter Damian Die in 1073 ? A New Perspective on his Final Days". Analecta Bollandiana. 128 (1): 67–86. Archived from the original on 2013-01-06.
  2. ^ "Lives of the Saints: February: 23. St. Peter Damian". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  3. ^ a b c d Holopainen, Toivo J., "Peter Damian", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (Winter 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
  4. ^ a b c Toke, Leslie. "St Peter Damian", The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911; accessed 31 January 2015.
  5. ^ a b c "St. Peter Damiani", CatholicNewsAgency.com; accessed 20 December 2017.
  6. ^ PL 145, p. 603, 1867.
  7. ^ Jack Zupko, article 'Gregory of Rimini' in A Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages, ed. by Jorge J.E. Gracia & Timothy Noone, Blackwell, 2002.
  8. ^ a b Foley OFM, Leonard. "St. Peter Damian", Saint of the Day, americancatholic.org; accessed 20 December 2017.
  9. ^ Bernard McGinn, The Growth of Mysticism, (1994), p. 125

Further reading

Modern editions

  • Opera Omnia, in JP Migne, ed., Patrologia Latina, (PL), vols 144 and 145, Paris: Vives. [PL144 mostly contains his letters and sermons; PL145 contains his treatises]
  • Pierre Damien: Lettre sur la Toute-Puissance divine, ed Andre Cantin, SC 191 [a modern critical edition of this work]

Translations

Secondary literature

  • David Berger, "St Peter Damian. His Attitude Toward the Jews and the Old Testament", The Yavneh Review, 4 (1965) 80-112.
  • Owen J. Blum, Saint Peter Damin: His Teaching on the Spiritual Life, Washington, 1947.
  • Owen J. Blum, "The Monitor of the Popes: St. Peter Damian", in Studi Gregoriani vol. 2 (1947), pp 459–76.
  • John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality Chicago, 1980.
  • Pierre J. Payer, Book of Gomorrah : An Eleventh-Century Treatise against Clerical Homosexual Practices, Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1962
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Damiani, Pietro" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

External links

11th century in philosophy

This is a list of philosophy-related events in the 11th century.

Alberic of Monte Cassino

Alberic of Monte Cassino was a Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church who died in 1088. He was a cardinal from 1057.

He was (perhaps) a native of Trier, and became a Benedictine. He successfully opposed the teachings of Berengarius, which were considered heretical by the Pope, defending the measures of Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy.

He composed several theological and scientific works and lives of saints, and is the author of the earliest medieval treatise on ars dictaminis, or letter-writing (De dictamine).

Many of his letters are found in the works of St. Peter Damian.One of his pupils, John of Gaeta, was the future Pope Gelasius II.

Dominic Loricatus

Dominic Loricatus, O.S.B. Cam. (Italian: San Domenico Loricato; 995 - 1060), was an Italian monk, born in the village of Luceolis near Cantiano (then in Umbria, now in the Marche). His father, seeking social advancement, paid a bribe to have him ordained a priest when still a child. When he discovered the fact, he resolved on a life of penance and became a hermit in the woods near the abbey of S. Emiliano in Congiuntoli, then a Camaldolese monk at the monastery of Fonte Avellana in 1040.

Fonte Avellana was at this time under the influence of St. Peter Damian, who promoted penitential self-mortification. It is through his vigorous embrace of this practice that Dominic Loricatus has become most well known, particularly through a mention by Edward Gibbon in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Vol. V, C. LVIII):

"By a fantastic arithmetic, a year of penance was taxed at three thousand lashes; and such was the skill and patience of a famous hermit, Saint Dominic of the iron Cuirass, that in six days he could discharge an entire century, by a whipping of three hundred thousand stripes. His example was followed by many penitents of both sexes; and, as a vicarious sacrifice was accepted, a sturdy disciplinarian might expiate on his own back the sins of his benefactors."

Dominic is said to have performed these lashes while reciting the psalms, with 100 lashes for each psalm. 30 psalms (3000 strokes) made penance for one year of sin; the entire psalter redeemed 5 years, while 20 psalters (300,000 strokes) redeemed one hundred years - hence the 'One Hundred Years Penance' St. Dominic is said to have performed in six days, over Lent.

In calculating these lashes one is left with these numbers: 50,000 lashes per day. Assuming Dominic was awake for 20 hours a day, that gives 2,500 lashes per hour, which would result in 41 lashes per minute.

Dominic owes his nickname Loricatus to his further bodily mortification of wearing a coat of chain mail (Latin: Lorica hamata) next to his skin as a hairshirt. He died at the Hermitage of San Vicino, near San Severino Marche in 1060, where he had been appointed prior by Peter Damian the previous year, where his remains are still venerated. His feast is celebrated by the Camaldolese Order on October 14.

Fork

In cutlery or kitchenware, a fork (from the Latin furca ("pitchfork")) is a utensil, now usually made of metal, whose long handle terminates in a head that branches into several narrow and often slightly curved tines with which one can spear foods either to hold them to cut with a knife or to lift them to the mouth.

Gabrielli (Gabrielli di Gubbio)

The Gabrielli (sometimes known as "Gabrielli di Gubbio") are an Italian feudal family from Gubbio, a town in Umbria.

Some historians trace their origins back to the Roman age, and claim they descend from the emperor Caracalla, however the first historical documents mentioning the family appear in the 10th century only, when Cante Gabrielli was awarded by Pope Stephen VII (according to some genealogists a family member himself), a few castles in central Italy, and especially the castle at Luceoli, which was renamed Cantiano (i.e. belonging to Cante) after him.

The family grew in power and many of its members had remarkable lives:

Forte Gabrielli was a hermit in the mountains around Gubbio, and later on joined the Benedectines at Fonte Avellana. He died on 9 May 1040 and was beatified by Pope Benedict XIV on 17 March 1756. His body is still exposed in the Cathedral of Gubbio.

Saint Rodolfo Gabrielli was born in 1034; in 1051 he bequeathed his castle at Camporeggiano to Saint Peter Damian and became a Benedictine monk at the Monastery of Fonte Avellana. He was appointed bishop of Gubbio in 1061 and died on 17 October 1064. He was later canonized. Saint Peter Damian described Rodolfo's life in his Vita Sancti Rodulphi Episcopi Eugubini (Life of St Rudolph Bishop of Gubbio).

His brother Pietro Gabrielli was also beatified.

Girolamo Gabrielli was the leader of 100 knights during the First Crusade. According to an undocumented tradition he was the first Crusader to enter the Holy Sepulchre when Jerusalem was seized (1099).

Aldo (or Addo) Gabrielli was bishop of Piacenza from 1095 to 1121.

Ermanno Gabrielli was consul et rector comunis et civitatis Eugubii in 1181.

Cante Gabrielli was Commander in Chief of the Guelph League in Central Italy and Podestà (Lord-Mayor) of Florence. He condemned Dante Alighieri, the famous poet, for barratry, and exiled him from Florence. Dante took vengeance on Cante by giving the allusive name of Rubicante to the furious devil that Dante himself encounters in the Divine Comedy, in the bolgia of barratry (cantos XXI and XXII). Giosuè Carducci, the famous Italian poet and Nobel Prize winner in 1906, also dedicated a sonnet to Cante Gabrielli.

Ubaldo Gabrielli was bishop of Treviso from 1323 to 1336. .

Blessed Castora Gabrielli joined the Franciscan order as a tertiary. She died on 14 June 1391 and was later beatified.

Giovanni Gabrielli, count of Borgovalle was lord of Gubbio from 1350 to 1354.

Paolo Gabrielli was bishop of Lucca from 1374 to 1380. He died in Perugia and was buried in the cathedral of that city.

Gabriello Gabrielli was lord and bishop of Gubbio from 1381 to 1384.

Cecciolo Gabrielli, self-styled Duca di Gubbio, tried without success to reconquer the city.

Gabriele Gabrielli (1445-1511), called Il Cardinal d'Urbino (the Cardinal of Urbino), was bishop of Urbino from 1504 until his death. He was created Cardinal in 1505, and died in the Apostolic Palace in Rome.

Francesco Gabrielli, count of Baccaresca, served as General of Italian troops during the Portugal war and died at the battle of Alcazarquivir in 1578.

Giulio Gabrielli the Elder (1604-1677) was created Cardinal in 1641.

Domenico Gabrielli (1651-1690) composer and virtuoso violoncello player.

Giovanni Maria Gabrielli (1654-1711) was created Cardinal in 1699.

Giulio Gabrielli the Younger (1746-1822) served as Cardinal Secretary of State from 26 March 1808 to 25 July 1814.

Pompeo Gabrielli (1780-1861) was Minister of War in 1848, the first layman to sit in the Pontifical States' Government ever.

Luigi Gabrielli (1790-1854) was a soldier and military writer.

Rodolfo Gabrielli di Montevecchio (1802-1855), considered a hero of the Italian Risorgimento, fought in the First Independence War, distinguishing himself at Santa Lucia (1848) and Sforzesca (1849), where he commanded the Piemonte Reale Cavalleria regiment. Deployed in Crimea as a General of the Piedmont-Sardinia army, he was mortally wounded at Cernaia on 16 August 1855 and died two months later at the Balaclava hospital.

Count Nicolò Gabrielli (1814-1891) was a well known musician at the court of the French Emperor Napoleon III.

Placido Gabrielli, Prince of Prossedi and Roccasecca, Duke of Pisterzo, was the son of Charlotte Bonaparte Gabrielli and the husband of Augusta Bonaparte Gabrielli. Between 1880 and 1885 he served as the first president of the Banco di Roma.The family divided over the centuries in many branches, the most famous of which was the one that settled in Rome and obtained the title of Prince of Prossedi. Two members of this branch married two princesses of the Bonaparte family. In 1749 the counts of Carpegna extinguished in the male line and the marquesses Gabrielli inherited their fief, with the principality of Carpegna-Gattara-Scavolino following in 1817. The line is currently continuing in the family of the princes di Carpegna-Falconieri-Gabrielli .

A branch that settled in Fano was styled Gabrielli-Wiseman, and was related to Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman. Another branch settled in Fano was styled Gabrielli di Montevecchio, and bears the titles of Duke and Count.The branch that settled in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies bears the title of Count Gabrielli and Baron of Quercita.

A branch bears the title of Count of Baccaresca and Corraduccio since 1581. It settled in Comtat Venaissin at the end of the 16th century when Bartolomeo de Gabrielli de Gubbio became Governor of Cavaillon then Carpentras. The line is continuing today in France.

All the branches bear the title of Patrizio di Gubbio (Patrician of Gubbio).

Gomorrah

Gomorrah or Gomorra may refer to:

Sodom and Gomorrah, Biblical cities

Gomorrah (book), a 2006 non-fiction investigative book by Roberto Saviano

Gomorrah (film), based on the book

Gomorrah (TV series), based on the book

Operation Gomorrah, the Bombing of Hamburg in World War II in July 1943

Liber Gomorrhianus or Book of Gomorrah, a book written by Peter Damian

Gomorra (EP), a 1994 EP by Wumpscut

‘’Gomorrah’’ fictional casino within the game ‘’Fallout: New Vegas’’

Guido da Velate

Guido da Velate (also Guy or Wido) (died 1071) was the Archbishop of Milan from 1045 until his death, though he had simoniacally abdicated in 1067. He had been chosen as successor to Aribert by the people in opposition to the choice of the noblesse and confirmed as archbishop by the Emperor Henry III.

Guido was the archbishop of Milan at a time when the Pataria was gaining force in the city. Riot and unrest was a daily affair and Guido is reputed to have had a hand in much of it. He opposed the Papal reforms and the Patarines who sought to outlaw clerical marriage and concubinage; he was a simoniac himself. Because he also refused to abide by the compromise of 1044, which would have limited his powers, he found himself at odds with the communards and the lesser nobility as well as the reform school.

After the death of Henry III in 1056, Hildebrand, Anselm of Baggio, and Peter Damian were sent to settle matters in Milan, but to little avail. The peace they brokered was broken incessantly until 1067, when Guido gave up his see and recommended the subdeacon Gotofredo da Castiglione to the Emperor Henry IV (for a price). Guido was convinced by Anselm of Baggio, now pope, to repent of his abdication and return to his post. He died a few years later and Henry tried again (uncanonically) to appoint Gotofredo.

Homosexuality in medieval Europe

In Medieval Europe, attitudes toward homosexuality varied by era and region. Generally, by at least the twelfth century, homosexuality was considered sodomy and was punishable by death. Before the Medieval period early Romans tolerated alternative sexual practices, such as masturbation in males and females and homosexuality. Despite persecution, records of homosexual relationships during the Medieval period did exist. This persecution reached its height during the Medieval Inquisitions, when the sects of Cathars and Waldensians were accused of fornication and sodomy, alongside accusations of satanism. In 1307, accusations of sodomy and homosexuality were major charges leveled during the Trial of the Knights Templar.

John III of Naples

John III (died late 968/early 969) was the longest-reigning Duke of Naples (928–968). He was the son and successor of Marinus I.

At the beginning of his reign, he warred against the Saracens and then made a treaty with them after they appeared beneath his walls in 929. He then allied with Lombards Atenulf III of Benevento, with whom he signed a pact, and Landulf I, joint-prince of Benevento, against the Byzantines. A Greek force was sent to Apulia and the rebellious vassals were constrained to recognise the authority of the emperor in Constantinople. John then confirmed a treaty with the princes salve fidelitate sanctorum imperatorum.

In 946, he allied with Landulf II of Benevento in an invasion of Salerno with the intent of deposing Prince Gisulf I. They were defeated by an army of Mastalus I of Amalfi and John retired to Naples. Landulf turned around and joined with Gisulf in attacking the Neapolitan duchy. They took Nola.

In 949, John made a donation to the church of Saints Severinus and Sossus, which had possibly been founded by one of his predecessors. In 950, he himself founded the church of Saint Michael Porta Nova in Naples. In 955, he attempted again to throw off the imperial yoke and again an army was sent to Italy under the strategos of Calabria and Langobardia, Marianos Argyros. Refused entry into Naples, it landed in the harbour and pillaged the city, forcing John to submit. In 962, however, John switched his allegiance to the new emperor in the West, Otto I. In 958, Naples was subject to another Muslim siege.

John's wife was the Roman senatrix Theodora, daughter of the famous Theodora and Theophylact I, Count of Tusculum. John was thus related by marriage to the famed Marozia. He sent his son Landulf to be raised in Rome by Marozia. His sister Orania married Docibilis II of Gaeta, cementing alliance between Gaeta and Naples. His elder son, Marinus, would succeed him in Naples. In 944, Marinus was appointed co-duke, and, in that same year, Odo of Cluny visited and influenced John to affirm the possessions of the monasteries in his domains.

John was a man of letters and an amateur philosopher. He and Theodora commissioned the archpriest Leo to go to Constantinople as ambassador and bring back as many Greek manuscripts as possible. Leo returned with the Chronographia of Theophanes, the Antiquities of the Jews by Flavius Josephus, De Prodigiis by Livy, the writings of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, and the Historia Alexandri Magni. After Theodora's death, John took to reading and theorising, contemplation and translation into Latin, according to Leo.

An interesting anecdote is told of this duke by Peter Damian. The legend probably dates from 981 and may have basis in historical fact. In a vision, John saw a group of devils leading a line of horses drawing carts full of hay for the purpose of burning Pandulf Ironhead, the deceased prince of Capua, and himself, still very alive. John decided then and there to abdicate, but only with the permission of the Emperor Otto II first. This he died before receiving.

John II of Salerno

John II (died between 994 and 998), called the Accursed (Maledictus), son of Lampert of Spoleto, was the count of the palace of Salerno in 980 and acting regent for Prince Pandulf II. He was pushed out with the prince by the duke of Amalfi, Manso, in 981. The rule of the Amalfitan and his son John was oppressive and the local populace rose in revolt and elected the Spoletan John prince in 983, expelling Manso.

He tried, through appointing his scribe Toto as advocate, to control the monastery of San Massimo and her property, but failed. Together with his wife Sichelgaita, he founded S. Maria de Domno and put it directly under the authority of the archdiocese of Salerno. Under its first abbot, Radoald, it was very successful, though John's attempts to control religion in his principality were less so. In January 984, John associated his son Guido with him, but Guido died in 988. Between January and March 989, he associated his next son Guaimar, who succeeded him. He left other sons in Pandulf, Lambert, John, and Peter.

According to a legend related by Peter Damian, there was an eruption of Mount Vesuvius and John exclaimed that surely it was an omen foretelling the death of some rich man, who would surely end up in hell. The next day, John was found dead in the arms of a prostitute. Perhaps this is the basis for his epithet "accursed".

John of Lodi

John of Lodi (1025-1106) was an Italian hermit and bishop.

John was born in Lodi Vecchio in 1025. In the 1060s he became a hermit at the Camaldolese monastery of Fonte Avellana. He became a disciple and the personal secretary of Peter Damian, who was the prior of Fonte Avellana. After Damian's death in 1072, John wrote a biography of Damian (1076-1082). John later became prior of Fonte Avellana (1082-1084, and again 1100-1101). In 1104 he became Bishop of Gubbio, and held this office until his death.

Liber Gomorrhianus

The Liber Gomorrhianus (Book of Gomorrah) is a book authored and published by the Benedictine monk St. Peter Damian during the Gregorian Reformation circa AD 1051. It is a treatise regarding various vices of the clergy, including sodomy, and the consequent need for reform.

Mikill Pane

Justin-Smith Ikpaema Peter Damian Uzomba from Hackney, London, better known by his stage name Mikill Pane, is an English rapper signed to Mercury Records. He is perhaps best known for his track "Little Lady" with Ed Sheeran which features on Ed's No. 5 Collaborations Project. The song is currently the biggest-selling track on the release.Pane has supported Mac Miller, Rizzle Kicks and Ed Sheeran on nationwide tours.

His debut four-track EP The Guinness & Blackcurrant was released in 2011 and his second EP titled The Morris Dancer was released on 10 February 2012, consisting of four original tracks and a remix by Will Power.He released the free EP You Guest It on 22 April 2012 through SB.TV, featuring collaborations with Ed Sheeran, Example, Paloma Faith, Yasmin, P Money, Fem Fel, Katie Price and Jakwob. The release has received widespread acclaim with the media.

Mikill's debut single "Dirty Rider" was released on 8 November 2012. The extended play also features a remix by Calyx & TeeBee, two more original tracks titled "Smashing Bricks" and "The Craig Bang" and the music video for his collaboration with Rizzle Kicks, "Work".His debut album Blame Miss Barclay was released in 2013 following the Lucky Strike EP, and received critical acclaim. The album peaked at number 62 on the UK Albums Chart. On 16 November 2013, Pane released the You Guest It Too EP as the sequel to his 2012 You Guest It EP. It features appearances from Newton Faulkner, Jordan "Rizzle" Stephens, Sway, Tigger Da Author and G FrSH as well as a remix of Lorde's "Royals".Mikill presents a weekly show on FUBAR Radio

Peter Damian Williams

Peter Damian Williams is an Australian author and military historian. He was born in Hobart in 1957 and educated at St Virgil's College. He taught history in the Northern Territory and Japan and now lives in Canberra. Peter Williams holds the degrees of BA, Dip. Ed, MA and PhD.

Peter Fehlner

Peter Fehlner, also known as Peter Damian Mary Fehlner, was a Catholic priest. He was a member of the Roman Catholic Order of Friars Minor Conventual. After his Franciscan and theological formation and several decades of ministry in this Order, he joined the Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate in 1996 , but in 2016 he professed again the Rule and the Constitutions of ancient Franciscan Conventual Order. Fehlner was a theologian and mariologist. From 2008-2014, he served as rector of the Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe in La Crosse, Wisconsin. He was also a professor of theology in the Franciscans' Institute of Ecclesiastical Studies, the Immaculatum (STIM) in Frigento, Italy. A scholar in the Franciscan tradition of theology, he focused primarily on the philosophical and theological traditions of St. Bonaventure, Bl. John Duns Scotus and St. Maximilian Kolbe.

Peter Kavanagh (politician)

Peter Damian Kavanagh (born 1959) is a former Australian politician, teacher, barrister and legal academic, who served as a member of the Victorian Legislative Council representing the Democratic Labor Party (DLP).

Peter Richardson (engineer)

Professor Peter Damian Richardson FCGI, FRS (born 1935) is a British biomedical engineer and academic.Brown studied at Imperial College London.He was appointed Professor of Engineering and Physiology at Brown University in 1984, becoming Emeritus upon retirement.

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1986, and was awarded a Humboldt Prize in 1976, and the Ernst Jung Prize in Medicine in 1986.

Stations of the Exodus

The Stations of the Exodus are the 42 locations visited by the Israelites following their exodus from Egypt, recorded in Numbers 33, with variations also recorded in the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy.

According to the documentary hypothesis, the list of the Stations is believed to have originally been a distinct and separate source text. In this hypothesis, it is believed that the redactor, in combining the Torah's sources, used parts of the Stations list to fill out awkward joins between the main sources. The list records the locations visited by the Israelites, during their journey through the wilderness, after having left Egypt. Consequently, the parts which were inserted to join up the sources appear in suitable locations in the books of Exodus and Numbers.

However, a slightly variant version of the list appears in full at Numbers 33, and several parts of the journey described in the full list, most noticeably the journey from Sinai to Zin, do not appear in the fragmented version. It is tempting to suggest that the journey from Sinai to Zin was cut out of the fragmented version due to a copying error caused by the similarity in sound of "Sinai" and "Zin". However, as there are 42 locations in the full list, and the Israelites were said to have been in the desert for 40 years, it is possible that several locations in the full list were added to the list of destinations as a literary device.

Both versions of the list contain several brief narrative fragments. For example " ... and they came to Elim, where there were twelve wells of water, and seventy date-palms...". It is a matter of some debate as to how much of the narrative is part of the original text of the list, and how much is extra detail added into it by the redactor.

The situation also occurs in reverse, where some brief texts, within parts of the list, and ascribed to the redactor, are usually regarded as not being part of the list of stations, albeit without much conviction. This is particularly true for Numbers 21:14-15, which references unknown events in the lost Book of the Wars of the Lord, and Numbers 21:16b-18a, describing the digging of the well at Beer.

Biblical commentators like St Jerome in his Epistle to Fabiola, Bede (Letter to Acca: "De Mansionibus Filiorum Israhel") and St Peter Damian discussed the Stations according to the Hebrew meanings of their names. Dante modeled the 42 chapters of his Vita Nuova on them.

Theodora Anna Doukaina Selvo

Theodora Anna Doukaina (Greek: Θεοδώρα Άννα Δούκαινα) (1058–1083) was the daughter of Byzantine emperor Constantine X Dukas and his second wife Eudokia Makrembolitissa. She became the wife of Domenico Selvo, Doge of Venice from 1075 until her death in 1083.

History
Timeline
Ecclesiastical
Legal
Theology
Bible and
Tradition;
Catechism
Philosophy
Saints
Organisation
Hierarchy
Laity
Precedence
By country
Culture
Media
Institutes,
orders,
societies
Associations
of the faithful
Charities
Virgin Mary
Apostles
Archangels
Confessors
Disciples
Doctors
Evangelists
Church
Fathers
Martyrs
Patriarchs
Popes
Prophets
Virgins
See also
General
Early Church
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
Mysticism and reforms
19th century
20th century
21st century

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.